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cannot be chosen for more than six years, in any term of eight years.

4. The governor has many powers to exercise, and many important dutjes to perform. A few of those mentioned in the constitution are the following : He sends to the legisla. ture, at the beginning of every session, a message, containing a statement of the general affairs of the state, and recommending such measures as he shall judge to be expedient. It is his duty, also, to see that the laws are execu. ted, and to transact all necessary business with the officers of government.

5. The governor has power to grant reprieves and pardons. If a person has been found guilty of murder, for which he has been sentenced to suffer death, the governor may, if he should think proper to do so, put off the execution of the sentence to a later time than the day appointed. This is called granting a reprieve. If he should entirely free him from punishment, it would be granting a pardon. The governor has power to pardon for all offences, except treason, and cases of impeachment. [For a definition of these crimes, see Treason and IMPEACHMENT.]

6. When a vacancy happens in the office of any person who receives his appointment from the general assembly, the governor has power, if the general assembly is not in session, to grant a commission to some person to fill such vacancy until the general assembly, at its next session, shall make an appointment. [A commission is a writing, giving to a public officer the power to serve.] Judges, also, and many other officers, civil and military, though not appointed by the governor, must receive commissions from him, before they enter upon the duties of their offices.

7. In case of the death of the governor, or if he shall resign his office, or shall be removed for bad conduct, the speaker of the senate shall act as governor, until the gov, ernor shall be restored, or another governor elected and qualified. And in case the speaker of the senate shall be4. What principal duties of the governor are mentioned in this section ? 5. What is it to reprieve, and to pardon ? In what cases may reprieves and pardons be granted? 6. In what cases does the governor fill vacancies? And for what period? What is a commission ? 7. How are

come in any way disqualified, or unable to serve, the speaker of the house of representatives shall discharge the duties of the office, until a governor shall be elected and qual. ified.

8. There are sundry other provisions in the constitution, relating to the powers and duties of governor, a particular reference to which is here omitted ; but which it will be well for the student to examine. (See Const., Art. II.]

9. The principal executive officers who assist in the ad. ministration, are the secretary of state, the treasurer, the state auditor, and the state printer. These officers are chosen by joint ballot of the senate and house of representatives, for the term of three years. [In appointing by joint ballot, both houses join, and in a single body, choose an of. ficer by ballot.] These officers keep their offices at the seat of

government. 10. The secretary of state is required by the constitution to keep a fair register of all the official acts and proceed. ings of the governor; and, when requested, to lay the same, and all papers relating to them, before either branch of the legislature ; and to perform such other duties as are assigned to him by law. He has charge of all the laws enacted by the legislature, and of all other papers and documents which the laws require to be kept in his office. His duties cannot all be here enumerated.

11. An important duty of the secretary of state, is the part he takes in publishing the laws. If it is necessary to make laws, it is equally necessary that the people know what the laws are. When a law goes into effect, every. body is bound to obey it; and he must suffer the consequence of breaking it, whether he knows what it is or not. The legislature has therefore made provision for publishing all the laws that are enacted.

12. The secretary causes accurate copies to be made of the laws and resolutions passed by the general asseinbly, and delivers them to the state printer, who is required, after vacancies in the office of governor supplied ? 8. Has the governor any other duties? 9. Who assist in the administration? How are these officers appointed ? 10. What are the general duties of the secretary of state ? " 11. Why is it necessary to publish the laws ? 12. What is the close of each session, to print many thousand copies of the laws, and also a large number of copies of the journal of each house. [The journal is the record or account of each day's proceedings of the Legislature.]

13. When the laws and journals are printed and stitched in volumes, the secretary of state causes them to be distributed. The number assigned to each county, is sent to the clerk of the court of common pleas, to be distributed among all the principal county and township officers. The governor and state officers, members and officers of the gen. eral assembly, and officers of the courts, are also entitled to copies; and one or more copies of the laws are also kept in the office of each township clerk, for the use of the in. habitants, that they may learn what the laws are. Certain literary institutions also are entitled to a copy each, of the laws and journals. And one or more copies of the laws are exchanged with each of the states, for copies of their laws, to be kept in the state library.

14. The secretary of state also performs the duties of su. perizeudent of common schools, wire vi wnica will be described in the chapters relating to schools.

The secretary's salary is $900 a year.

15. The treasurer has charge of ail ine public moneys that are paid into the treasury, and pays out the same as directed by law. And he is required to keep an accurate account of such moneys, specifying the names of the persons from whom received, to whom paid, and for what purposes. And he must make a written report to each branch of the general assembly, on the third day of the session, showing the state of the public accounts and funds, and the balance remaining in the treasury.

16. As large sums of money come into the hands of the treasurer, which he might refuse to pay over when called for, or which might be lost through his carelessness, he is required, before he enters on the duties of his office, to give

done by the secretary in getting the laws printed? 13. How are the laws distributed ? To whom? 14. The duties of what other office does the secretary perform? What is his salary? 15. Mention the genera! duties of the treasurer. To whom, when, and what does he report ? 16 Why is a bond required of the treasurer? What is the nature of

a bond, in the sum of $250,000, with at least six sufficient sureties, that he will faithfully perform the duties of his office. The sureties are persons who are supposed to be able to pay this sum, and who bind themselves to pay to the state whatever the treasurer shall fail to pay, but not more than the sum mentioned. Public officers generally, who have the care of money, are required to give bonds of this kind.

17. The state auditor manages the fiscal concerns of the state ; that is, the business relating to the money, debts, land, and other property of the state. He examines and adjusts all accounts and claims against the state, which are to be paid out of the state treasury, and for the sums due from the state, he issues bills payable at the state treasury; and keeps a regular account with the treasurer, charging him with all the money he (the treasurer) receives, and giving him credit for all the bills paid by him.

18. The auditor also transacts business with the county auditors, and superintends the collection of moneys due the state ; and he makes annually to the legislature a state. ment of the funds of the state, and of its income and ex. penditures during the preceding year. The duties of the auditor are very numerous. He is assisted by clerks. He is required to give bonds in the sum of $10,000, for the faithful discharge of his duties.

The salary of the auditor is $1200; that of his chief clerk, $600.

19. The state printer receives from the secretary of state, a copy of the laws, and from the clerk of each house, a copy of the journal, bills, reports, and other papers and doc- . uments, and prints such number of copies of them as the general assembly has directed to be printed. The prices of the work, and the manner in which it is to be done, are specified in the law. For the due performance of the work, his bonds are $10,000. *

this bond ? For what amount is it given ? 17. What is the business of the state auditor? 18. What other duties does ho perform ? To whom does he report? When, and what? How large aro his bonds? What is nxs salary? Of his chief clerk ? 19. Mention the duties of the state printer. The annount of his bonds.

CHAPTER XII.

Of County Officers; their Powers and Duties.-County Com

missioners, County Auditor, and County Treasurer.

1. The necessity of dividing a state into smaller portions of territory will be readily seen. It would be impossible for the state officers, whose duties and powers have been described, to transact all the business of the state. Not only is their number too small, but they are at too great a distance from the people in the remote parts of the state. Hence, every state in the Union is divided into smaller portions of territory, with a kind of government in each. The smallest general division of the state is into townships, a number of which compose a county,

2. County officers are elected by the people of each county, at the state election in October. The officers are these : three county commissioners, a county auditor, a county treasurer, a county recorder, a sheriff, a coroner, a county surveyor, and a prosecuting attorney.

3. The county commissioners are chosen for three years, one to be elected every year. When a vacancy happens in the office of commissioner, the associate judges may appoint a person to fill such vacancy until the next election, when the people choose a commissioner ; but he is chosen to serve only for the unexpired part of the term of him whose place became vacant. They meet at the county seat three times a year for the transaction of business.

4. It is the duty of the commissioners to examine the accounts of the auditor and treasurer, and direct the auditor to publish a statement of the receipts and expenditures for the past year. They also make orders or contracts in rela. tion to building or repairing the court-house, jail, and other county buildings; manage and dispose of the property of the county generally; and perform such other duties as the

1. Why is it necessary to divide a state into townships and counties ? 2. How and when are county officers chosen ? What are these offi. cers? 3. How long do commissioners serve? How are Vucancies in the office filled? 4 What are some of the duties of commissionon ?

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