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ballots are counted, to see whether the number agrees with the number of names on the poll-list. If the number of voters and the number of names are the same, it is présumed there has been no mistake in voting. The ballots are then examined, to ascertain the number of votes given for each person. A statement of the names of all the persons voted for, and the number of votes given for each, signed by the judges and clerks, is sent to the clerk of the court of common pleas of the county; and a copy of the same is deposited with the township clerk.

13. The clerk of the county court, with two justices of the peace, examines the returns made to him from the sev. eral townships, and sends to the proper officers at the seat of government of the state, a statement of the whole number of votes given for each person voted for in all the town. ships of the county ; and a copy of such statement is kept by the clerk in his office. Hence, the election of county officers and other persons voted for only in the county, is ascertained as soon as the returns are received by the county clerk from all the townships in the county. And when returns are received at the seat of the state govern. ment from all the county clerks, it is determined what persons have the greatest number of votes for governor and other state officers.

CHAPTER VIII.

Of the Legislature ; and how it is formed. 1. Tmi legislative or law-making power of the state, is vested in a senate and a house of representatives. These two bodies, when assembled for the purpose of enacting laws, are called the general assembly. The house of representatives is composed of seventy-two members; and the

has been corect? What statement is then made; and whither sent? 13. What is then the duty of the county clerk? How, when, and where, is it determined who are elected ?

1. In what is the law-making power of the state vested? What aro these two bodies, united, called? How many members has the house of

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number may never exceed seventy-two, nor be less than thirty-six. The present number was fixed by the legislature in 1844. They are chosen every year.

2. Representatives are apportioned among the several counties, as nearly as may be, according to the number of white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years, in each county. Thus: In 1843, the state contained about 300,000 such inhabitants; which number, divided by 72, gives a little more than 4000, as the number 'entitled to one representative. Every county containing such number of white male inhabitants above twenty-one years of

age,

is entitled to a representative.

3. But as there is a greater number of counties in the slate than of representatives, not every county, alone, can have a representative. Hence, two or more counties sometimes unite in electing one. And there are a few counties whose population is so numerous as to entitle them to two or more representatives each. But if the number of inhabitants in a county is but a little greater or a little less than the number required, it is usual to give to such county one representative. For example: Ashtabula, having 5535 white male inhabitants of twenty-one years

of
age,

has but one representative ; and Lake, with little more than 3000 such inhabitants, has also one.

4. But the population increases much more rapidly in some counties than in others. In such counties, the number of representatives ought to be proportionably increased. It is therefore provided by the constitution, that, once in four years, an enumeration shall be made of all the white male inhabitants above twenty-one years; and that, after every such enumeration, the legislature shall fix the number of representatives, and make a new apportionment of them among the several counties, so that every county may have its just proportion of the representatives.

5. A representative must be at least twenty-five years of

representatives? How long do they hold their office ? 2 How are representatives apportioned ? 3. In caso a county has not enough of such inhabitants for a representative, what is done ? 4. What provision is made for keeping a proportional representation in the several counties? 5. State the qualifications of a representative, as to age, citizenship,

age, a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant of the state ; and he must have resided within the county in which he shall be chosen, one year next preceding his election, and have paid a state or county tax.

6. The senate consists of thirty-six members; and the number may not be less than one-third, nor greater than one-half the number of representatives. The number of senators, like that of representatives, is fixed by the legislature after every enumeration. Senators are chosen once in two years. They are divided into two classes, and in such manner, that one-half of them, as near as possible, may be chosen every year.

7. Senators are apportioned among the several counties or districts, according to the number of white male inhabitants of the age of twenty-one years in each. There be. ing but half as many senators as representatives, there are but few counties which have, singly, a sufficient number of inhabitants to be entitled to a senator. Most of the sena. tors, therefore, are chosen in districts embracing a number of counties.

8. A senator must be thirty years of age, and a citizen of the United States; and must have resided in the county or district two years next preceding his election, and have paid a state or county tax.

9. If a senator or representative dies, or resigns his of. fice; or if his office in any other way becomes vacant, before the term for which he was elected shall have expired, the governor orders the

vacancy to be filled by the election of another person, in the county or district in which such vacancy happens.

residence, &c. 6. How many members has the senate? How is the number limited ? How and when is the number fixed ? Term of office ? How classified ? 7. How are the senators apportioned ? 8. What are the qualifications of a senator? 9. How are vacancies in the offices of senator and representative filled ?

CHAPTER IX.

Organization of the Legislature ; Privileges of Members ;

Appointment of Officers, fc. 1. The general assembly meets, as required by the constitution, on the first Monday of December in every year, for the purpose of considering the condition of the state, and of enacting such laws as may be deemed necessary to promote the welfare of the people. The place of meeting is in the city of Columbus, which is called the capital of the state. A large and commodious building has there been erected for the legislature to meet in, which is called the capitol.

2. The two houses having assembled, each in its own chamber, every representative and every new senator is required, before proceeding to business, to take the oath of office; by which he solemnly swears, that he will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Ohio; and that he will faithfully discharge the duties of his office according to the best of his ability.

3. All persons elected to important public offices are re. quired to take a similar oath. . An oath is a solemn decla. ration, in which the person appeals to God to bear witness to the truth of what he declares. Oaths are required, because it is presumed that a person will feel a stronger obli. gation to do right when under oath than he otherwise would do. And yet many public officers, even under the obligation of an oath, discharge their duties very unfaithfully. It is important, therefore, that the people choose good men for office, who will act honestly.

4. It seldom happens that all the members can be present at the same time. The constitution therefore provides, that two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Quorum means such number of a body of men

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1. How often, and when, and where, does the general assembly meet? 2. What oath do the members take? 3. What are the nature and the obligation of an official oath ? 4. What number of members constitutes a quorum ? What is quorum ? 5. By whom are the rules and order of

ness.

as have power to transact business. In the legislatures of some states, and in congress, a majority—that is, any núm. ber greater than one half—is a quorum, and may do busi.

5. Every legislative body must have some rules and order of doing business. The constitution allows each house to determine the rules of its own proceedings; but that the public may know what business is done, each house is required to keep a journal of its proceedings, and to pub. lish the same, except such parts as ought to be kept secret. And that any person wishing may witness its proceedings, the doors of each house must be kept open, except when the public welfare requires secrecy.

6. In order to prevent any injury or interruption to the public business, the constitution provides, that members shall not, except for treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be arrested on civil process during the session of the general assembly, or in going to or returning from the same. This means, in plain language, that they shall not be de. tained by constables or sheriffs, on a warrant or any other civil process, commanding their bodies to be taken into custody

7. Each house has power to expel any of its members, and punish its members and officers for disorderly behavior, by imprisonment; and may also punish other persons, as well as its members, for contempt or insult offered the house, for disorderly conduct tending to interrupt its proceedings, and for other like offences.

8. Each house chooses one of its members to preside over it, who is called speaker.

9. It is the business of a presiding officer to keep order in the house, and to see that its business is done according to the rules of the house. And when a question is to be decided, he “puts it to vote ;” that is, he requests the members to express their minds by “ayeor “no,” in favor of or against any measure; and declares the question to be

business determined ? How may the public know what business is done? 6. What privilege have members, as to arrest? What does this mean? 7. How, and for what, may members and others be punished by the house ? 8. By whom is a speaker chosen ? 9. What is a speaker's busi

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