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1768.
Virtues of different. Milks,

129 Of Milks. Fromn Letters to Married the heaviest, when separated from the Women.

whey, falls to the bottom. It is the

least valuable part of the milk, gluti. ILK has been recommended, nous in its nature, and composed of

in several letters, as the pro- the most earthy particles, being allo per food for infants, and, in the four- of an astringent quality. teenth and fifteenth, it is again fpo. The third and only remaining part, ken of, as being equally necelíary for being the whey of the milk, is the invalids, and aged persons. It hall largest in quantity, of a diluting and therefore be the business of this letter cleansing property: to examine so far into the qualities. Let us now by this standard compare of milk, and into the milk of different the different kinds of milk mostly in animals, as may enable us to deter- use with us, and apply them to the mine what kind of milk is upon diffe. purposes for which they seem best calrent occafions to be preferred, which culated. will take in every thing, not elsewhere The human milk, when drawn from observed, upon this subject.

the breast, has exactly the same bluish Milk was before remarked to be a appearance as cow's milk when the kind of white blood, prepared by the cream is taken off.

It affords very mother for the support of her young; little cream, and but a small quantity so far we may speak of it in general of curd, therefore the whey constitutes terms.

the chief part; but the more healthy In different animals therefore it is the woman is, and particularly if be. reasonable to suppose, and fact con- tween the age of twenty and thirty, firms our supposition, that the quali- the more her milk abounds with richi dies of milk are also different; hence, creamy ballam, and the more it also by first examining into its general pro: contains of the curd or earthy parti. perties, and, from those principles, cles ; probably from her conftitution setting forth the peculiar variations in being, at this time, in full vigour, the milk of different animals, we shall and the digestive powers therefore arrive at the desired conclufion. more perfect.

In milk, by stepping into the dairy, These observations will point out we may discern three principal coin- the best substitute where the breast is ponent parts. After it has remained denied, and will likewise direct those some time in an undisturbed state, the who prefer wet nursing in the choice cream floats upon the surface; it is of the properest person, for there is, the lealt in quantiry, though most in my opinion, an equal objection anourishing, of an oily balsamic sub- gainst the milk of a very young girl, ftance and inflammable in its nature, as against that of a woman almost past as the butter which is made from it child-bearing. The cleansing quality, plainly demonstrates.

before taken notice of in the breast of A lady, before whom I once made new milk, will also, together with reafome experiments, asked me why the son and experience, thew the proprie. cream fated upon the surface, for ty of recommending those women being, continued the, the thickest part, who have not been long delivered. ought it not rather to link to the bot- Alles milk is generally allowed to be tom? I told her it was the thickelt the neareit to the human, and accord. part, to be sure, but at the same time ing to the above experiments we find it it was alto the lighielt ; specifically fo, so, abounding muitly with whey, and as oil is lighter than water, and there having little of the cream or curd in fore riles to the top.

it. Hence, after a severe fit of illness, The cream being taken off, the re- where the body is much emaciated, maining milk appears iluilh, and thin and the itomach weak, or where the ner than before, and when thus rob. blood is loaded with sharp acrid hubed of its tsick creamy part, it conse- mours, the cleansing quality of alles quently is not so smooth to the palate. milk deferves a preference to that of

On the addition of runnet, or in any other animal which is used for this. deed any acid, a separation of the purpose. In consumptive cases, or two remaining parts foon takes place, where there is a flow habitual fe verzit and we discover the curd. This being is initly to be preferred, until such March, 1768.

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130
To prevent Milk's curdling.

March time as the constitution may bave gain- fels, and to give a firmness to the ed a little strength, when the more bones : but as these milks poflefs less nourishing ought to supply its strength of the cleansing power, it will, in moft

Mare's milk is esteemed to be much cases, particularly in bleedings, be prothe same as afles, but this indeed is perto use the inore attenuating kind firft. in very little use.

We have now examined the different Cows milk comes next under confi. milksfamiliar tous, and from their diffederation. This appears to be the rent properties pointed out the end richest, and most 'nourishing of any each fort seems best calculated to anof the brutes milk here mentioned. (wer; whence every person will quick, It abounds with a great deal of cream, ly be determined which to give the for after standing twelve hours and preference to in particular complaints. being skimmed, it appears equal to

When any one first begins to eat any other milk. It contains also a milk, especially if a free liver, it may large quantity of curd, and, after all, probably purge a little, but such ineven the whey is by far more nutriti: conveniencies will most commonly be ous than any other.

removed by accustoming the contituWe observed that affes milk, in the tion to the use of it, and boiling the experiments, mostly resembles the bu- milk will in a great measure prevent man. Why then not prefer that to this effect. I have always remarked cows milk for the food of children? I that those who, by reason of a pam. do not totally deny the use of this pered appetite, complain of milk and milk for that purpose, but in our fart vegetables being windy, and not a; of the country it is very expenlive, greeing with them, are the very perand cannot be obtained in any large sons who most require such a diet, for quantity, for which reason it would it is the debauched state of the stomach be impracticable to bring it into gene- and bowels that occasions their un, ral use.

easiness, which this regimen seems the There is likewise another reason mott likely to correct. which inclines we to give a preference I have recommended a little salt to to cows milk, for notwithstanding the be mixed with niilk before it is given similarity of human milk to that of to children, if they are apt to throw it afes, the first may well be supposed up curdled; and shall' mention the most strengthening, fince women usų- experiment which induced me to give ally feed on animal as well as vegeta- that advice, since it is equally worthy ble dict, while the brytes we speak the attention of grown persons, some of are confined intirely to vegetables. of whom make this an objection to Whence, if we substitute anles milk, their cating milk, as I am inclined we call fall Mort of the nourishmeut to believe luch precaution will render pature designed for us, and therefore, it agreeable to most conftitutions. for a young child who requires a I put two ounces of milk, warm heartning diet, the milk of cows, in as it comes from the cow, into a tea my, opinion, is preferable, as the cup with a little common falt. I put sicbneis of it is, in fome measure, ade- the same quantity, of the like warmth, quate to the supposed difference in into another tea cup without salt, the qualities of human milk, and that Then dropping a very little distilled of other animals.

vinegar into each, a hard curd preThe milk of Deep, and goats, con- fently appeared in that milk which fifts mostly of the curd, or earthy par. had no falt in it, while the other with vjcles; hence, where the blood vesels the salt was fcarcely altered. are injured by acrid humours, and fre- I tried the fainé experiment again quent bleedings happen from this with a large tea spoonful of runnet, cause; or where children are subject to and observed the milk which had the the rickets, from a weakness of the falt in it, to continue in its fluid state, bones, that milk which abounds moft- while the other grew thick and tur. ly with the curd, or cheesy part, seems bid, and almost inttanily separated in. belt calculated to answer the interi- to curds and whey. This last experi, tion; its earthy, mucilaginous, and ment answered the best, and is much aft angent property, having the great more to our purpose than the former. eft tendency to heal such ruptured vef. Front these hints ix_lcems realonable

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1768. History of the Irish Ostennial Bill.

igr to conclude, that Salt taken with milk was brought into the House of Commight 'equally prevent the curdling of mons, and palled; and, agreeable to it, where there is an acidity in the the conftitution of that kingdom, the ftomach; and from experience, in re- bill was, as the next step towards its commending it to children who used palling imo a law, transmitted to Engto throw up their milk in a curdlcd land. Here it is to be observed, that ftate, I am convinced of its utility. the truc reason of the Commons pas.

In all cases where infirmities or age sing the bill, was not so much the require a prudent regimen, I have di- strong and positive commands of their rected a similar care to that of dieting constituents, as the hopes which even children. Milk therefore, compre, the Irish patriots themselves entorhends a very material part of such tained, who had with so much alacrity food, and I am fully persuaded that if and spirit propagated the idea of a sepa it were more universally used, the tennial bill through the kingdom, world in general would be greatly be. that it would be rejected in England. nefited. I do not, however, mean to And in order to go as far as possible be understood that I debar those from towards making this hoped for rejeca a reasonable quantity of animal food, tion certain, they drew up the preamwho are capable of digesting it. But ble in the strain of, Whereas it is the such as are emaciated by illness, or undoubted right of the people of Ireland ta have the misfortune to labour under a more frequent choice of their represen. gouty complaints, such also who are tatives, &c. No man in his senses consumptively inclined, or those who could surely think that the way to acbave crazy, infirm conftitutions, and complish a relignation of so much are subject to an habitual feverith dif- power by the crown, was by demand, position, will do right to eat flesh or by an affertion that such power was enly once in the day, and, for the unconstitutionally with held from the rest of their nourilhment, to live al- subject. That is impossible. This most, if not altogether upon milk." curious preamble, therefore, undoubt.

edly arose out of the motive aboveTrue History of the Irish Ostennial Bill.

mentioned. To the Editor of the Political Register. In this state, and with these hopes, SIR,

the bill was sent to England about the "HE people of Ireland have at latter end of November 1767. It lay their fincere and ardent wishes, viz. January 1768, or thereabouts. The a bill for limiting the duration of par- poor people, and the poor representaliaments in that kingdom. But the tives, were all this time under the most history of this transaction is not a lit. dreadful apprehensions: one ardently tle curious, and therefore deserves to and incessantly offering up their be recorded with the other extraordi- prayers to heaven for its return : nary politicks of the times. Last year, the other withing, but not daring to the electors of Ireland instructed their avow their with, that it might conrepresentatives on the sulject of bring- tinue for ever under confideration. ing in and paffing a bill to Jimit the The m-rs, fearing the odium they duration of their parliament to seven would incur by rejecting the bill, and years, in like manner as the parlia. fome body charitably informing them ment of Great Britain; and fo eager of the trap that was laid for them, and so unanimous were the electors in determined at length to return it, their desires of obtaining this law, that though they were as little inclined to there was scarce a town or county this itep as the Commons were to the throughout the kingilom, which did palling of it; and the difficulty, or pot inlift upon their representatives rather the jockeyship between them, voring for, and supporting such a bill; was only which thould have the odium and some of them went so far as to of its failing ; each being desirous of oblige their members to makeoath they throwing it upon the other. Such would vote for it. Accordingly, when alterations were therefore made in it, the parliament met in November 1767, as implied on the part of the Acithe heads of a bill for limiting the due the most direct opposition to the hill, ration of parliaments to seven years and which, it was thought and ex.

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1322

Fourth Letter of Rousseau.

March pected, would cause the high spirited behold an unhappy being! and as if patriots to throw it out with indigna- it foresaw, that it was entering into tion. The preamble was ftruck out; the society of barbarians and savages, the word seven years was changed to its tears seem to demand that we eight years; and instead of suffering fiould treat it with mildness. Poor the present parliament to continue little wretch! nature is thy only guide; seven years longer, as was proposed the forewarns thee of danger; and by the bill, it was to be dissolved at foon thalt thou find, by thy own exthe end of the present session. With perience, that there was but too much these alterations the bill was returned. reason for the premonitions The gave, Upon its arrival in Ireland, the peo- thee. ple hearing that some alterations were Scarce do we begin to lisp out the made, but that they were to have a names, the tender names of father frequent choice of representatives and and mother, when they prepare for us, a new election immediately; and fear- Punishments of every kind, ing that their members would find And books on every subje&t. fome pretence for not passing it, they As we advance in years, our fears instantly began to affume their ori- encrease; and these are soon followed ginal rights, their notions of which by anxiety and uneasiness; till at last they carried to a greater extent than our heart becomes the victim of luft, can be justified; for they affembled in and a prey to every passion: Monsters great numbers upon College-green, of every kind take entire possession of and other places in Dublin, uttering it, and govern it with an absolute and the most horrid imprecations of venge- uncontrouled authority. Thenceforth, ance, if their representatives refuled dragged along by the whirlwind of to pass the bill. Twenty thousand paflion, and alternately the stupid vomen at one time surrounded, and se. tary of effeminate delight, man knows cured, all the avenues leading to the no other rule of action than the gratiparliament house, threatening both to fication of his desires, and the enjoymurder the members, and to pull ment of his pleasures. down the house, if the bill was not Wretched lave! with reluctance passed. The patriots now finding does he carry his chains, and yet is themselves caught in their own fare, afraid to break them. Oppresled with and feeing and fearing the spirit of the the load of his miseries, he feels the people, fuddenly changed about; they weight of his irons : but why should I affected to disregard the affronts given pity bim? he pities not himself: he them by the alterations ; they pre- has not even the courage to break the tended to pass the bill very eagerly fetters that bind him. In order, if and chearfully, and concluded this possible, to blunt the edge of his an. farce of fincerity, with an address of guilh, he tbrows himself needlessly into Thanks for being to be disolved at the midt of the croud; but, vain efthe end of the present session. fort! he finds nothing tivere but what

he wanted to Mun. Happy as he A fourth Letter of Rouseau's to Mr. D. thinks himself in the enjoyment of

N addresling to you my fourth earthly objects, he perceives not the with a long introduction. I resume, jested to a yoke which he at once my dear friend, the mortifying history loves and hates, he huggs the very of the mifery of man. I present to cause of his tormenting pains. him a looking-glais, but he tarnishes Transported alternately by the fury it with his breath; and in a moment of revenge, the impetuofity of anger, after, he no longer remembers what the allurements of pleasure, and the manner of being he is.

pruriency of luft; inctilantly torWe begin our existence in cries mented by fear and by hope, by the and in tears : The firit marks of life weakoers that makes him fail into the we give, are the marks of misery; snare that is laid for him, and the reAnd if we would speak the truth, morle that gnaws his heart for having upon seeing an infant open its feeble been so filly as to be caught; alike eyelids to the light, and shut them troubied by the blessings which he again in an inftant, we Rould lay', kas not, and by those which he has;

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1768.

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Description of the Island of Anticosti. 133 every thing attracts, but nothing can length 129 miles, and its breadth from fix him ; every thing pleases, but no- 32 to 12 miles. This island contains thing can content bim ; his heart is 1,699,840 acres of very indifferentland; a motly groupe of the most contradic- the nature of the foil and natural protory paffions. Deprived of all his duce follow. privileges, he no longer retains any The land in general is composed of a thing of his original grandeur but the light coloured itone, which is of a loft defire of being happy, and the mor- crumbling nature, and in some parts is tification of knowing that he can ne- mixed with clay. After digging to the ver be so in the poffeflion of the earthly depth of about two feet, you meet with ebjects, of which he is so fond. Such small flat-stones. with scarce any other is the life of man, a flux and a reflux mixture. of inconfiftencies and contradictions ; The sea coast from the South West and we are never really ourselves but point, to the West poin., (including when we descend into the still silence Ellis Bay and Observation River,) is in of the gloomy grave.

height from twenty to fifty feet, and Let us pats then to death: alas! is mostly covered with woods, to the most men pass to it but too soon for water's edge. themselves, and too late for others, Ellis Bay affords the only shelter for Come hither, proud man! approach vessels in this large island, and that but with all thy usual oftentation of a very indifferent one, which would be pomp and magnificence: fee what thou greatly exposed to the southerly winds, falt be, a hideous spectre ! and if thou were it not for the moals which extend hat never yet blused, learn now to from each side of the entrance, near two do it; for here nature thews thee thy. thirds of the distance across the bay, real destiny. But let us remove, my by which means they retard the viodear friend, fo mournful and mortify- lence of the sea ; but at the same time, ing a picture, of which I only give a they endanger veffels in entering the rough unfinihed fketch. All flesh is bay with an on fiore wind, by cauri as grals, and all the glory thereof as ing a great swell on the bar, on which, the flower of the field : The grafs' is but 21 fathoms water, withereth, and the flower dieth away : The land at the bottom of this bay. But behold a new subject of humility is low marsh, and produces small birch, and abalement ! our depravity and our and spruce trees of different forts. miseries still remain.

Oblervation river is the largest, Pardon me, my dear Sir, I fatigue and runs the greatest distance of any you with this long detail. I am len in the island. We measured eight, íble of my error, and will therefore leagues up it without determining its conclude. Indeed I have already said length. “This river is remarkable; too much ; and, in truth, I am hear- for notwithstanding its steep bauks, tily tired my!elf of thus always preach. 'which in the middle of the island are ing up reason to men who are desti- rocky bluffs about one hundred feettute of reason. Accept, I beseech you, in height; it is fordable almost in my dear friend, my most humble and every part, except where it empties reipectful compliments.

itself into the sea. The bottom is, J. J. ROUSSEAU. ftony, and the water exceeding clear.

This river will admit of small vessels, A Description of the Island of Anticosti, at the entrance, and at the time of

by T. Wright, who wintered on, and high water, which is very regular here surveyed ibat Island, by order of at the full and change of the moon at Government.

2 hours. HE island of Anticofti is lituated T

The entrance of it is formed by at the entrance of the river St. two gravel points, which are contiLawrence, between the parallels of nually fitting their situation in a gale 49° 4' and 49° 53'15' N. latitude and of wind from the welt ward, so that the meridians of 61° 58' and 64° 35' at one time its breadth will not be WeA longitude from London deter- more than twenty yards, and at other mined by ten observations on the times 150 yards, and in the fall of the ecliples of Jupiter's first. Satellite. Its year is liable to be entirely choaked circuinierence is 282 statute miles, its up, so as to be impastable, which

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