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sure to be proportionably lowered ed with the said vices, or, in other in the public estimation. Remind words, according to Dr. Goldsmith, them, that this selfish indulgence of who has never had the advantage of their own ease and pleasure, to the being at a public school. The vices disregard of those of their guests, is in question allure them both; but the very reverse of true politeness. Which of the two has the best chance Teach them, finally, that their con- of escaping the contagion? One duct, however they may disguise it meets in them an old friend, with to themselves, is neither more nor whom he has been long on lerms of less than an excess of selfishness. familiarity; the other, a new ac

0. quaintance, whom he has always

been taught to dread, and with To the Editor of the Christian Observer. whom he cannot associate till the “A Boy,” says Dr. Goldsmith, “will deep-rooted and long-established learn more true wisdom in a public habits and feelings which his educaschool in a year, than by a private tion had given him, are eradicated. education in five....... It is true, There are who say, that the pasa child is early made acquainted sions gain strength by indulgence; with some vices in a public school; but it must be inferred, from what but it is better to know these as a Dr. Goldsmith says, that they are boy, than to be first taught them weakened as their dominion is exwhen a man, for their novelty then tended. This, perhaps, is upon the may have irresistible charms.” principle of civil governments be

If Dr. Goldsmith had told us what coming less effective the more widehe meant by “true wisdom,” we ly their sway is spread. Dr. Goldmight more readily have assented to, smith has not, indeed, told us that or dissented from, his proposition, we should learn all vices betimes, than at present we can. If he mean but he has omitted to tell us what by it, as a subsequent part of the those vices are which we ought to essay leads us to think he does, learn; and, for my own part, I am worldly wisdom, I am not disposed unable to discover why, if novelty to dispute the matter with him; for can give “ irresistible charms ” to I can readily believe, that a boy “ some vices,” it should not to all. who has continually to contend with What, in truth, does Dr. Goldsmith's the selfishness or the wiles of a great assertion amount to but this, that a number of schoolfellows, is much boy, who has lived in the habitual more likely to have a sharp eye to practice of some vice as a boy, is his worldly interest, than one who more likely to avoid that same vice has found nothing but honour and as a man, than he who has habitually openness in those about him. reverenced virtue and detested vice?

But Dr. Goldsmith says, that he is Having endeavoured to shew that most likely to attain to a virtuous it cannot be desirable to acquire any manhood, who has been initiated, at vice early, and that an abhorrence à public school, into "some vices;" of vice can never result from the or, at least, that he is most likely practice of it; before I conclude, sufnot to be a slave to those particular fer me to propose two questions, vices.-Why is he most likely not which I shall do without at all to be under their dominion?' Be- meaning to enter into an argument cause habit is second nature? Let upon the comparative merits of pubus suppose a young man, perfectly lic and private education: accomplished in all those vices which 1. Does the moral improvement Dr. Goldsmith thinks it so desirable of a boy form the most momentous to learn early, to enter into the part of his education? world at the same moment with ano- 2. Is that improvement most likether young man who has never had ly to be well' attended to by a the good fortune to become acquaint- master,wbose attention is necessarily

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divided amongst a great number of his affection, is confined to a very boys; or by a father (and without small circle, or perbaps to an indithe superintendance of a father, pri- vidual? vate education is what I mean not to

I am, &c. plead for), whose care, quickened by

H, B.


The Excellency of the Liturgy: in four the Bible Society ; we imagine, that

Discourses, preached before the Uni. uniformity in worship is still farther versity of Cambridge, in Nov. 1811; from the ken, even of the most iv which is presired, an Answer sanguine patrons of this justly sanDr. Marsh's Inquiry, respecting guine institution. And in regard to the Neglecting to give the Prayer. ihe much talked-of indifference, we book with the Bible." By the Rev. should as much apprehend an indifCharles Simeon, M. A. Fellow of ference as to the mode of conductKing's College, Cambridge. Lon- ing any other practical duty, e. g. don : Cadell. 1812. pp. 59, and that ofcharity, and even as to the 111. Price 6s.

duty itself, to arise from the opera

tions of this society, as we should We are desirous of making up the expect from them an indifference very deficient notice of Mr. Sic either to the act or to the mode of meon's Sermons on the Excellency of worshipping God; which we conthe English Lilurgy, contained in ceive to be a duty equally distinct our late Review of the Marshian con. from that performed by the Bible troversy, by some general account Society, and to be settled upon of that valuable publication in our grounds equally dissimilar : whilst, present number. It is, indeed, mat. on the other hand, we must confess ier of regret to us, that our present we are not sorry to see that degree limits, and perhaps too the appetite of liberality and Christian candour, of our readers, surfeiled, as we ap- exercised towards those who differ prehend with the matter, and nause- from us upon the mode of Divine ating even the very flavour of that worship, which the widest possible controversy, forbid us to enter wide- diffusion and study of the Sacred ly upon this subject: a subject, how. Scriptures should legitimately proever, only invidiously connected with duce. And in that case, we appre. the merits of the Bible Society. It bend, the question of liturgies and was not the institution of the British their use would remain precisely the and Foreign Bible Society which same, as to its essential and argumenwas destined to settle in our minds, tative force; and the only difference the grand question either of the would appear in the mildaess, the origin, the antiquity, and the bene- moderation, and the accent of chafit of liturgical usages in general, rity, adopted by the liturgical advoor of the excellency of our own esta cate, blished formularies in particular. The advocates for the use of liThe mode of conducting the worship turgies in general, and Mr. Simeon of God, we conceive to be an inquiry with them, contend for that use upon of very different import from the what appears to us the highest and mode of distributing his word: and most authoritative grounds; upon Jiltle as it is expected, we might say the avowed practice of the ancient jotended, to produce uniformity in church of God in the Jewish nation; doctrine amongst the meinbers of upon the authority of our Lord himCHRIST, OASERV, No. 128.


self; upon the universal consent of if constituted at all according to all Christians, testified in their prac- the temperament of modern times, tice downward from the Apostolica! must have rung with the event, and era to that of the Reformation, and with controversies issuing from it? since that period, with the fewest But when, on the contrary, was the possible exceptions, to the present subject of liturgical usages ever made time. It is well known, that our a question at all? And to come Lord's own divine Prayer, itself a nearer to the point, where is the liturgy, was in a great measure proof, and we might almost ask the selected from the established for, hint, that extemporaneous prayers mularies of the Jewish church. were used by the primitive church The use of this Prayer (and how in their addresses to God? There could it not have been used when is, as Wheatly well observes, neiso prescribed?) together with many ther the lowest degree of evidence, hints, occurring in the earliest wri- nor a bare probability of it. “And ters, of other observances of the first as he that refuses to believe a matter Christian churches, seems to put the of fact, when it is attested by a commatter out of question, in respect petent number of unexceptionable even to that period where it has witnesses, is always thought 10 act alone been questioned.

against the dictates of reason ; so • The ancient liturgies bearing the does that person act no less against names of St. James, St. Mark, St. the dictates of reason, who believes Chrysostom, St. Basil, and others, a matter of fact without ground." though confessedly interpolated, cor- On the Common Prayer, p. 16. Or. rupted, and in regard to some of their ford edition, 1810.-- We verily reputed authors perhaps spurious, believe, the more this argument is still prove, in a great degree, the considered by an unprejudiced mind, opinion and the practice of the early the more weight it will be found to church on this head. St. Gregory possess. Nor will a single expresThaumaturgus, who was born in sion, used by Tertullian only on a the second century after Christ, com- particular occasion, of praying in posed forms of prayer, which, we public, "sine monitore quia de pecare told 150 years afterwards, were tore ;" nor a still more vague intiused by the chuches over which he mation by Justin Martyr, and one presided without alteration. And, by St. Austin, when liturgies were finally, the councils of Laodicea confessedly universal, go any length; and Milan; the one held in 367, the we are persuaded, in support of the other in 402; settled the practice argument of those persons *, who and the form of church liturgies in can bring no other authority, even -the most precise and conclusive from the remotest antiquity, to prove manner.

tbe set use of extemporaneous pubThis argument from antiquity has lic prayers. -indeed been put in a still stronger Not that we conceive, if we may and very just light by Wheatly, in here venture a somewhat bold opihis excellent Essay on the Lawful- nion, that the practice of the most -ness and Necessity of a precomposed ancient Christian churches forms -National Liturgy, where he throws a conclusive appeal, either for or the whole onus probandi upon the against liturgical usages. The gifts opponent. The ground is occupied of prophecy and of tongues, with by liturgies; previously, we mean of the other or charismata," for a long course, to the Reformation:--when, time accompanying and signalising therefore, we ask our opponent, had those privileged assemblies of Chrisit been otherwise ? When was the tians, might well consist with the great and important change adopted; practice of conceived, or, we should so important indeed, that we should

• Vide the controversy referred to in the imagine the whole of Christendoin, following note.

upon the

rather say, inspired, prayers, even account unnecessary to us, which could that practice be proved to have were necessary to St. Austin : else then universally existed in the we must remind thevery quarter from church. Had not liturgies seemed to whence such claims would most prohave obtained as a matter of course, bably originate, the Presbyterians, and of ancient prescriptive right, Independents, &c. of the authority


appearance of a of their own great Calvin : “Quod regular and organised worship of ad formulam precum et rituum God, we might have been tempted to ecclesiasticorum, valde probo ut fix the proper season of their intro- certa illa extet, a quiâ pastoribus disduction to that of the cessation of cedere non liceat, in functione suâ*." miraculous endowments. When the And we doubt whether this will be noisome vapours of Arianism and Pe- more welcome argument to them lagianism, proceeding from the lips against their cause, or that which of turbulent heresiarchs, proved that certain advocates for · conceived the imposition of hands no longer prayers' once urged in its defence, conferred the gift of infallibility; who and when, in consequence, it became

"Made prayers not so like petitions, necessary to subject the detached

As overtures and propositions, liturgies of particular churches to

In which they freely will confess, the revision of higher authority : They will not, cannot acquiesce," &c. then, the very concession of our ad

In fine, we hesitate not to proversaries, that the adoption of liturgies became general, and received the be the clearest of all controverted

nounce the question of liturgies to sanction of all the authority and all the wisdom which the church at that points, upon the ground of authoriperiod possessed, fully satisfies us ly; we mean the authority of preas to their propriety. The suffrage the whole ancient Christian church,

cedent, and of the united wisdom of of St. Austin to this point, would be To have no liturgy, no established more to us than that of Clemens Ro- formulary of public devotion, is, if manus. The latter might have seen and admired the “ beauty of holi. antiquity be at all to be credited, an nesss," in the prescribed forms of error in the public worship of God;

and an error of great magnitude, liturgical service, whatever this

attended with many pernicious conmight be, to which he alludes (Ep. ad Cor.i.41.); but the former might into; but we shall proceed to give

sequences. These we shall not enter see, in his own degenerate times, the shocking profanation likely to on's admirable eulogy upon our own

our readers some idea of Mr. Simeensue from suffering the name of God to be invoked, and his awful established forms; freely confessing,

as we do in the outset, that whereas presence invaded, in terms which might be directly derogatory to his

we had imagined the practice of antimajesty or his truth: and whilst the

Letter to the Protector of England, 1548, complaint of St. Austin, in regard to quoted by Bishop Hall, the able, though the growing burden of useless cere- Calvinistic, champion of the English liturgy, monies in the church as it then stood, agninst the hydra-headed Smectymnuus. cannot be ours, still his practice shall Pratt's edition, vol. ix. p. 653.-We need be ours, who never, for ihe sake even not inform our readers, that this Smectyinof that burden, thought of discard. nuus was a fictitious naine, made up of the ing a test so necessary to pre- lamy, Thomas Young, Matthew Newcomen,

initials of Stephen Marshall, Edmund Caserve the worship of God from the

William Sparstow, who wrote a joint answer danger of repeated and authorised

to Bishop Hall's Remonstrance for the li. violations. In later times, we ap- turgy. Vide Neale's History of the Puritans, prehend, no one will lay claim io

vol. ii. 8vo. edit. 1733. p. 397, for no very such a revival of the work of the fair account of this controversy; and comSpirit, as to render liturgies on that pare it with Bishop Hall, as above.


quity would be the best ground on ner, take all the precepts contained in the which to rest the validity of the Li- Epistles, and all the holy dispositions which turgy of the Church of England, were exercised by the Apostles; and endenwe now are almost persuaded by your to emulate the examples of the most Mr. Simeon to believe that the best distinguished saints. You are cautioned not justification of antiquity will be

to be righteous over-much ; but remember found in the excellence, the spiritu

you have at least equal need of caution ality, the highly beneficial effects the steps of our Lord and his A posiles, you

to be rightcous enough. If only you walk in as io doctrine, and as to devotion, need not be afraid of excess : it is an erronethe incomparably efficacious ten- oils kind of righteousness, against which So. dency, of our own usages.

lomon would guard you, and not against an That we say this upon no light excessive degree of true holiness ; for in true grounds, it will be our endeavour to holiness there can be no excess. In this prove, by actual quotations from ihese we may vie with each other, and strive with sermons: in the first of which Mr. all our might.” pp. 23, 24. Simeon displays all his characteris- We will not say with what sentitic acuteness, joined with evangelical ments we contemplate these “streams simplicily, in treating of the true of our Zion” softly stealing amidst meaning and connection of his ge- academic groves ; but this we will neral sex!, Deut. v. 28, 29 : “ They aver, that Alma Mater was then have well said all that they have fully purged from the Antinomian spoken : () that there were such an impurities of Dr.Butler's Commenceheart in them !” The sentiments ment Sermon, when these waters of here expressed by the Israelites, lustration poured their healing in Mr.Simeon declares to be three:-an fluence from her university pulpit. acknowledgment that they could Mr. Simeon proceeds, in the three not stand before the Divine Majes- following sermons, to apply his text, ty; a desire to have some person " in a way of accommodation," to his appointed, who should act as a Me. more immediate subject, the Exceldiator between God and them; an lence of the Liturgy. In prosecuting engagement to yield unqualified which plan, be arranges his obserobedience to every thing that should vations on the Liturgy so as to vinbe spoken to them by the Mediator. dicate its use; display its excellence; And to these are added, 2dly, the and commend to the attention of his dispositions which God approves; hearers one particular part, namely, --a reverential fear of God; a love the Ordination Service, which he to Jesus as our Mediator; and an un. conceives to be eminently deserving feigned delight in his commands. of notice in the place in which he is Though not in point to our more then standing. particular subject, we cannot re- In the first of the three sermons, frain from giving one quotation from he vindicates the use of the Liturgy: the concluding part, as a specimen and this, "generally, as a service of this truly excellent sermon, proper to be used, and then parti,

cularly, in reference to some objec“ Whilst therefore we would urge with tions which are urged against it.” all possible carnestness a simple afiance in Under the former general view, he Christ as your Mediator, we would also in- contends for the Liturgy as lawful treat you to receive the commandments at in itself, expedient for us, and achis hands, and tw observe them with your ceptable to God. Its lawfulness he whole hearts. Take our Lord's Serinon on ably founds, as we bave already the Mount, for instance : sturly with care and diligence the full insport of every pre

hinted, on express or implied liturcept in it. Do not endeavour to bring down gical usages in the Old Testament; those precepts to your practice, or to the particularly the use of the Psalms, practice of the world around you; but rather one of which our Lord himself seems strive to elevate your practice to the stan- 10 have used after his last supper. dard which he has given you. In like man. The same practice he recognises as

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