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holding a vase-shaped bottom by believe that those of Huree (Krishits neck, and drawing through a stiff, na) only are necessary. instead of a pliant pipe, formed of GRAM, a coarse description of pea, a reed, arched into such a shape as chiefly used in India as food for should conduct its end conveniently
horses and cattle. It is considered to the mouth.
superior in point of nutriment to GOORKAH, the mountaineer of grass, oats, bran, &c.
Nepaul. Since the British campaign GRIFFIN, more familiarly griff, is an in Nepaul, a good understanding has Anglo-Indian cant term applied to been established with these hill all new comers whose lot has been people, and they now freely enter cast in the East.
“ A griffin,' the native army, and are among the writes Captain Bellew, in his very most faithful, active, and courageous pleasant “ Memoirs" of one of that of our troops. In the battles on the class, “is the Johnny Newcome of Sutlej, in 1845-46, the Goorka the East, one whose European manbattalion particularly distinguished ners and ideas stand out in ludicrous itself. Beside the musket or rifle, relief when contrasted with those the Goorkas carry kookrees, formi- which appertain to the new country dable couteaux-de-chasse, with which of his sojourn. The ordinary period they encounter a foe at close quar- of griffinhood is a year, by which
ters, or despatch a wounded man. time the novus homo, if apt, is supGOORKHA, a city in India, in the posed to have acquired a sufficient
province of Nepaul, is situated in familiarity with the language, haLat. 27 deg. 52 min. N., Long. 84 bits, customs, and manners of the deg. 22 min. E. This was formerly country, both Anglo-Indian and nathe capital of the Goorkhas, before tive, so as to preclude his making the formation of the present king- himself supremely ridiculous by dom of Nepaul.
blunders, gaucheries, and the indisGOOROO, a grave and pious man; criminate application of English the spiritual guide of a Hindoo.
standards to states of things to GOOTY, a strong hill fort in India, which tliose rules are not always
in the province of Balaghat, about exactly adapted. To illustrate by forty-five miles east of Bellary. The example:-A good-natured Englishhighest part of the rock is 1000 feet man, who should present a Brahmun, above the surrounding plain.
who worships the cow, with a bottle GORACCO, smoking paste, the ma- of beef-steak sauce, would be de
terial used in the hookahs, kalleeons, cidedly “griffined,' particularly if he nargheels, &c., of the residents in could be made acquainted with the Bombay and other parts of Western nature of the gift.” India.
GRUNT’H, the sacred book of the GOSAEES, or GOSAINS, a sect of Sikhs of the Punjaub. It was partly
mendicants. They perform the compiled by the author of their reliceremonials of marriage and other gion, one Nanuck, an ascetic and rites among themselves. They will inspired teacher, and was continued also, contrary to the usual customs by his disciples. of the Hindoos, dissolve a marriage GUALIOR, a town in India, in the with as much facility, on an applica- province of Agra, situated in Lat. tion from the parties. The Gosaees 26 deg. 15 min. N., Long. 78 deg. observe none of the Hindoo festivals, 1 min. E. It is the capital of the except those of Krishna ; but the Scindia Mahratta territories. anniversaries of the deaths of their GUAVA, called in Hindostanee Soopri founders are observed as such. They Am, is a fruit of the Psidium Pomia do not reject the mythology, or the ferum and Pyriferum. The fruit is ceremonies of the Hindoos, but they usually thought to be originally from
the West Indies, but it is certain GUNDA, a sum of four cowries, or that there is more than one African, shells, used by the poorer natives of and several Chinese and Cochin- India as coin, in fractional payChinese species or varieties, both of ments. the edible and wild sorts. These GUNDAVA, the second town in may, it is true, have been carried to
importance in Beloochistan. It is China by the early voyagers, and the winter residence of the Khan or India may have received hers from ruler, the cold not being so great the coasts of Africa, with which, here as at Kelat. Lat. 27 deg. 55 long before Europeans visited her min. N., Long. 67 deg. 38 min. E. shores, she held a steady intercourse. GUNGA. The honour of having given The most remarkable evidence for birth to this goddess, the personifiits being of foreign introduction in cation of the sacred stream of the India is that it has, we believe, no Ganges, has been claimed for their Sanscrit name. Thence we suppose deities, both by the Saivas and Vishit, like tobacco, to have been brought, naivas, the former alleging that she perhaps about the same time. The sprang from the locks of Siva, and facility with which this fruit is pro- the latter urging that she issued pagated from its numerous fertile from the foot of Vishnu. From the seeds, of which the hard shell resists heaven, however, of either we must insects and other destructive influ- allow her to have come, which she ences for a very long period, renders was induced with much difficulty to it one of the most common in India. do, to restore to King Suguru the The strong flavour of the common sixty thousand sons whom the deity sorts is usually found disagreeable Brigu had caused his wife to have at to newly arrived Europeans, but to one birth, and who, for some malthis, custom reconciles; and the finer practices, had been reduced to ashes. sorts, of which one, the Psidium In her passage towards the sea she Microphylla, or true West Indian was swallowed by a holy sage for sort, has the flavour of the rasp- disturbing him in his worship ; but berry, and another, a large and very by some channel or other she conrich kind, has scarcely any of the trived to make her escape, and havstrong taste of the Bazar guavas. ing divided herself into a hundred There are some very fine varieties streams (now forming the Delta of amongst the Malay Islands, for with the Ganges), reached the ocean, the Malays and Chinese, as with the where, it is fabled, she descended natives of India, this, like all high- into Patala, to deliver the sons of flavoured fruits, is a favourite. By Suguru. All castes of the Hindoos Europeans it is more generally eaten worship this goddess of their sacred stewed in wine, and for the well- stream. Numerous temples known jelly made from it, when erected on the banks of the river in much of its flavour disappears. The honour of her, in which clay images leaves of the tree are somewhat are set up and worshipped. The aromatic, and much used in the waters of the river are highly reveEastern Islands medicinally, or as a renced, and are carried in compressed substitute for the betel-leaf. The vessels to the remotest parts of the wood of the old trees is exceedingly country, from whence also persons close-grained and tough, and in perform journeys of several months' some degree resembles box-wood; duration, to bathe in the river itself. It is much used amongst the natives By its waters the Hindoos swear in of India for gun-stocks, as it takes our courts of justice.
There are a good polish, and is rarely known 3,500,000 places sacred to Gunga ; to split with heat, or fracture from but a person, by either bathing in, blows.
or seeing the river, may be at once
as much benefited as if he had visited .khonda, which is supposed to be an the whole of them. For miles, near extinct volcano. At present it does every part of the banks of the sacred not possess the least appearance of stream, thousands of Hindoos, of all the kind, but is subject to frequent ages and descriptions, pour down, earthquakes, which are sometimes every night and morning, to bathe in of sufficient violence to move the or look at it. Persons in their dying houses of the adjacent villages. The moments are carried to its banks to present name of this province is of breathe their last: by which means modern origin, and was first applied the deaths of many are frequently to it by Europeans, on account of its accelerated; and instances have been consisting of several distinct circars, known wherein such events have or districts, originally five in numthereby been actually produced. ber, namely, Kalinga, Rajamundry, (They are called “Ghaut murders.") Elloor, Moostuffabad, and MoortizaThe bodies are thus left to be washed bad. Exclusive of a few thousand away by the tide; and from on board Mahomedans dispersed in the differthe ships in the neighbourhood of ent towns, the inhabitants of this Calcutta, numbers of them are seen province are wholly Hindoos, comfloating down every ebb, with carrion posed chiefly of two classes, originally crows and kites about them, feeding forming distinct nations ; Ooreeas upon their entrails. Several festivals (q. v.), and the Telingas. The Teare held during the year in honour lingas, or Teloogoos, are the original of Gunga. She is described as a inhabitants of the district south of white woman, with a crown on her the Godavery, and bordering upon head, holding a water-lily in one of the Telingana Desum. Of this class her hands, and a water vessel in ano- are the Vulmas. By Europeans the ther, riding upon a sea-animal re- Teloogoo people are frequently called sembling an alligator, or walking on “Gentoos,” froni a Portuguese word the surface of the water, with a lotus signifying Gentiles, or Heathens. in each hand.
The total population of the circars GUNJES, grain-markets.
is about three millions. The religion GUNNY, coarse sacking, very much is Hindooism and Mahomedanism
used in India in the formation of bags and the language is Ooreea and Tefor the stowage of rice, nuts, spices, loogoo—the former language princibiscuit, and various other articles pally in the north-western and northembarked on ship-board.
ern parts. GUNTOOR, or 'MOORTIZABAD, GUP, or GUP-SHUP, the origin of
a district in the Northern Circars, gossip, to which, in India, it bears in the Deccan. It is the most south- the closest possible affinity. ern of the Circars, and lies between GURRYE, the mud-fish, very similar the Kistna on the north, and the in form to our miller's-thumb. Gundigama on the south, separating GURWAL, a province of Hindostan, it from the Northern Carnatic. Its bounded on the north by the Himaprincipal article of produce is maize, laya Mountains ; east, Kumavon; which forms the chief subsistence of south, Delhi; west, the Jumpa, the natives of the district; rice is not separating it from Sirmoor. Its plentiful, and cotton is only partially divisions are Gurwal, the sources of cultivated. There are diamond mines the Ganges, and Deyra Doon. The in the district, but they have not rivers are the Ganges, called in this produced any for many years. The province the Bhagirathi ; Alkanantowns are, Bellumconda, Guntoor, da, which joins the Bhagirathi at Kondaveer, Nizampatam, and Tuna- Devaprayaga, where the two form koonda. About twelve miles east of what is then called the Ganges and Tunakoonda is a hill, called Buggul- the Jumna. The whole of this pro
vince consists of an assemblage of hills, some covered with trees and verdure, others perfectly bare and stony, affording shelter neither for birds nor beasts. The valleys are all narrow, often little more than mere water-courses between the hills. Only a small portion of the country is either populated or cultivated, the larger part being left to the wild animals. There are extensive forests of oak and fir, and also copper-mines of some value. In the mountains, on the north-eastern side of the Deyra Doon, are the stations of Landour and Mussoorie; these have been formed by the English, who resort to them for change of air, the climate being cold and healthful. This province is often called Sreenuggur, from its former capital.
The origin of the name Gurwal is not known. The inhabitants are generally termed Khasiyas, but they claim to be considered as the descendants of Hindoos, and reject the former name. The religion of the inhabitants is the Brahminical, and the prevailing language is the Kha
rivers are the Banas, Subrmuttee, Mhye or Mahe, Nurbudda, and Tuptee. The Banas flows along the north-western frontier into the Run. The Subrmuttee rises in Ajmere, and flows southward into the Gulf of Cambay. The Mhye enters the province in the Banswara district, and flows south-westerly into the Gulf of Cambay. The northern and eastern districts of this province are mountainous, rugged, and jungly. The central districts form an extensive plain, generally well watered, open, and fertile. The south-western portion, forming the division of Kattiwar, or Kattwad, approaches the shape of a peninsula, having an arm of the sea, called the Gulf of Cambay, on its eastern side, the sea on its south, and the Gulf of Cutch on its west. The Gulf of Cambay is about 150 miles in length. The surface of the peninsula in general is hilly, remarkably well watered throughout, and fertile. On the north-west, Guzerat is separated from Cutch by the Run and the Banas river, and the adjacent districts consist chiefly of arid plains, or salt swamps and jungles. The productions are wheat, rice, and other grains, cotton, hemp, indigo, opium, sugar, honey, saltpetre, and various seed oils, horses and cattle of a superior description, hides, and timber. There are cornelian mines in Rajpeepla, and jaspers and agates are procured in Ēderwara and other hilly districts. The Kattiwad supplies abundance of white clay, used by the Hindoos for the purpose of marking their foreheads. Large quantities of salt are obtained from the Run. The manufactures are principally coarse cotton fabrics and soap. The towns are Deesa, Palhanpoor, Radhunpoor, Puttun, Eder, Ahmednuggur, Doongurpoor, Banswara, Pathree, Bejapoor, Nuwanuggur, Poorbunder, Joonagur, PuttunSomnath, Dice, Ahmedabad, Kaira, Kuppurwunj, Cambay, Bhownuggur, Gogo, Soonth, Lunawara, Barrea,
GUTTA PERCHA, a substance ex
tracted from the tuban tree of the Straits of Malacca ; it is of a dirty white colour, greasy in texture, and of a leathery scent. It is not affected by boiling alcohol, but when thrown into boiling water becomes soft and plastic, and can be moulded into any shape. It is superior to caoutchouc, and is used for all the purposes to which that elastic com
modity is applicable. GUTTIES, dried cow-dung. GUZERAT, a province of Hindostan.
It is bounded on the north by Ajmere ; east, Malwa and Khandesh ; south, Aurungabad and the sea ; west, the sea and Cutch. The divisions consist of Puttunwara, Ederwara, Doongurpoor, Banswara, Jhutwar, Chowal, Kattwar or the Peninsula, Ahmedabad, Kaira, Soont, Sunawara, Barrea, Barode, Baroach, Rajpeepla, Surat. The
Chumpaneer, Baroda, Chandod, produce, goods, and individuals, Jumbosseer, Baroch, Nandod, Raj. across the rough and ill-made roads peepla, Surat, Sacheen, Bulsar, of the country. They are drawn by Dhurmpoor, and Daman. The in- bullocks. habitants of this province comprise HADJEE, a pilgrim. The natives of a great variety of classes, the prin- India, Persia, Arabia, and Turkey, cipal of which are the following :- have great faith in the virtue of pilJohrejas and other tribes of Raj- grimages. The Hindoos make them poots (q. v.), such as Juts, Katties, to boly temples (such as JuggerJats, Koolees, Bheels, Bhats, Ban- naut), holy cities (Benares, to wit), yans, Persees, Boras, Siddees, and the confluence of rivers, and spots Mahrattas. Amongst these the celebrated in mythological history. Bhats deserve especial mention, The Mussulmans resort to the tomb their religion is Hindooism and Ma- of Mahomet, or to his birthplace, to homedanism. The various rude tribes Mecca, Medina, and Mushed, &c. in this province generally consider HAFIZ, the name of a florid Persian themselves followers of the Brah- poet, a writer who rouged his roses, minical system ; they know very and poured perfume on his jessalittle, however, of Hindooism, and mine. mostly worship the sun. Amongst HAINAN, an island, situated at the the Hindoos the Jains are numerous. southern extremity of China, sepaThe general language of the pro- rated only by a narrow channel vince is the Goojratee; it is written from the province of Canton. It is in a character closely resembling about 190 miles in length, and 70 the Nagree, and it may be termed in breadth; and though so close to the grand mercantile language of the mainland, is in a very rude state, Western India.
the inhabitants still consisting prinGYA, a town in India, in the pro- cipally of the original savage tribes.
vince of Bahar. It is situated in HAJEEPOOR, a town in the province Lat. 24 deg. 49 min. N., Long. 85 of Bahar, in India, situated at the deg. E., about 55 miles to the south- confluence of the rivers Gunduh, and ward of Patna. The town consists Ganges, nearly opposite to Patna, in of two parts ; one the residence of Lat. 25 deg: 41 min. N., Long. 85 deg. the Brahmuns, and others connected 21 min. E. It is noted for its annual with them, which is Gya Proper, horse fair, on which occasion thouand the other called Sahibgunge, in- sands of pious Hindoos purge themhabited by merchants, tradesmen, selves of their mortal offences by &c. This is one of the most noted bathing at the place of the “meeting places of pilgrimage in India, both of the waters." for Booddhists, and for the followers HAKEEM, a physician, a character of the Brahminical system. By the held in great respect in all Eastern former it is considered to have been nations. European travellers, aseither the birth-place or the residence suming the character of a Hakeem, of the founder of their sect.
and dispensing medicines as they neighbourhood abounds with exca- pass through a country, are almost vations.
certain of safety. GYNAHS, gold and silver ornaments. HANUMAN, the monkey-god of the
Hindoos. Hanuman is extensively
worshipped, and his images are to H.
be found in temples, sometimes alone,
and sometimes in the society of the HACKERY, a rude cart, composed en- former companions of his glory,
tirely of wood, and used by the na- Rama and Sita. He is supplicated tives of India for the transport of by the Hindoos on their birth-days,