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of the slave states ought not to be represented for their slaves, because slaves were property, and no property, in the free states, entitled its owners to representation. After much debate, it was at length agreed, that every five slaves should be counted as three free citizens.

9. A representative must be twenty-five years of age, and must have been seven years a citizen of the United States. Aliens, or foreigners, therefore, cannot be elected until seven years after they have been naturalized.

10. The manner of organizing the houses, and of passing bills, as will be seen from the first article of the constitu. tion, is similar to that which is practised by the state legislatures.

11. Members of congress receive, for their services, eight dollars a day. The speaker of the house of representatives, and the president of the senate pro tempore, when the vicepresident is absent, receive sixteen dollars a day. Members of congress also receive a day's compensation for every twenty miles travel to and from the seat of government, But this is unreasonable. Such are the present facilities for travelling, that a member may go from Buffalo to Wash ington in about three days, at an expense of about $30, for which he is entitled to receive pay for more than thirty days' service.


Of the Executive Department. 1. The executive department of the general government is constituted in a manner similar to that of a state governinent. The chief executive officer is called the president of the United States. He is elected for four years. There is also a vice-president, chosen at the same time, and for the same term. The general duties of these officers are 9. What are the qualifications of a representative? 10. How do the houses of congress do business? 11. What daily compensation do members receive ? How much for travelling? Is this just ?

1. In whom is the executive power of the nation vested? What is the


much like those of the governor and lieutenant-governor of a state. [Cons. Art. 2, § 2, 3.]

2. A president must be thirty-five years of age, and a natural-born citizen of the United States. When the office of president becomes vacant, the vice-president becomes president; and a president of the senate, pro tempore, chosen by the senate for the purpose, takes the place of the vicepresident.

3. In electing a president, the people do not vote directly for him. The voters of each state choose a number of men, equal to the number of senators and representatives to which it is entitled in congress.

These men, thus chosen in the several states, elect the president and vice-president, and are called presidential electors. The state of Ohio, having two senators and twenty-one representatives in congress, is entitled to twenty-three presidential electors.

4. These electors, however, are not chosen in the same manner as members of congress. The names of twentyone men, one from each congressional district in the state, are put on one ballot, together with the names of two men, corresponding with the two senators; and each voter in the state votes for the whole number of presidential electors to which the state is entitled. Presidential electors are chosen, in all the states, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, of the year in which they are to be chosen.

5. The electors of president do not all meet in one body. Those of each state meet by themselves, in their own state, on the first Wednesday of December, and vote for president and vice-president; and make a list of the persons voted for, and the number of votes for each; which list is sent to the president of the senate, at the seat of the government of the United States, before the first of January. On the second Wednesday of February, the president of the senate,

any other

nature of his duties? 2. What are the qualifications of a president ? What is the principal business of a vice-presidont? 3. Do the people yote directly for president ? By whom is he elected ? 4. How and when aro the presidential electors chosen ? 5. How, where, and when, do choy meet to vote for president? To whom do they send the list of votes? When, where, and before whom, are the votes from all the

in the presence of all the senators and representatives, opens all the certificates, and the votes are counted. The person having a majority of all the electoral votes for president, is elected.

6. But a person may have the highest number, that is, ą plurality, of the electoral votes, without having a majority. Suppose that at the next presidential election there should be three candidates for the office of president, and that of the 275 electoral votes, (there being at present 275 members of congress in both houses,) one candidate should receive 100 votes, another 90, and the other 85. Now a majority, that is, more than one half of the whole number, cannot be less than 138; consequently neither would be elected.

7. If no person has a majority of the electoral votes, the house of representatives must choose the president from those candidates, not exceeding three, who had the highest number of the electoral votes. But in so doing, the mem. bers do not all vote together, as when passing bills; but those of each state vote by themselves; and the candidate who receives the votes of a majority of the representatives of a state, has but one vote for sùch majority ; from which it appears, that there are only as many presidential votes as there are states; and the person who receives the votes of a majority of the states, is elected.

8. If there is no election of vice-president by the electors, the senate, in a body, chooses one from the two having the highest numbers of the electoral votes. The person receiving the votes of a majority of the whole number of senators, is vice-president.

9. The president and vice-president go into office on the 4th day of March next after the election, and end their term on the 3d day of March, four years thereafter; days of the same month on which senators every six years, and representatives every two years, commence and end their regular terms of office.

the same

states counted? 6 What is the difference between a plurality and a majority of votes ? 7. When no candidate has a majority, how is the president elected ? How does the house vote? 8. How is the vico. president elected when no person has a majority of the electoral votes? 9. When do the president and vice-president begin and end their official


10. The powers and duties of the president are numerous, and some of them very important. They are, in their nature, much the same as those of the governor of a state. They will be found mentioned in the constitution, article 2, 62, 3.

11. The president has a salary of $25,000 a year. Some think this too much. But the expenses of a president are necessarily very great. It is believed that no president has ever been able to lay up a large portion of his salary. The vice-president receives $5000 a year. His principal duty is to preside in the senate.


Of the subordinate Executive Departments. 1. The general executive business of the nation, excepting what is done by the president in person, is performed in the several executive departments, of which the following are the head officers: the secretary of state, the secretary of the treasury, the secretary of war, the secretary of the navy, the attorney-general, and the postmaster-general. These officers are consulted by the president, on important public matters ; and hence they are called “the cabinet.” They are appointed by the president and senate.

2. The secretary of state performs many duties similar to those of a secretary of a state government. Besides these, be transacts much of the business with foreign countries. If the president has instructions to give to our public ministers abroad, these instructions are communicated by the secretary of state ; and he also conducts the correspondence, and transacts the business to be done, with the ministers of foreign countries residing here.

3. The salary of the secretary of state is $6,000 a year; that of his chief clerk, $2,000. The business of granting patents for new inventions is done in this department, by a commissioner of patents, under the direction of the secretary. The commissioner receives $3,000 a year; his chief clerk, $1,700.

terms ? When do sonators and representatives? 10. What is said of the president's powers and duties? 11. What is the salary of the presie dent? Of the vice-president?

1. Name the heads of the several executive departments. What are they sometimes called? How appointed? 2. What are the duties of

4. The secretary of the treasury conducts the financial affairs of the government. His duties are nearly the same as those of the auditor of the state of Ohio. There are, in this department, two comptrollers and five auditors, to ex. amine and settle the public accounts, and collect the debts due the United States; a treasurer to keep and pay out the money; a register, who keeps accounts of the goods im. ported and exported, and of the shipping employed in our foreign trade; a solicitor; and a commissioner of the landoffice.

5. The salary of the secretary of the treasury is $6,000; that of his chief clerk, $2,000; other officers receive as follows: solicitor of the treasury, $3,500; his chief clerk, $1,150; 1st comptroller, $3,500; chief clerk, $1,700; 2d comptroller, auditors, treasurer, and register, each $3,000; chief clerk of each, $1,700; commissioner of land-office, $3,000; solicitor, $2,000; three clerks, each $1,800 ; a recorder and secretary, each $1,500.

6. The business of the secretary of war relates to the military affairs of the United States, and to Indian affairs. The nation supports what is called a standing army, which consists, at present, of about 9,000 armed men, stationed in different parts of the United States, and ready for service when wanted. The salary of the secretary is $6,000; that of his chief clerk is $2,000. Several under officers receive, some $2,500, others $3,000, and their chief clerks from $700 to $1,700 each.

7. The secretary of the navy superintends the business

the secretary of state? 3. What is his salary? That of his chief clerk ? Of the commissioner of patents? of his chief clerk ? 4. What is the business of the secretary of the treasury? Of the comptrollers, auditors, treasurer, and register? What is the secretary's salary? The salaries of the other officers? And of their clerks? 6. What is the business of the war department? What is said of the army? What is the seerotary's salary? The salaries of other officers and their clerks ? 7. What

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