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carried or lost, as the case may be. This part of a speaker's business is much the same as that of the chairman or president of the meeting of a society, or of a district school meeting. Probably most boys of the age of ten years have seen how business is conducted in such meetings.

10. Each house also chooses a clerk, to keep a record or journal of its proceedings, and to do such other things as are usually done by the secretary of a meeting ; a sergeantat-arms, whose duty it is to arrest members or other persons who are guilty of disorderly conduct, to compel the attendance of absent members, and to do other business of a like nature ; also, one or more door-keepers.

The officers mentioned in this section are not selected from the members of the house, but from the citizens at large.


How the Laws are enacted, fc.

1. WHEN the two houses have appointed their officers and are ready for business, the governor sends to both houses a message, which is read to each house by its clerk. The governor exhibits, in his message, the condition of the affairs of the state, and calls the attention of the legislature to such subjects as he thinks ought to be acted on.

2. Soon after the legislature has commenced its business, the committees of each house are appointed. A committee consists of one or more persons appointed or chosen to consider and to act upon any matter intrusted to them. A legislative committee generally consists of either three, five, or seven members. The committees are numerous, and are usually appointed by the presiding officer of each house. There is a committee on agriculture; another on banks; another on railroads and canals; another on the division of townships and counties; another on common schools; and

ness? 10. What other officers of the house are chosen ?

1. When is the governor's message delivered to the legislature ? What is the object of a message? 2. What is a committee ?

Of how many



a committee on almost every other subject of a general nature.

3. The object of appointing these committees, is to save the time of the house, and to hasten the transaction of busiLet us see how this is done.

In so great a state as this, many laws must be enacted every year. Some meas ures are recommended by the governor; others are proposed by members. Besides these, the people from different parts of the state apply to the legislature for laws authorizing the making of canals and railroads, the incorpo. ration of banks, the division of counties or the erection of new ones, and for other purposes; for these things cannot be done unless authorized by law.

4. But it may be asked, Why may not the people make canals and railroads, and establish banks, and do many other things, whenever and wherever they please, without a law authorizing them to do so ? Because, although some persons might be benefited by these things, others might be injured by them. And if a law is asked for, the legislature ought to inquire whether such law would be proper or not.

5. Now, if there were no committees, the time of the whole house must be spent in examining every subject brought before it. And as hundreds of things need atten. tion at every session of the legislature, and as it often requires many days, and sometimes weeks, duly to examine inportant subjects, there would not be time enough in the whole year to dispose of them all.

6. But as a committee consisting of a few members can make the necessary inquiries into a proposed measure, and ascertain the reasons in favor of or against it, as well as the whole house, every subject is referred to its appropriate committee, so that the consideration of many subjects may be going on at the same time. Petitions for canals are referred to the committee on canals; for banks, to the committee on banks; and so of every other. And if a subject arises which it is not deemed proper to refer to a standing members does a committee consist? 3. What is the object of appointing committees? Explain their utility. 4. Why ought not canals, banks, &c., to be made at pleasure? 6. What are petitions ? How are they referred? What are standing committees ? Select commit


committee, a select committee is appointed for the special purpose of considering such subject.

7. The members of the several committees meet from time to time, when the house is not in session, to consider the matters referred to them. And if any persons wish to appear before a committee to show cause why the laws asked for ought to be passed, or why they ought not to be passed, the committee gives them a hearing.

8. After due inquiry and consideration, committees make their reports to the house. A report of a committee contains a statement of the facts that have been ascertained, and of the reasons why the law prayed for ought or ought not to be passed. If a committee reports against a measure, the house generally dismisses the subject : if the committee reports in favor of such measure, it usually brings in a bill with the report. A bill is a draft or form of a proposed law.

9. Not all bills, however, which are brought before the house are reported by committees. Any member of the house desiring the passage of a law, gives notice that he will, on some future day, ask leave of the house to introduce a bill for that purpose ; and, at the time specified, if the house shall grant leave, he may introduce the bill. But in all cases, at least one day's previous notice must be given of his intention to ask leave, before leave can be granted to in. troduce a bill.

10. A bill must go through many forms of action before it can become a law; all of which it is not deemed impor. tant to detail in this place. It must be read three times; but it may not be read oftener than once on the same day, without consent of three-fourths of the house. Nor can it be amended or altered before its second reading.

11, On some day after that on which it was read the second time, it is called up for consideration; and if amend.

1 ments are deemed necessary, they are made. When a bill is taken up for consideration and amendment, the speaker

tees? 7. How is the business of a committoe done? 8. When and what do committees report to the house? What is a bill? 9. Are all bills reported by committees? How are bills introduced by members ? 10. How often must a bill be read before it is passed? How often before it is amended? 11. When a bill is taken up for consideration and




usually calls some other member to the chair, who is called chairman ; and the speaker takes his seat among the members. At such times the house is said to be in committee of the whole. After a bill has been fully discussed and amend. ed, it is ordered to be read on a future day the third time. Further amendrgents may, however, be made to a bill on its third reading.

12. When the final vote of the house is to be taken upon a bill after its third reading, the speaker puts the question : “Shall the bill pass ?” And he requests those who are in favor of its passage to say aye, and those who are opposed to it to say no. If a majority of the members present vote in the affirmative, the bill is passed; but if a majority vote in the negative, it is lost. Or, if the ayes and noes are equal, the bill is lost, because there is not a majority in its favor.

13. In some legislative bodies, the speaker, or chairman, does not vote, except when there is a tie ; that is, when the ayes and noes, without his vote, are equal. If he shall then vote in the affirmative, the question is carried ; if against it, it is lost. In such case, the vote of a presiding officer is called the casting vote.

14. When a bill has passed one house, it is sent to the other, where it must go through the same forms of action; and if it passes that house also, without alteration, it is signed by the speakers of both houses, and is a law. If a bill is amended in the second house, it is returned to the first; and if the amendments are there agreed to, the bill becomes a law. Some bills are sent several times from one house to the other, with new amendments every time, be. fore they are finally agreed to by both.

15. In some states, after a bill has passed both houses, it is sent to the governor to be approved and signed by him. If he signs it, it is a law; if not, it is no law. This of a governor to negative a bill is called veto, which is a Latin word, signifying I forbid. If a governor has refused


This power

amendment, who presides? What is the house then called? 12. On taking the final vote, what question is put? How is it known that a bill is passed or lost? 13. How are questions determined in some legislatures ? What is a casting vote? 14. How is a bill disposed of after 't has passed one house ? 15. In some states, what further action is

to sign a bill, he must return it to the house in which it originated ; and if it shall again pass both houses, two-thirds of the members present in each house voting for it, it be. comes a law without the governor's approval.

16. Members of the legislature receive for their services $2 a day, and the same for every twenty-five miles they travel in going to and returning from the place of meeting.


Of the Executive Department, and of the general Administration of the State.-Governor, and subordinate Executive State Officers.

1. HAVING treated of the legislative department, and shown how its officers are elected, and how their power

is exercised in making the laws, I shall proceed to give a description of the executive department, of the election and appointment of its officers, and of their powers and duties in executing the laws and administering the government of the state.

2. By the constitution, the supreme executive power of the state is vested in a governor. There are also, in this department, several subordinate executive officers, who assist in administering the government. The governor is elected at the general election in October, and holds his office for two years, and until another shall be elected and qualified.

3. A person, to be eligible for the office of governor, must be thirty years of age; and he must have been a cit. izen of the United States twelve years, and an inhabitant of the state four years next preceding his election. He

necessary? What is veto ? How may a bill be passed without the governor's approval ? 16. How much are the members paid for services and travel ?

1. What is the business of the executive department ? 2. In whorn is the supreme executivo power vested? When is the governor choseni For what term? 3. What are the qualifications of a governor

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