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(the United States) is in part alike guilty. Bartholomew Casa says, “ The Spaniards in five years destroyed in America ten millions of human souls! with a view of converting these unfortunate men to Christianity! He tells us that they hanged these unfortunate natives thirteen in a row in honour of the thirteen Apostles! And they also gave their infants to be devoured by dogs! There is a story recorded of an Indian who being tied to the stake, a Franciscan Friar persuaded him to turn Christian, and then he would go to Heaven. The Indian asked him, “If there were any Spaniards there?” “ Certainly," the Friar answered, "It is full of them,” when the dying Indian replied, “I had rather go to Hell than to have any more of their company

Corsim tells us, “ That the blood of these devoted victims destroyed in the mines, there confined to labour, weighed as much as the gold and silver that had been dug out of them! It being their apology, “ that God had not redeemed with his blood the Indians," and that therefore they might be treated as the “ lowest species of beasts !"

But to return to our subject. Previously to the discovery and settlement of Kentucky, and the other now adjacent states by the English Colonists, now citizens of the United States, the French Government had, as we have shown, commenced settlements on the Mississippi; being in possession of the strong fortress, the fortification at Quebec, the Gibraltar of Western America, as it was then considered, with the hopes of surrounding the British Colonies ; had anticipated a period at no distant date, when the whole Continent of America would fall into their hands. They therefore, to expedite this object, and with a view to humble their rival (the British Government) commenced a chain of fortifications from New Orleans up the Mississippi river to St. Louis : thence up the Illinois river to Greenbay; thence by Macanaw to Detroit, and so on to Que. bec, the latter being ihe first of the French settlements in America. There were some fortifications on the Wabash at St Vincennes and Oujalanan; also one at Pittsburg, called fort Du Quesne.

The Roman Catholic Religion was promoted among the French settlers around these fortifications; where there are French settlers yet residing in the vicinity of those places.They still adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. They have iwo Cathedrals in the west, one at Bardstown, Ky. and one at St. Louis, Miss. The priests, however, of this order were more tolerant than the Spaniards. They were very successful in proselyting many of the Indians to their faith. The cross is a very common ornament yet to be seen among the Indians,

VOL. III.

49

But the memorable battle fought on the plains of Abraham, near Quebec, in 1759, by Gens. Wolfe and Montcalm, in which the French were vanquished, broke up this chain of fortifications; they fell into the hands of the English, and most of them subsequently into the hands of the American Government.

The English Colonists, particularly the people of Virginia, had long entertained an opinion that the Pacific Ocean washed the Western side of the Alleghany mountains. Indeed it appears to have been so considered at the time the Charter was granted by James I. which described the boundaries with so inuch ambiguity that it appears to have given rise to this general opinion. They had no idea of the delightful regions of the West, that now gladden the hearts of tens of thousands of its inhabitants. The first of this country then discovered was the present state of Kentucky. The first discoverer, as far as we can learn, was one James M’Bride, who in 1754, passing down the Ohio river, with some others, in canoes, landed at the mouth of the Kentucky river, and marked the initials of his name and date upon a tree, which was to be seen until a very recent date, and may yet, for aught I know, be visible. Kentucky was discovered by John Finley, and some other Indian traders from North-Carolina, in 1767, then known to the Indians by the name of the bloody ground, and afterwards the middle ground; was held by none of the tribes exclusively, was never settled by them, but held as a common hunting ground. This region was formerly claimed by various tribes of Indians, whose title, if they had any, originated in such a manner as to render it doubtful which ought to possess il; hence this fertile spot be. caine an object of contention, a theatre of war, from which it was properly denominated, the bloody ground. Finley communicated his discovery to Daniel Boon, who explored it with him in 1769. It has, however, been contended by some, that it was discovered as early as 1750 by persons from Virginia and North-Carolina, who made a treaty with the Piankiska Indians. If so, it could only have been the lower part of the country, as these Indians resided on the Little Wabash, in the now state of Illinois. But Daniel Boon is deservedly celebrated as the discoverer of Kentucky. He has published an account of his discovery, and his wars with the Indians; it is a very entertaining production. The discovery and settlement of this country, forms a memorable epoch in the events of the world. It turned the eyes of all Christendom at once upon the wild woods of America; and here we are, forming a nation in the earth, of all nations, people, and tongues!

The following is extracted from Boon's history as a specimen of the prophetic spirit in which he appears about thirty or forty years ago to speak of future events, which in part have been already realized. “Curiosity is natural to the soul of man, and interesting objects have a powerful influence upon our affections. Let these influencing powers actuate by permission or disposal of Providence, from selfish or social views, yet in time the mysterious will of heaven is unfolded, and we behold our conduct from whatever motives excited, operating to answer the important design of Heaven. Thus we behold Kentucky an howl. ing wilderness. Here, where the hand of violence shed the blood of the innocent; where the horrid yells of the savages, and the groans of the distressed sounded in our ears, we now hear the praises and the adoration of our Creator; where wretched wigwams stood, the miserable abode of savages, we behold the foundations of cities laid, that in all probability, will equal the glory of any upon earth. And to view Kentucky situated upon the fertile banks of the great Ohio, rising from obscurity to shine with splendour, equal to any of the stars of the American hemisphere."

On the 1st of May, 1769, Daniel Boon left his residence on the Yadkin river, N. C. in company with John Finley, John Stewart, Joseph Holden, James Monay, and William Cool.They hunted and gamboled through the New Country, Ky. till the 22d day of December. This, day,” says Boon, “ John Stewart and I had a pleasing ramble, but fortune change ed the scene in the close of it. We had passed through a great forest, on which stood myriads of trees, some gay with blossoms, others rich with fruits-nature was here a series of wonder, and a fund of delight. Here she displayed her ingenuity and industry in a variety of flowers and fruits beautifully coloured, and elegantly shaped and charmingly flavoured; and we were diverted with innumerable animals presenting themselves perpetually to our view. In the decline of the day, near Kentucky river, as we ascended the brow of a small hill, a number of Indians rushed out of a thick cane-brake upon us, and made us prisoners."

This scene seems to be laid in December, and appears singular. It may be a mistake as to the month, but the climate of this state has changed very materially since its first settlement. It would scarcely be believed, yet it is a fact, that during the great revival of religion of 1801, 2, 3, in Kentucky and Tennessee, in the month of January a Camp-meeting was held several days in the woods in Tennessee; and so mild was the season that fire was only necessary to cook with. Bees were swarming about this time in such vast numbers, that the people became alarmed, supposing it ominous of some change in nature ; and what was equally singular this season, a gentleman of veracity informed me, that the dew drops from the pine trees fell in such quantities on the leaves below, that it was gathered

where he was in North-Carolina, in spoonfuls at a time, apparently pure honey. He will vouch" for the fact if required. He was also at the Camp-meeting.

On Col. Boon's making his escape from the Indians, his fellow prisoner was killed. He met his brother by accident in search of him in the wilderness. His brother, (Squire Boon) returned to the settlement for horses and ammuition on the 1st of May, 1770, and leaves Col. Boon alone. “I confess," says he, “I never was before under greater necessity of exercising philosophy and fortitude ; I was without bread, salt, or sugar, without company, or even a horse, or dog. A few days I passed uncomfortably. The idea of my family, &c. and a thousand dreadsul apprehensions presented themselves to my view, and if indulged disposed me to melancholy."

“One day l'undertook a tour through the country, and the diversities and beauties of nature I met with, in this charming season, expelled every gloomy and vexatious thought. Just at the close of day the gentle gales retired, and left the place to the disposal of a profound calm. Not a breeze shook the most tremulous leaf. I had gained the summit of a commanding ridge, and looking round with astonishing delight beheld the ample plains, the beauteous tracts below. On the other hand I surveyed the famous river Ohio, that rolled in silent dignity, with inconceivable grandeur. At a vast distance I beheld the mountains lift their venerable brows, and penetrate the clouds. All things were still. I kindled a fire near a fountain of sweet water, and feasted on the loin of a buck, which a few hours before I had killed. The sullen shades of night soon overspread the whole hemisphere, and the earth seemed to gasp after having moisture. My roving excursion had this day fatigued my body, and diverted my imagination. I laid me down to sleep, and I awoke not until the sun had chased away the night. I continued this tour from day to day equally pleased as at the first." " I returned to my old camp, nothing had disturbed it. I did not confine my lodging to it, but often reposed in the thick cane-brakes to avoid the savages, who I believe often visited my camp; but fortunately for me in my absence.” “In this situation I was constantly exposed to danger and death. How unhappy such a situation for a man to be tormented with sear, which is yain if no danger comes, and if it does, only augments the pain! It was my happiness to be destitute of this aflicting passion. The prowling wolves diverted my nocturnal hours with perpetual howlings; and ibe various species of animals in this vast forest, in the day time were continually in my view."

“ Thus was I surrounded with plenty in the midst of want. was happy in the midst of dangers and inconveniencies. In

such diversity it was impossible I should be disposed to melancholy. No populous city with all the varieties of commerce and stately structures, could afford so much pleasure to my mind as the beauties of nature. Thus through an uninterrupted scene of sylvan pleasures I spent the time, till the 27th of July, when my brother met me at our old camp, and in the latter part of 1771, I returned with him and found my family in happy circumstances."

Reviewing the rise and progress of these Western regions, says an author in his address on that subject to its inhabitants, "The recital of your happiness will call to your country all the unfortunate of the earth, who having experienced oppression, political or religious, will there obtain deliverance from their chains. To you innumerable multitudes will emigrate from the hateful regions of despotism and tyranny; and you will surely welcome them as brothers"-to that land, " where agriculture, industry, laws, arts and sciences flourish, where afflicted humanity raises her drooping head; where springs a harvest for the poor; where conscience ceases to be a slave-where government protects, and nature makes reparation for the creation of man, and establishes an asylum in the wilderness for the distressed of mankind." “Let the memory of Lycurgus who banished covetousness; of Locke who taught the doctrine of toleration; of Penn who founded a city of brethren; of WashINGTON the defender of liberty,” ever be your illustrious examples.

- In your country, like the land of promise, ftowing with milk and honey, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that spring out of vallies and hills,-a land of wheat and barley, and all kind of fruits, you shall eat bread without scarceness, and not lack any necessary of life; where the mildness of your air is so great that you are not chilled with the cold of Capricorn, nor scorched with the burning heat of Cancer; you neither feel the effects of infectious fogs nor pestilential vapours. Thus, your country, favoured with the smiles of Heaven, will probably be inhabited by the first people the world ever knew." Î may add, may God grant, that ihey may be the best.

THEOPHILUS ARMENIUS. Feb. 10, 1820.

Mount-Carinel, Edward's county, Illinois, July 26, 1820. Messrs. Bangs and Mason, Editors of the Methodist Magazine. Dear BRETHREN,

PURSUANT to direction I enclose you a copy of the Constitution of “ The Methodist Missionary Society of Mount-Carmel." We are here in our infancy, both as to our settlement

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