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sons laboring, who conscientiously keep the seventh day of the week as sabbath ; nor does it forbid the travelling of families emigrating, nor watermen landing passengers, nor keepers of ferries or toll-gates attending them. No person may sell liquors on that day, except tavern-keepers to travellers; fine for so doing, not exceeding $5.

6. For wilfully disturbing a religious meeting, by im. proper behavior, or by making a noise within or near the house or place of meeting, the offender may be fined not exceeding $20. If within the place of the meeting when making the disturbance, he may be turned out.

7. Profane cursing and swearing are forbidden. Any person fourteen years of age, who shall profanely curse or damn, or profanely swear in the name of God, Jesus Christ, or the Holy Ghost, may be fined from $1 to $25 for each offence.

8. Any person playing bullets, or running a horse in the streets of an incorporated town or village, or shooting a gun at a target in such place, is liable to be fined from 50 cents to $5.

9. A keeper of a public house, for keeping or permitting a ball or ninepin alley on his premises, or for being interested in one on another's premises, may be fined from $10 to $100; the money to be applied to the use of common schools.

10. A person who shall exhibit a puppet-show, wiredancing, juggling, or sleight-of-hand, for money or other property, is liable to a fine of $10, neither more nor less.

11. Defacing or tearing down an advertisement set up by authority of law, subjects the offender to a fine not exceeding $10; and he may also be imprisoned twenty-four hours.

12. A person, for exposing spirituous liquors, cider, or beer, within a mile of any religious meeting, may be arrested and detained in custody, not exceeding six hours; and shall be fined not exceeding $20.

does the law pronounce sabbath-breaking ? Penalty? 6. Penalty for disturbing a religious meeting? 7. Penalty for profane swearing ? & What for playing bullets, racing in streets, and shooting at a target ? 9. What for a keeper of a public house to suffer ball alley, &c. ? 10. For exhibiting public shows, &c. ? 11. Defacing or tearing down advertisements ? 12. For exposing liquors near religious mcetings ?

13. Confining, or assisting in confining, a bull, steer, or any other domestic animal, for purposes of torture; or aid ing in torturing the same; may be fined not exceeding $100.

14. For exhibiting, or for assisting in exhibiting, the game of cock-fighting, the offender is liable to be fined not exceeding $20.

15. Running a match horse-race in any public road, to try the speed of horses, subjects the offender to a fine not less than $1, nor exceeding $5. Most or all of the fines imposed for offences mentioned in this chapter, except in the first four sections, go into the township treasury for school purposes.

CHAPTER XL.

Of the Liberty of Conscience ; Liberty of Speech, and of

the Press; Writ of Habeas Corpus. 1. We have now given a general view of the different departments of the government of the state, and an abstract of the laws defining the rights and prescribing the duties of citizens. There are, however, certain important rights guarantied to the people of the state by their constitution, which have not yet been noticed. They will be found among the list of the general, great, and essential princi. ples of liberty and free government,” declared in the 8th article of the constitution. Three of these rights are deemed of so great importance, as to deserve particular consideration. They are asserted in the 3d, 6th, and 12th sections of that article.

2. The first of these sections secures to every citizen liberty of conscience ; which is the liberty to discuss and maintain our religious opinions, and to worship God in such manner as we believe most acceptable to him. This is a 13. For bull-baiting, &c. ? 14. Cock-fighting, &c. ? 15. For running a match horse-race in a public road? To what use are these fines applied ?

1. What rights are declared in the 3d, 6th, and 12th sections of the 8th article of the constitution ? 2. What is liberty of conscience ?

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privilege heretofore denied to the people of many countries, even in some called Christian and civilized; in which many thousands have been put to death for their religious opinions.

3. But the rights of conscience are now more extensively tolerated. In some countries, however, there is still what is called an established religion, where some religious denomination receives the support of the government, as in Great Britain. This is called “union of church and state.” Although the constitution in this article very properly declares - religion,” as well as "morality and knowledge,” to be “essential to good government and the happiness of mankind ;” and although it has done wisely in providing to some extent for the religious instruction of the people ; it declares, with equal propriety, that “no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious society or mode of worship.'

4. Another of these rights is the liberty“ to speak, write, or print upon any subject, as he thinks proper;" which is called, the liberty of speech and of the press. The word press here signifies the business of printing and publishing; hence liberty of the press is the right to publish books and papers without restraint.

5. In many foreign countries, persons were not allowed to speak against the government or its officers, however bad their character or acts might be. In some of these governments, books and papers could not be issued without being first examined by persons appointed by the government. In this country no law can be passed which shall prevent the humblest citizen from censuring the conduct of the highest officer of the government.

6. But it must not be supposed that men may speak or publish, against others, whatever they please ; for the same section which secures freedom of speech, makes us " liable for the abuse of that liberty.Without some restraint, wicked men might, by false reports, destroy the good name, the peace, or the property of others. Nor may we, in all 3. To what extent are the rights of conscience enjoyed in this country? 4. What is liberty of speech and of the press ? 5. What restrictions were formerly laid upon the press in some countries? 6. May we speak cases, speak even the truth of others, if thereby we should injure them.

7. To defame another by a false or malicious statement or report, is either slander or libel. When the offence consists in words spoken, it is slander ; when in words written or printed, it is called libel. As a slander in writing or in print is generally more widely circulated, and likely to do greater injury, it is considered the greater offence. Hence damages may sometimes be recovered for slanderous words printed, when for the same words merely spoken, a suit could not be maintained.

8. It has just been stated, that we may not always even speak the truth of others. By the common law of England, the libel was considered as great when the statement was true as when false, because the injury might be just as great; and therefore when prosecuted for libel, a man was not allowed to prove to the jury the truth of his statement. Such may be considered the law in this country, except where special provision to the contrary has been made by law or constitution.

9. But it may sometimes be proper to speak an unfavorable truth of others : therefore the framers of our constitution inserted this provision, that " where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth may always be given in evidence.”

Hence it

may

be inferred, that a person has a right to speak of the bad deeds of another, if it should be done with the intent to put others on their guard against him. But although a man has been guilty of bad conduct, if you report the same to injure him in his business or his good name, it is presumed you would be liable, because you did it not for good reasons, nor with a good intent.

10. In case of slander, a man is liable only for damages in a civil action ; but for libel, a person is not only liable for private darnages, but he may also be indicted and tried as for other public offences.

11. The last of the rights alluded to, is the privilege of of others in all cases as we please? 7. What is the difference between slander and libel? 8. What is here said of the common law in case of prosecution for libel ? 9. What does our constitution provide respecting this ? 10. To what is a man liable in case of slander and libel?' 11

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the “writ of habeas corpus.This is a Latin phrase, and means, have the body. This privilege was long enjoyed by the people of Great Britain before the independence of these states ; and it is not strange that a people loving liberty should, in establishing a government of their own, insert such a provision in their constitution. [Cons. U. S. Art. 1, sec. 9.]

12. A person committed, confined, or restrained of his liberty for a supposed criminal matter, or under any pretence whatsoever, may, before the final judgment of a court is pronounced against him, petition a competent court or judge, stating the cause of complaint. The judge then is sues a writ against the party complained of, commanding him to bring before the court or judge the body of the person confined ; and if he shall refuse to do so, he may

be imprisoned. If, upon examination, it appears that the complainant has been illegally confined, the judge may discharge him.

CHAPTER XLI.

Of the Government of the United States. 1. Having treated of the government of the state of Ohio, and of our rights and duties as citizens of this state, I proceed, as proposed, to show our relations to the govern. ment of the United States. 2. It is thought by many persons, to be very

difficult to understand the relations which the state and national

governments bear to each other. But if the scholar will attentively study the following chapters, he will find that children may learn what many of our adult citizens have never learned, and what some think none but men are able to comprehend.

3. To learn the nature of the general government, and of our relations to it as citizens of the United States, we

What is the meaning of habeas corpus ? 12. In what case, and how, is this writ obtained and executed ?

3. Had the colonies any political connection while subject to Great

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