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Stanza lxxxvj. line 4. On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dun. bar: a year afterwards he obtained “bis crowning mercy" of Wor. cester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died.
original dict the amphitheatron of its right arm.ration : but th
Stanza lxxxvii. lines 1 and 2. The projected division of the Spada Pompey has already been recorded by the bistorian of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Mr. Gibbon found it in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca, and it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave the contending owners five hundred crowns for the statue; and presented it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, who had prevented the fudgment of Solomon from being executed upon the image. In a more civilized age this statue was exposed to an actual operation : for the French who acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the Coliseum, resolved that their Cæsar should fall at the base of that Pompey, which was supposed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the arena of the amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm. The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a restoration : but their aecusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered The true Cæsarean ichor in a stain near the right knee ; but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood but the portrait, and 26. signed the globe of power rather to the first of the emperors than to the last of the republican masters of Rome. Winkelmannt is Joth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a cotemporary almdst, is heroic; and naked Roman figures were only very rare, not absolutely forbidden. The face accords much better with the “* hominem integrum et castum et gravem," I than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey. The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary, and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot where it was discovered. Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leytari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the
Memorie, num. lvii. pag. 9. ap. Montfaucon Diarium Italicum. - Storia delle arti, &c. 16. ix. cap. 1. page 321, 322, tom. ji.
Cicer. Epist. ad Atticum, xi. 6.
statue after the curia was either burnt, or taken down. Part of the Pompeian shade, t the portico, existed in the beginning of the XVih century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus. At all events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.
And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome!
Stanza lxxxvj. line 1. Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother of her founder: but there were two she wolves of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysiusg at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal fig tree. The other was that which Cicero bas celebrated both in prose and verse, and wbich the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by the orator,** The question agitated by the antiquaries is
whether the wolf now in the conservators' palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one or the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunns says, bat it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinust calis it the wolf of Dionysius, and a Marlianust talks of it as the one men. tioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome; but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue. il Montfaucon mentions it as a point without doubt. Of the latter writers the decisive Winkelmann** proclaims it as having been found at the church of St. Theodore, where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says ihat it was placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, by which he does not seem to allude to the church of Saint Theodore Rycquins was the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.
Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was found it near the arch of Septi.
tom. i. pag. 202, note x.) says. Non ostante, aggiunge Dione, che fosse ben fermata, (the wolf.) by which it is clear the Abate translated the Xylandro Leuclavian version, wlich puts quamvis stabilita for the original is pupevn, a word that does not mean ben-fermata, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion: ’ĦBovanIn pèy ouV Ö 'Azpirmous azi TOV Avgous. TOV SVTRUJE id pur ald. Hist. lib. lvi. Dion says that Agrippa 6 wished to raise a statue of Augustus in the Pantheon."
** In eadem porticu ænea lupa, cujus uberibus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur: de hac Cicero et Vigilius sem per intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Ædilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores, positum innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est.” Luc. Fauni de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib. i. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. i. p. 217. In his XVIIth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there. + Ap. Nardini Roma Vetus. lib. v. cap. iv..
Marliani. Urb. Rom topograph. lib. ii cap. ix. He mentions another wolf and twins in the Vatican. lib. v. cap. xxi.
"Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus, quæ è comitio in Basilicam Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea relata sit, quamvis Marlianus antiquam Capitolinam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam, cui ut in re nimis dubia, trepidè adsentimur.” Just. Ryéqui de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.
| Nardini Roma Vetus. lib. v. cap. iv.
* " Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat ædibus, cum vestigio ful. iminis quo ictam narrat Cicero." Diarium. Italie, tom. i. p. 174.
** Storia delle arti, &c lib. iii. cap. jii. Sii, note 10. Winkelmann has made a strange blunder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not in the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.
"Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che oggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio; e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Romolo e Remo, e stà nella Loggia de conservatori." Flam. Vacca. Me morie, num. iii. pag. 1, ap. Montfaucon Diar. Ital. tom. 1.
mius Severus. The commentator op Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is incensed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with lightning in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.
Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to partieularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses be records that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed: and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, of the Abate's argument, hangs upon the past tense; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shows that the statue was not then standing in its former positionWinkelmann has observed, that the present twins are modern; and it is equally clear that there are marks of gilding on the wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make part of the ancient group. It is known that the sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by time or accident, but were put into certain underground depositaries calied favissa. It may be thought possible that the wolf had been so deposited, and had been replaced in some conspicuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. Ryequius, without mentioning his authority, tells that it was transferred from the Comitium to the Lateran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Severus, it may have been one of the images which Orosiust says was thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Alaric took the city. That it is of very high antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; and that circumstance indgced Winkelmann to be. lieve it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline wolf, however, may have been of the same early date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactantiust asserts that in his time the Romans worshipped a wolf; and it is known that the Lupercalia held out to a very late periods
* Luc. Faun, ibid.
"Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et ferrem si animal ipsum fuisset, cujus figuram gerit.” Lactant. de falsa religione. Lib. 1. cap. 20. pag. 101. edit. varior. 1660; that is to say, he would rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. His commentator has observed that the opinion of Livy concerning Laurentia being figured in this wolf was not universal. Strabo thought so. Rye quius is wrong in saying that Lactantius mentions the wolf was in the Capitol.
To A. D. 496. Quis credere possit, says Baronius. (Ann. Ee. cle. tom. vii. p. 602. in an. 496.] “ Vigaisse adhuc Romæ ad Ge lasii tempora, quæ fuere ante exordia urbis allata in Italiam Lupercalia > Gelasius wrote a letter which occupies four folio pages
after every other observance of the ancient superstition had totally expired. This may account for the preservation of the ancient image longer than the other early symbols of Paganism.
It may be permitted, however, to remark that the wolf was a Ro. man symbol, but that the worship of that symbol is an inference drawn by the zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian writers are not to be trusted in the charges which they make against the Pagans, Eusebius accused the Romans to their faces of worshipping Simon Magus, and raising a statue to him in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had probably never heard of such a person before, who came, however, to play a considerable, though scandalous part in the church history, and has left several tokens of his aeria combat with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that an inscrip. tion found in this very island of the Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to be a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sangus or Fidius.
Even when the worship of the founder of Rome had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to humour the habits of the good matrons of the city by sending them with their sick infants to the
church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carried them to the temple of Romulus.f The practice is continued to this day; and the site of the above church seems to be thereby identified with that of the temple : so that if the wolf had been really found there, as Winkelmann says, there would be no doubt of the present statue being that seen by Dionysius. But Faunus, in saying that it was at the Fiens Ruminalis by the Comitium, is only talking of its ancient position as recorded by Pliny; and even if he had been remarking where it was found, would not have alluded to the church of Saint Theodore, but to a very different place, near which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis had been, and also the Comitinim; that is, the three columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum
It is, in fact, a mere conjecture where the image was actually dug up, and perhaps on the whole, the marks of the gilding, and