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the trade on the ocean will sink to nothing ; and millions of human beings, who are now a burden on one quarter of the earth's surface, and defile it by their degradation and their crimes, will be raised to a rank among enlightened nations, form governments on principles of wisdom and equity, and enjoy the blessings of intelligence and virtue. Now we are not so visionary as to say, that a colony of free blacks from America would work such a change ; but we do say, that the planting of such a colony is a first step, which may open a train of causes leading to these ends. And to set the thing in a stronger light, it may be added with perfect confidence, that without some such beginning, there seems not the remotest probability of the chains of servitude being broken by any human means, or of the cloud being removed, which buries a continent in its darkness.
From the last Report of the Society, and the intelligence brought home by the agent, who has recently returned from Africa, it appears that the colony at Liberia has enjoyed, up to the present time, a degree of prosperity quite equal to the anticipations of its ardent patrons. In fact, experience has already confuted the most formidable objections at first urged against colonisation. It was insisted, that colonists could not be induced to embark, whereas the voluntary applications have greatly exceeded the number for which the society could provide. Next it was urged, that the expense of transportation would be so heavy, that it could never be met except in a very limited extent ; but this item has been proved to be much less than was apprehended, and when the colony shall be so far advanced as to afford profitable return cargoes, it will be reduced to a comparatively insignificant amount. Again, the climate was set forth as destructive of life and health. This is no doubt true to a certain degree, when considered in relation to the climate of northern latitudes, but, except in one or two instances of a very peculiar nature, it does not appear that the colonists have suffered more from sickness, than is common in tropical regions under similar circumstances. Then we are told of the savage and hostile character of the natives, and of their cruel and exterminating wars.
The event of a slight conflict has shown this fear to have been groundless, and has inspired the colonists with confidence, by demonstrating the comparative weakness of their neighbors. Lastly, it was VOL. XX.NO. 46.
said, that the British settlements would regard with no favorable eye a colony, subject to a foreign power, rising up near them; but so far from any such jealousy, the government at Sierre Leone, and the British cruisers on the coast, have on several occasions rendered essential aids to the American emigrants. Thus have been confuted, in the progress of events, all the main objections originally advanced against the plan and purposes of the society.
At the close of a full examination of this subject, in our Forty Second Number, we suggested the expediency of establishing a school, or schools, in this country, under the auspices of the Colonisation Society, for the purpose of instructing the children of free people of color, and giving them an education suited to their future condition as colonists in Africa. We are happy to find, that a scheme of this sort is now in contemplation, and to have it in our power here to insert' a letter, recently written by General Harper to the Rev. Dr Woods, of Andover, in which the desigas of the saciety in regard to the school are fully developed. The document is published with the approbation of both these gentlemen, and is the more valuable, as exhibiting from the highest authority the present state of the colony.
• I had an interview with Dr Ayres soon after his visit to the eastern states and New York,' says General Harper to Dr Woods, in which he informed me of various conversa. tions which he had there, on the subject of a plan for the education of young people of color, as a preparation for their emigration to some other country, where they may enjoy the real advantages of freedom and civilisation. He mentioned you as one of the persons, who have thought much on this subject, and were engaged or disposed to engage actively in prosecuting so benevolent and patriotic an enterprise. As both he and I long had it much at heart, and are now employed in devising means for its accomplishment, he was of opinion that some good night be derived from a full communication of our views to you, which he strongly urged me to make; assuring me that it would be well received, and might lay the foundation for a concert of measures and union of means, from which the most beneficial results might be anticipated. In this hope I have taken the liberty to address you. When the African colonisation scheme was first set on foot in this part of the United States, it immediately occurred to all who engaged in it, that nothing more could be effected by individual exertion, than to open and pave the way ; to -shew what might be accomplished, and in what course success was to be sought. The rest, they were sensible, must be done by the general or, state governments, or by both united, under the influence and with the sanction of an enlightened public opinion.
To this object all their efforts have been directed. It embraces two operations. The first is to prove by actual experiment, that a colony of civilised blacks may be established, on the southern coast of Africa ; that a suitable and healthy situation may be found, and procured by purchase from the natives ; tbat the good will and good neighborhood of the ; latter may be secured, and the colony thus placed in safety ; that by proper precautions all danger to the colonists from the climate may be avoided; that colonists in abundance, --and of a proper character, and description, may be found ; s,that they may be transported to the colony at a moderate expense, which will be greatly diminished, when a regular and extensive commerce between this country and that shall be established ; that the materials of such a commerce already exist, to a very considerable extent, as well as a favorable disposition for it in the minds of the natives; that both must increase with the increase of the colony, and the consequent discouragement and decrease of the slave trade in that quar1. ter ; ånd that the colony may very soon be placed in a con- dition to govern and protect itself, and not only to provide abundantly for its own wants by the products of its agricultural industry, but to have a large surplus for commerce with this country and Europe, which will furnish the means of a ..yery gainful trade with the natives.
All this we consider as satisfactorily proved, by the exv periment thus far made. The colony indeed is small but it is healthy, composed of good materials and firmly established.
The attacks made on it by the natives, in greater force and .. with more extensive combinations than are ever again to be
apprehended, were repelled when it was much weaker and less provided for defence than at present. The conduct of the natives has ever since been friendly and kind. They manifest great readiness to trade, a great desire to procure instruction for their children, and the utmost willingness to exchange their labor for those objects of consumption and enjoyment, which they were heretofore accustomed to obtain by the sale of each other. The colonists, when the last accounts were transmitted, had not yet raised a crop, and consequently did not actually support themselves; but many of them had one in the ground, and alınost all had received their allotments of land, which they were preparing for cultivation. Their subsistence, by their own means, may therefore be considered as secured.
• On the essential article of government the last accounts are highly satisfactory. The government was in the hands of men of color, elected by the colonists, and went on well. The number of applicants who wish to be sent to the colony is much greater, than can be received. They consist almost wholly of persons brought up and accustomed to live in the country, by agricultural employments, or those handicraft arts which are indispensable to an agricultural people. The population of the cities is not considered as suitable for such a settlement as ours. Hence the emigration to Hayti does not interfere with our plan; but rather works together with us, for the attainment of the same great end.
• We therefore regard the first part of our object, which relates to the practicability of colonising the blacks on the southwest coast of Africa, as having been attained. The sea cond is to shew how it may be carried to such an extent, as to relieve the United States gradually and imperceptibly, but effectually, from the great and growing evil of the black popu. lation, and thus to leave room and time for the white population to fill up the void, by its natural increase.
•We are very sensible that colonies of blacks planted on the coast of Africa, in however limited an extent, cannot fail to be very useful. They place the colonists themselves in a far better situation, where they may be really and effectively free, and may enjoy all the advantages which naturally result from freedom and civilisation united. They rid this country, as far as they go, of a useless population, to say the least of it; which is generally vicious and corrupt, or exposed to the almost inevitable danger of being rendered so, by their own degradation, and their contaminating communications with a
degraded race. So far as these colonies succeed, they tend to lay a foundation for African civilisation, and for the diffusion of knowledge and true religion, in that benighted region. Consequently they are highly useful and deserving of encouragement, however limited may be their extent.
But the great utility of this enterprise, to this country, to the African race here, and to Africa itself, depends upon its receiving such an extension, as gradually to embrace the whole black population of the United States. This we know requires indispensably the consent of those, who have an interest in the services and labor of this description of persons. This interest is a right of property, as well secured by the laws and as sacred in the eye of the law, as any other right whatever. It cannot and must not be touched. But we believe that by a proper course of measures, the consent of those who hold this property may be obtained ; and to this object all our measures are mainly directed.
To accomplish that object, and to effect the entire removal of the black and colored population, we believe that we must turn our attention to the rising generation.
We must embrace them in a great scheme of education, which may gradually be made to absorb them all, with the consent of their parents where free and their owners when slaves, and may fit them all for transplantation, at a proper age. To set an example of this scheme of education, to shew how it may be effectually conducted, is the next great object we have in view. It is in this most important object, that we wish and hope to obtain your assistance, and that of the enlightened and philanthropic body with which you are connected.
. For this purpose our plan is to establish what we call a seminary farm, which may serve as a pattern for similar institutions throughout the Union, and especially in those states where slavery exists; which may show by experience and example what can be done, and how it ought to be done. We intend to purchase or rent a good farm, in a healthy and convenient situation, with proper buildings for the accommodation of about one hundred children of color, of both sexes. This farm we prefer having in Maryland ; because the children as they grow up can be better governed, in a state where slavery exists. Dr Ayres, whom you know, and who from his energy, intelligence, and experience, is highly qual