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Such, for example, is the duty paid by keepers of taverns and groceries for the privilege of selling liquors.

5. Notwithstanding congress has power to raise money by taxation in several ways, it has seldom been found neces. sary to exercise it in any other way than by laying duties on foreign goods, and on the vessels in which they were im. ported. How effectual this mode of taxation has been, will appear from the following facts :

6. At the close of the revolutionary war, the national debt amounted to $42,000,000, on which congress could not so much as pay the interest. Two years after the constitution went into effect, the debt had risen to $75,000,000 ; in 1804, to $36,000,000. From that time it gradually diminished until the commencement of the late war, in 1812, when it was reduced to $45,000,000. By that war, the debt was again increased, being in 1816, $127,000,000.

7. Now the raising of so large a sum by a direct tax, would have been very oppressive.

Wherefore congress exercised its power of taxation almost exclusively in laying duties on imports ; and from the revenue thus raised, not only have the yearly expenses of the government been defrayed, but this vast national debt has long since been paid, besides leaving in the treasury a large surplus, which has been distributed among the states, and loaned out to the citizens.

8. Equally necessary is the power next mentioned,“ to borrow money on the credit of the United States." Large sums of money are sometimes wanted to pay a debt before they can be raised from the revenues or regular income of the nation ; and sometimes immediately, as in case of war. In such case, congress must tax the people, or borrow the money. But who would lend the government, if it had not the means of paying ?

9. Here, then, we see the stility of both these powers. Capitalists are now willing to lend their money to the government, because, if other means of paying its debts should be insufficient, it has power to raise the money by direct taxation.

difference between duties and imposts? What is an excise ? 5. Havo direct taxes been often laid? 6. State the amount of the national debt at each period here mentioned. 7. By what means has this debt been paid? 3, 9. Why is the power to borrow money necossary? 10. What power

10. The power “ to regulate commerce with foreign na tions,” which is next in the list, seems to be, in a measure, connected with the first,“ to lay duties.” It will be remembered that, before the war of the revolution, the colonies were dependent on Great Britain for manufactured goods. By the war, trade with that country was interrupted. But when peace was restored, the British again sent their goods into this country ; but they levied heavy duties upon American produce and American vessels coming into their ports, with the view of so raising the price of foreign agricultural products, as to compel her citizens to buy those of their own country. Thus was the trade of the two countries placed on an unequal footing. We wanted English goods, but England would not take the produce of our labor in exchange, without subjecting it to heavy duties.

11. Hence, some regulations concerning foreign trade became necessary. Congress had not the power to regulate commerce; it belonged to the states. But the states, acting separately, were unable to effect the object desired; they could not agree upon any system of measures. A change in the government must be made before the evil could be remedied. And we learn from the history of that day, that, to give to the general government power to regulate trade was one of the principal causes, perhaps the more immediate cause, of calling the convention that framed the constitution.

12. It has just been remarked, that the two powers, “ to lay duties,” and “to regulate commerce,” are nearly allied. Indeed, the former has been used to carry into effect the in. tentions of the latter. The first law but one, passed by the Arst congress under the constitution, authorized “ duties to be laid on goods, wares, and merchandises imported,” and for purposes, one of which was declared to be, “the encouragement and protection of domestic manufactures.” England having by her regulations of trade encouraged the supplying of her own people with provisions, congress intended, by laying duties upon foreign goods, to encourage the man. ufacture of similar goods at home. is next mentioned? What is said about our trade with Great Britain ? 11. What then becamo necessary? Why could they not be made ? What did this lead to? 12. What law was passed by the first coBgTea

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13. Whether this is a wise measure for regulating the commerce of a nation, is a question in, political economy, upon which statesmen differ; one which it is not the design of this work to discuss. The above facts are given simply to explain the objects and use of the power to regulate foreign commerce.

14. Congress has power, also, to regulate commerce among the several states.

Without this power, each state might adopt regulations favorable to its own citizens, and injurious to the people of other states. This was actu. ally done under the confederation ; and to restore and preserve harmony, and to secure equal justice to the citizens of all the states, which could be done only by one uniform system for the whole, this power was given to the general government.

15. Under the power to regulate commerce, congress has also made navigation laws, or laws relating to the shipping of the nation. These laws require vessels to be measured, to ascertain how much they hold ; and prescribe the manner in which they aře enrolled or registered, and licensed, and in which they are to enter and leave the ports, and the duties of the masters of vessels, declaring what papers they are to carry, &c.

16. These regulations are especially necessary for the collection of the revenue arising from foreign commerce. There is, in every port of entry, a collector of customs, who superintends the collection of duties. When a vessel ar. rives, it is submitted, with the cargo, and all papers and invoices, to the inspection of the proper officers; and the goods subject to duty are all weighed or measured, and the duties estimated according to law.

17. On some articles a specific duty is charged, which is a duty of so much a pound, yard, or gallon; as, two cents an a pound of iron, or fifty cents on a yard of cloth. Oth

under the constitution? What was one of the objects of this law? 14. What other commerce may congress regulate? Why is this power necessary? 15. Under what power are navigation laws made ? What is navigation? What do these laws require ? 16. For what special purpose are these regulations necessary? What is done when a vessel comes into port? What is a port? 17. What is a specific duty ? Ad valorem ?

ers are charged with an ad valorem duty, which means a duty according to the value, being a certain per centage on the value of an article; as forty per cent. on what costs one dollar, would be forty cents; or thirty per cent. on every hundred dollars would be thirty dollars. In certain cases, tonnage duties are charged, upon foreign vessels, at so much per ton of their measurement.

18. All this business requires a vast amount of labor. Nearly five hundred men are employed at the custom-house in the city of New York. The whole amount derived from customs in the United States, in 1842, was about $22,000,000. Besides this a considerable sum was received into the treas. ury from the sale of public lands. These two sources produce nearly the whole revenue of the nation; from which are paid the salaries of officers, and other expenses of the government.

CHAPTER XLVII.

Powers of the General Government, continued. 1. ANOTHER power given to congress, is the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization.” It has already been stated, that foreigners, or aliens, are not entitled to the privileges of citizens till they become naturalized. Before the constitution was adopted, every state established its own rules for naturalizing foreigners. But as a person, on being made a citizen in any state, becomes a citizen of the United States, it is evident that there should be but one rule of naturalization.

2. An alien must have lived in the United States five years, before he can become a citizen. Two years before he is admitted as a citizen, he must declare, on oath, in writing, before a proper court, that he intends to become a

Tonnage duty ? 18. What is said of the custom-house business! In the city of New York ? How much revenue is derived from customs ? For what purposes is the income of the nation expended?

1. What is naturalization? Why should this power be in congress? 2. How soon may an alien become naturalized ? " What is the rule of citizen of the United States, and to renounce his allegiance to his former government; and he must declare, on oath, that he will support the constitution of the United States. Then, two years thereafter, the court, if satisfied as to his moral character and his attachment to the constitution, may admit him as a citizen.

3. On his being naturalized, a man's minor children, if dwelling in the United States, also become citizens. If a man has lived at least three years in the United States be. fore he becomes of age, he may, at the expiration of the five years' residence, be admitted by the court, without having previously made a declaration of his intention to become a citizen.

4. The power “to coin money and regulate the value thereof,” is properly given to congress. Formerly the system of reckoning was by pounds, shillings, and pence; the value of which was different in different states. For instance in the New England states, six shillings make a dollar, in New York eight, in Pennsylvania seven shillings and six. pence. This rendered dealing between the people of different states quite inconvenient. The present decimal mode of calculation, in dollars and cents, established by congress, together with the use of decimal coins, has removed the for. mer inconvenience.

5. Money is coined at the mint, which is in Philadelphia. The business of coining is under the superintendence of a director. The gold and silver, before it is coined, is called bullion. Individuals, as well as the government, may get money coined at the mint. Six principal men employed in the mint, receive salaries of $1,000 to $2,000 each. Gold and silver are also coined at New Orleans; and gold, to some extent, is coined at some place in North Carolina, and at another in Georgia.

6. Another power of congress is “ to promote the progress of science and useful arts. Sciences and arts are much

naturalization ? 3. How do children become citizens? In what caso may persons be admitted as citizens, without first declaring their intention to become such ? 4. What were the inconveniences suffered from the old system of reckoning? How have they been removed ? 5. Whore is money coined ? What is bullion? 6. What is the object of the powor

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