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pers of the town.

He records in a book the proceedings of the township meetings, and the names of the officers elected ; township roads established by the trustees; the brands and marks of cattle, sheep, and hogs, used by the owners; and a map of the school districts in the township. And af. te the township officers have made their annual settlement of accounts, he makes out and records an account of all the receipts and expenditures of the township for the preceding year.

4. The trustees have the general management of town. ship atlairs. They have power to lay out township roads, and to lay out and alter road districts; and to do many other things in relation to roads and bridges, taxes, the poor, common schools, &c. And they are required to settle the accounts of the supervisors of highways, the township trea. surer, and overseers of the poor; and to examine and settle all demands against the township; and for this purpose they meet with these officers every year.

5. An important duty of the trustees is to take care of the poor. It is the duty of every government to provide for the support of persons who, through misfortune, have been reduced to a state of poverty, and who are unable to support themselves. Such provision has been made in this country, and to such extent, that no person is compelled to beg for the means of support; and consequently the people of this country are but little troubled, and seldom imposed upon, by vicious persons who go about begging from the honest and industrious citizens. 6. When the trustees are informed that a person is

poor and needs relief, and ought to be supported at the public expense, it is their duty to provide for his support, the expense to be charged to the township; or, if there is a county poor-house in the county, they order such person to the directors of the poor house, to be provided for. If the directors of the poor-house, for lawful reasons, reject a pauper sent to them by the trustees of a township, then the trustees must provide for his support.

duties of the township clerk? 4. Mention the general duties of the trustees. 5, 6. What is the duty of the trustees respecting the poor?

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7. If a poor person who needs relief has not gained a legal settlement in the township, the trustees cause him to be removed to the place where he was last legally settled. If the health of such person will not permit his removal, the trustees afford relief until he may be removed ; the expense of such temporary relief, and of the removal, to be paid by the township to which the person is removed. If the pauper has no legal settlement in the state, the trustees may remove him to the state or county where be has a legal settlement, unless he shall give bonds that he shall not become chargeable to the township or county where he is.

8. To gain what is here called a legal settlement, a person must have resided in the township for a whole year, without ever having been warned by the overseers to depart out of the township, and for three years together after hav. ing been once warned. A different rule applies to minors, apprentices, and certain other persons.

9. The duties of the township assessor relate to the assessment of property and levying of taxes. [See chapter XVI.] He also takes the census, or enumeration of the white male inhabitants above twenty-one years, which is required by the constitution to be taken

years. 10. The township treasurer receives all moneys belonging to the township, and pays out the same as they may be wanted for township purposes, and accounts yearly to the

every four

proper officers.

11. Constables. The principal duties of a constable are, to serve all processes issued by justices of the peace in suits at law for collecting debts, and for arresting persons charged with crimes. The business of a constable in executing the orders of justices of the peace, is much the same as that of a sheriff in relation to the county courts.

12. Supervisors of highways. In the election of supervisors, the electors do not all vote for the whole number of

7. What is to be done when a pauper has no legal settlement in the township or state ? 8. How does a person gain a legal settlement? 9. To what, principally, do the duties of a township assessor relate ? What else does he do? 10. What is the business of township treasurer ? 11. Of constables? 12. How are supervisors of highways elected ?

supervisors. It is intended that the voters in each roaddistrict shall vote only for a supervisor in their own district. It is provided, therefore, that each elector shall vote for only one person for this office. The person residing in each district who receives the highest number of votes, is elected supervisor.

13. It is the duty of each supervisor to repair and keep in order the roads in his district, and to see that all persons assessed come and work on them. Male persons of the age of twenty-one years, having resided in the township three months, may be required to work two days. The supervi. sor may require a person having a team, and wagon, scraper, cart, or plough, to furnish the same ; for which he allows the person a reasonable compensation.

14. The supervisor may excuse certain persons who are unable to labori and persons who do not wish to work, may commute for their labor, by paying to the supervisor seventyfive cents for every day they do not work. Persons who refuse to work, or commute, may be fined one dollar for every day so refusing to labor or commute; the money to be expended in improving the roads and bridges in the town. ship. The supervisors account yearly to the trustees.

CHAPTER XV.

Incorporation of Towns. 1. The necessity of dividing a state into counties and townships has been shown in preceding chapters. In almost every county there are places where many inhabitants have settled upon a small territory. These settlements are usually called villages. Sundry regulations become necessary for the government of a village, which can be 13. What are the duties of supervisors ? Who are required to labor on highways ? 14. How may persons be excused and exempted from labor? What is commute ? Ilow much is the fine for refusing to labor or commute? To whom, and how often, do supervisors account?

1. Where and why is the incorporation of towns necessary? 2. What

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better made by the inhabitants than by the legislature. For this purpose they are formed into corporations, called towns.

2. A town is a body corporate, or body politic. A body politic, or corporation, is a number of persons united, and authorized by law to act under one name, and as a single person, in the transaction of business. So the people of a state or nation, united for the purpose of government, are called a body politic. Persons associated for any purpose without being incorporated by law, are not called a corporation. The object of incorporating an association by law is to give its members the power to make certain rules for their government, and to enforce these rules; and the power to sue and be sued, and to hold and sell property, as one person.

3. Men often unite their money or capital in trade, or in carrying on some other business, in company. This is called a partnership. A corporation is a kind of partnership; but it is very different from a common business partnership. Persons united in trade can bind none by their contracts but those who have consented to go into the partnership; and when they die the partnership must end. But not so with a corporation. When the persons who first composed the corporation are all dead, the corporation is still alive; for those who come after them have all the powers and privileges which those had who first associated.

4. There is another difference: No person can be brought into a partnership without his consent; whereas a law incorporating a city or village, brings all the inhabitants within its bounds into the corporation, often against the consent of many. Not so, however, with railroad, banking, and certain other corporations.

5. To illustrate the effect of an act of incorporation, let us suppose that it should be necessary to improve the sidewalks in an unincorporated village ; but a part of the inhabitants are unwilling to pay their share of the expense

of the improvement. There is now no authority to compel is a town? Define a corporation, or body politic. 3. In what do corporations and business partnerships differ ? 4. In what other respect is there a difference? 5. Illustrate, by example, the nature and effect of

them to do so, without becoming incorporated according to law. There is a law in this state authorizing the inhabitants of any such place to form themselves into a town corporate, with powers necessary to make certain local regu. lations. In some states, a special act of the legislature is required for every corporation.

6. The corporation having been formed as the law di. rects, the inhabitants may meet at such place as two or more of the corporators shall select, and elect their town of. ficers, to consist of a may jr, a recorder, and five trustees, for the term of one year. These constitute what is called the town council, and have power to lay and collect taxes, and to make other needful rules and regulations for the gov. ernment of the town. And the officers, for and in behalf of the inhabitants of the town, may sue and be sued, hold and sell property, and do other things which an individual per. son may do. And when the present inhabitants shall have passed off, those who shall then occupy their places will constitute the same corporation.

7. Every township, and every county, is a corporation; the inhabitants being united for the purposes of government, with certain powers granted by the laws of the state. So also the people of the state constitute one great corporation. But this corporation is not formed by an act of the legislature, as other corporations are, but by the act of the people themselves in their political capacity, in making the con. stitution or political law of the state.

8. Besides these territorial corporations, as towns, town. ships, and counties, there are incorporated companies for car. rying on business of various kinds, as railroad and turnpike companies, and companies for purposes of manufacturing, banking, insurance, &c. These several kinds of business, in order to be extensively and successfully conducted, re. quire a larger amount of money than a single individual possesses. A number of persons therefore unite their cap

an act of incorporation. 6. What officers has a town corporation ? What are their powers? 7. State the difference between the act of incorporating a state, and that of incorporating other bodies. 8. What kinds of companies are incorporated? Why are such companies incorporated ?

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