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ed to $400,000. There was a similar increase in exports from Syria to America.
Now, this increase of enterprise is due in a great degree to the intro. duction of a more perfect system of education. Since 1825, American missionaries in successive generations have here labored and died to stimulate, elevate, and educate the mind. They have adopted education as the handmaid of religion. The armor of the Mohammedans and of other hostile communities was vulnerable only through science. The soul craves truth, expansion. Parents love their children and wish their advancement. Young men see the way to their success in life through education. They pursue education as a means of power and influence. This light and expansion disenthral the mind from ignorance, from old and dark systems; systems that will not bear the light must go to the wall.
It was an enlightened policy of the American missionaries to begin the work of education in Syria at the base of the social pyramid. They have aimed since 1825 to improve and extend common schools till they vow number 100 teachers and 2,026 pupils, but in prosecuting primary schools with success there was a necessity of competent teachers. This necessitated higher seminaries. The prejudice against femaleeducation must be encountered. For a woman to read and write was at first an unheard-of thing. Now two female seminaries have ample and attractive buildings and are in successful operation. The femaleseminary at Beyrout now reports 105 students; that at Sidon, 60. Similar schools for young men were also established, but the professions demanded still higher and more liberal attainments. The finest minds, quickened in the common school and academy, aspired to the culture furnished by the college.
To send young men abroad for these acquisitions often alienated them from their own people and unfitted them for usefulness. An application for funds to establish a Syrian Protestant college at Beyrout was generously responded to in gifts amounting to $60,000 for buildings and $100,000 as a fund to endow the professorships.
The funds are invested in New York and principally given in New York. The institution was incorporated in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The framework of the building, doors, and windows were framed and fitted in New York. The principal building is 155 by 80 feet, four stories high, and medical ball 80 by 45; also an observatory. All these stand on a plat of ground of about twenty acres, commanding a view of the Lebanon and overlooking the Mediterranean. The college has been in operation six years. One hundred and fortyfour students have shared the advantages of the literary department, while the medical school promises to furnish educated and competent physicians to regions as yet destitute.
The natural outgrowth of this educational arrangement is an active and intelligent press. Steam-power is employed in printing Arabic Bibles, books demanded in the schools, monthly and weekly periodicals. Through the benevolent enterprise of English-speaking foreigners, Beyrout, so central in its situation, has become a focus from which to radiate light over mountain and vale far away, till 100,000,000 of Arabicspeaking people shall be reached by the truth of science and Christianity.
Besides the above union of education and the press, some 8 individual enterprises of foreign benevolence for educating the people are in operation. These foreign influences have provoked the zeal of native associations, so that now Mohammedan schools number 1,031 ; the orthodox Greek schools, male and female, 1,047; the Maronite, 703; Jesuit schools, 260; Jewish, 105; Lazarist Sisters of Charity, 750.
The Mohammedan communities generally do not sympathize with the press. No printed copy of the Koran is acknowledged as authentic, but other native communities are availing themselves of the printed page. In Beyrout alone there are now 15 printing-establishments. The leaven is working in Syria.
In Smyrna the Roman Catholics have ample provision for orphanschools. They gather the poor children, the foundling, into their hospitals. The school of the Propaganda numbers 100; that for girls, under the Sisters of Mercy, 100; the orphanage, 300. The Greek Church are still more enterprising in their efforts for education; one school for girls and boys numbers 800 pupils. The Greek Church lately paid £10,000 for a hospital for the poor and sick. It must be said, however, of these schools, that they are not thorough, nor their hospital clean and well kept. The Prussian Deaconesses have been 25 years in Smyrna. Their buildings are ample and attractive, adorned with gardens and flowers. They have the most advanced school for girls in the city, numbering some 220; orphans, 36; ragged-school, 100. The Mohammedans have been driven to forsake their old position. By the success of other schools, they too have instituted schools for girls as well as boys.
May 5, 1874, introduced by Mr. Guaradulo, of the American consulate at Constantinople, I presented the dispatch of the Bureau to the secretary of public instruction at Constantinople. The secretary expressed his gratification at the friendly proposition of the Bureau and his high appreciation of the system of education carried on in the United States. He gave his assurance that he would be pleased with any documents from Washington and promised to send any documents in regard to education published by the Turkish government. He wished communi. cations to himself to be made in French. The Sultan supports a large class of young men in course of training for engineers, translators, and other agents of the government. The Khédive of Egypt is also building an institution on the banks of the Bosporus for female-education, The mosques at the capital are very richly endowed by bequests before referred to, so that a large portion of the land at Constantinople pays a yearly tax, which is designed to furnish means of education to every child of either sex, so far at least as to fix in their memory a portion of the Koran and certain forms of prayer which the laws require them to repeat five times a day. There are also schools where higher branches of law and Mohammedan philosophy are taught, principally based on the Koran. There are schools in Constantinople where European languages are taught; a medical institution also, whose teachers are French. To these, others than Mohammedans may be admitted. Attempts have been made to establish similar large schools in the empire; but the unwillingness of the Moslems to allow their children to be taught what they fear may militate against their own faith has made these schools a failure. Turks seeking a bigher education generally repair to Paris.
All the different Christian sects have schools of their own, which each supports without aid from the porte; and the same is true all through the empire. The first impulses were given to education by foreigners, Protestant and Romish missionaries taking the lead. This has provoked the natives to improve their own system, but the schools under foreign patronage still serve to raise the standard of education.
Robert College, founded by C. R. Robert, esq., of New York, stands upon a height overlooking the Bosporus, a site not equaled for beauty by any other college in the world. It was founded in 1861 and has 16 teachers and some 200 pupils, commands the confidence of all Christian communities and the respect of the Mohammedans, and promises great intellectual blessings to the Ottoman empire.
The newspaper-press has felt the stimulating power of a higher education. Thirty-five years ago there were only two newspapers in the empire-one published at Constantinople and another at Smyrna, both in French. In 1866, fifty-three newspapers were published in all parts of the empire. There are now published at the capital of Turkey two French dailies; one English, the Levant Herald, the most independent paper in Turkey; four Greek papers; three Bulgarian weeklies; six Armenian, of which two are dailies; three Armeno-Turkish, two of them dailies; one Greco-Turkish; and nine Turkish, three of which are dailies, and one has an illustrated weekly edition. There are nineteen papers published in the provinces, eight of which are in Turkish and two in Arabic, while the remaining nine are in languages of the rayahs. All of which is respectfully submitted.
HORACE EATON. Hon. JOHN EATON, United States Commissioner of Education,
Washington, D. C.
CIRCULARS OF INFORMATION
BUREAU OF EDUCATION.
WASTE OF LABOR IN THE WORK OF EDUCATION.
By P. A. CHADBOURNE, LL. D.,