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mitting what is wholly out of the question, that there could be any possible motive for such an attempt.
In regard to emigration to Hayti, as we have hinted above, the plan approves itself to us as one, which ought to be promoted, for although our predilection is in favor of the colonisation scheme, yet we do not perceive that one interferes in the remotest degree with the other. The great object of the philanthropist, and of the patriot, and we presume of every person engaged in either of these enterprises, is to free the United States of its colored inhabitants, by providing an asylum for them in some other country, where they may enjoy the blessings of liberty, and sustain an equality of rark and condition. This we say is the primary object, and it will not be denied, that this object is as completely gained, by sending these people to the healthful cliinate of Hayti, under an organised and liberal government, as by transporting them to Africa. It is true, the noble and humane purpose of kindling the terch of civilisation in Africa is not advanced by the Hayti project, yet, after all, as far as we in the United States are concerned, this is but a secondary consideration, and we may well be satisfied with relieving ourselves from the evil of the colored population, and if possible, wiping the disgrace of slavery from the charter of our country's freedom, without deeming it a condition absolutely requisite, that we should take on ourselves the task of enlightening and civilising a continent long buried in darkness. These things may safely be entrusted in the hands of Providence, without any reproaches on our conscience for neglect of duty ; and although it would be a cause of joy to see the sons of Africa returned to the home of their fathers, establishing good governments among themselves, and communicating the influence of their example to their degraded brethren, yet as this event can only be accomplished by slow degrees and in a limited extent, it would seem à dictate of wisdom and humanity to open any other channel, through which a portion of the colored population may in the meantime pass to a country, which promises them equality of rights and privileges, a fertile soil, protection of property and the consequent advantages of social life.
From the best accounts, which can be obtained, Hayti is such a country. Its government is apparently founded on principles as liberal, as the present condition of the people will bear, and for the last few years it has been administered with energy. The nation has flourished, agriculture and com merce advanced, and the whole fabric, both political and social, bas been gaining consolidation and strength. The trial by jury, that great palladium of human rights in a free government, has not been introduced; the mass of the old inhabitants were too ignorant to act in the capacity of jurors, and it was more safe to leave the cause of justice in abler although in fewer hands. But the numerous schools now instituted, and the universal diffusion of education, have already produced a change in this respect, and the time inay be anticipated as not far distant, when the trial by jury, a more general extension of the electoral franchise, and some other principles essential to a strictly popular goveroment, will be engrafted into the constitution of Hayti.
Nothing can be more fair and honorable, or indicate a better spirit, than the part which President Boyer has acted, respecting the emigration of our people of color to that country. He invited them first by a proclamation, offered them lands, citizenship, and all the privileges of native Haytians. Out of his own private purse he paid the expenses of numbers, who accepted this offer. Individuals, who have of their own accord gone out to seek employment, he has aided, and if they were industrious and sustained good characters, he has continued to them his patronage, providing them with lands to cultivate, or other means of occupation. Whatever may be the motives of interest with which he is influenced, in wishing to increase the population of the island, and extend the growth of its agriculture and commerce, all his communications and all his actions prove that he has a higher motive; that he feels deeply for the condition of the colored people in this country, and that he is ready to make any reasonable sacrifice for their relief. His proclamation above alluded to, his letters to Mr Dewey and Mr Collins, his instructions to citizen Granville, published in New York in the pamphlet of Correspondence now before us, and his private communications to individuals in the United States, some of which we have seen, bear the amplest testimony to this fact. In short, we doubt not that perfect confidence may be placed in his professions and designs, and that his promises will be realised, unless some unforeseen changes in the government shall take from him the power and the means, and transfer the sceptre into other less beneficent hands.
The following particulars contained in President Boyer's instructions to Mr Granville, his agent in this country, will show on what terms he is willing to receive emigrants, and what they are to expect in Hayti.
The advantages which attend emigration are, 1st, that they shall enjoy in Hayti, all civil and political rights, (Article 44th of the Constitution ;) 2dly, they shall have entire liberty of conscience, in their religious practices; 3dly, they shall obtain concession of land in fee simple, when they shall have made settlements on the said lands; (copy of my circular to the governors of the provinces ;) the whole, provided they engage to be faithful to the laws of the Republic, whose children and citizens they will become, and provided they undertake nothing contrary to its tranquillity and prosperity.
"To regulate better the interests of the emigrants, it will be proper to let them know in detail, what the government of the Republic is disposed to do, to assure their future well being, and that of their children, on the sole condition of their being good and industrious citizens ; you are authorised in concert with the agents of the different societies, and before civil authority, to make arrangements with heads of families, or other emigrants, who can unite twelve people able to work, and also to stipulate that the government will give them a portion of land sufficient to employ twelve persons, and on which may be raised coffee, cotton, maize, peas, and other vegetables and provisions, and after they have well improved the said quantity of land, which will not be less than 36 acres in extent, or 12 carreaux, (the carreau being 100 paces square, and the pace three feet and a half, French,) government will give a perpetual title to the said land to these twelve people, their heirs and assigns.
“Those of the emigrants who prefer applying themselves individually to the culture of the earth, either by renting lands already improved, which they will till, or by working in the field, to share the produce with the proprietor, must also engage themselves, by a legal act, that on arriving at Hayti, they will make the above mentioned arrangements, and this they must do before the judges of the peace, so that on their arrival here, they will be obliged to apply themselves to agriculture, and not be liable to become vagrants.
• To all those, and those only, who will engage themselves, as is here prescribed, you are authorised, always acting in concert with the different societies, to contract, that the expense of their passage and maintenance during the voyage, shall be paid on their arrival at Hayti, by the government, which will give them also the means of subsistence during four months, after their landing and settlement on the ground they are to cultivate, which will be long enough for them to procure by their labor and settlement, the means of supporting themselves.
Nothing will be required of them for what may have been paid for their passage and subsistence, which is a donation made to them by the Republic.
• As for those who wish to come to Hayti, to engage in commercial or mechanical pursuits, you are authorised to assure, them, that the expense
and maintenance during the voyage, shall be paid in Hayti, provided they bind themselves before civil authority in the United States, to return to the government of the Republic, six months after their arrival here, the advance which shall be made to them. The same privilege of advance, on condition of reimbursement, shall be granted to those who come to buy, rent, or till in shares, lands cultivated, or to be cultivated, or who come to engage themselves as servants, workmen, or laborers, the law granting a right to every Haytian, to exercise his industry as he pleases, provided he does nothing contrary to the good order of society.'
The President moreover declares, in his letter to Mr Dew
* All those who will come, shall be received, no matter what may be their number, provided they submit themselves to the laws of the state, which are essentially liberal and protecting, and to the rules of the Police which tend to repress vagrancy, to maintain good order, and to confirm the tranquillity of all. There is no price to stipulate for, as respects the land, since the government will give it gratis, in fee simple, to those who will cultivate it. The emigrants will be distributed in the most advantageous manner possible, and those who may desire it, shall be placed in the neighborhood of each other.
• They shall not be meddled with in their domestic habits, nor in their religious belief, provided they do not seek to make proselytes, or trouble those who profess another faith than their own.'
Other facts have also come to our notice, which bear equal testimony to the good intentions of President Boyer in offering a residence and protection in Hayti to the colored people of this country. These facts we now proceed to state. It is well known, that many of the inhabitants of Illinois and Indiana have been desirous of introducing slavery into those states, owing probably to the fact, that they are emigrants from slave holding states, and accustomed to that kind of labor in cultivating their plantations. It may also be premised, that as these states border on slave states at the south and west, the temptation for kidnapping is greatly enhancer, by the facility with which the victims of this inhuman crime may be hurried into the slave states and sold. When these things are considered, it is hardly to be supposed, that the free people of color have found Illinois and Indiana very secure or comfortable places of abode. In short, the practice of unprincipled men bad for a time rendered their condition little inore enviable than actual servitude, by molesting them in the enjoyment of their rights and property, and annoying them with perpetual alarms at the apprehension of being robbed of their liberty. A daring and wicked attempt was also made, in
many instances, to evade the laws of the states, and hold slaves by a fictitious contract. A resident of Kentucky would sell his slave to an inhabitant of Illinois, and give him over to his new master by an indenture, in which the slave bound himself to service for ninetynine years, and confirmed the agreement by a mark made with his own hand at the bottom of the instrument. Thus transferred, the slave was taken into a free state, and was said to be bound to service for a term of years. This trick, the sballowness of which could only be exceeded by its villany, was soon detected, and there were not wanting friends of humanity and justice to see the laws properly executed.
The consequence was, that several persons of color, who had formerly been slaves, were set at liberty. Their original masters had sold them for a stipulated compensation, and their purchasers could not bold them as slaves in a free state. The persons, who had thus defrauded themselves by their own infamy, were extremely exasperated at the result. They entered into a sort of conspiracy against all the blacks, who had been freed, and seemed resolved in defiance of law to seize by force, what they could not retain by injustice. A particular case will illustrate the subject. A man of color came to Mr Flower, of Albion, Illinois, and asked for employment, declaring himself to be free. It was soon found, that he was held by an indenture in Indiana, but Mr Flower, being convinced of its illegal and fraudulent character, retained him in his service. A few days afterwards, a party