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1768.

Death of a Traitor to bis Country. 269 and wounded two others, but was overe baleness, which he thought he was going to powered having received several Mots, which receive, he met with an uatimely and violent put an end to his life.

death. What a difference between his narHe had with him his nephew, who saved row, corrupted mind, and the noble spirit bimself by climbing up the chimney, leaving of his own brother, a military veteran, who his boots behind, which hang there to this in an assembly of the people, to confider day,

what was to be done in their critical fituation, As soon as this enemy of his country had made a speech, filled with sentiments of lifallen the children proclaimed it through all berty and patriotism, was for standing out to the Areets, with many huzzas, and the the last drop of blood in defence of their cries of " liberty and our country for ever." rights and privileges, and offered to be one of The multitude wanted to drag his corpse to the foremoft. the gallows, but was prevented. Every thing May 10, 1768.

S, M, in the house was next broke. cut to pieces, and thrown out at the window, but nothing Inftru&tions to Representatives to serve in Parwas stolen. His relations are very much at a

liament, ele&ted in tbe Year 1768. Joss what burial to give him : No workman Ad Pænam pulchra Pro Libertate Vocabit would make his coffin, so great was the ba- Vendidit Hic Auto Parriam.- Virg. tred he had brought on himself from the people. Mr. Derschau has sent an account

E, a confiderable part of your electors. of the whole to the king, what the confe.

as yet your free and independent, quences will be nobody can tell yet. So far ele&tors, do moft earnestly recommend to you, the letter from Neufchatel.

our representatives in parliament, to enquire, Now, Mr. Printer, pray allow me a

and we do also defire and expect that you little more room for a few reflections.

will When men enjoy the sweetness of liberty,

1. Enquire by whose advice it was, that a they are in poffeffion of a bappiness the more separate peace was concluded with France and to be cherished as it is a gift from heaven; Spain in 1762, by which a flagrant breach of bence, if amongst those who aim at digni- national faith was committed, being in di. ties, some are found who try to predominate rect opposition to all treaties subbfting becween over their feliow subjects, and who, in fact, our gallant ally the king of Pruffia, and his use contrivances to attain that end, such late majesty of glorious memory, renewed monsters are odious to society, and it is to be and confirmed by his present majesty after wished for the sake of peace and happiness, his accession, in a treaty bearing date Deo that they be rooted out. This precisely has cember 12, 1760, of the fourth article: of happened to the abovementioned ill fated which the following is a translation. man: ambition was his ruin; happy in a

+ The High CONTRACTING POWERI private ftation of life, which the emoluments moreover engage, viz. on the one side his of his profession and employ of advocate-ge. BRITANNICK MAJESTY, as well KING neral, enabled him to support, in a genteel

ELECTOR,

on the other part and agreeable way, esteemed heretofore as a

his PRUSSIAN MAJESTY,

ΤΟ man of sense and talents, he was not satis- CONCLUDE any treaty of peace, cruce, or fied, but wished for more. He saw with neutrality, or other convention or agreement pleafure the broils that agitated his country wbatever with the powers who bave taken so far as he expected, to make them fubfer- part in the present war, but IN CONCERT vient to his interested views. Accordingly, and by, MUTUAL AGREEMENT and by besides several hurtful practices and acts of comprehending each other by name." ingratitude to his country, he wrote a book

Signed, Robert Henley, C. S. wherein he absurdly endeavoured to bring to

Granville, P. nought its liberty, and to prove moft fallaci.

Helles, Newcastle. ously that the fovereigo had a right to take

Hoidernejje. sway all the privileges of the people. He

Hardwicke. fucceeded that way even beyond his hopes ;

William Pitt. for foon after the publication of that book A treaty of peace, was notwithstanding, he was appointed to the first places in the entered into and concluded at Paris, between ftate, but fate overlouk him before he could England, France and Spain, witbuwe be conenjoy them; the very day on which he was sent and mutual agreement of the king of to be installed instead of the price of his Pruffia *, and without comprebending bim by

as

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“ The French knew ibe negociation of ibe peace was in tbe bands of Lord

*, and rbat so far from supporting our great proteftane ally, bis lordship was determined to abandon bim. The king of Prudia complained, that he was actually betrayed by ebe Scorriso minifter, and be spoke publickly of obe offers made by bis lordship to tbe late Czar, for dismembering bis dumınions. I beard Lord * declare in a great asembly, ibat the dominions of the King of

Pruffia

POPISH

GLORIOUS

270

Instructions is Representatives in Parliament. May name, in defance of the above article of a

country: We defire, therefore that you will molt solemn treaty and engagement between enquire by whose advice it was, that our cohis present majesty and the king of Pruffia, lonies were irritated by measures inconfiftent and within less than two years from the date with good policy, not to fay, common equity, therefot; by which the honor and PUBLIC, and those measures publicly avowed and deFAITH of the nation became a sacrifice to fended by general maxims and arguments, evil counsellors and corrupe ministers: And which trike at the root of all publick Liwe do, therefore, request of you, our repre- BERTY at home and abroad : A DISPENSSentatives, and do, hereby, call upon you to ING POWER contended for on one occafion, use your utmoit endeavours to trace out, de- and on another, JURIES precluded from betect, and bring to condign punishment all ing judges of Law as well as Fact, in such evil countelors, and corrupt ministers, cases where the liberty, the property, and by whole advice the NATIONAL FAITH even the life of a fellow subje&z depend uphas been thus ignominiously profituled, and on their VERDICT : And also, by whose ad. traiterously broke and forfited.

vice, and by what authority a II. We desire and expect that you will BISHOP was sent to the protestant settlement enquire by whose advice it was, that after a of Canada.

WAR, and a series of amazing IV. We desire and expect that you will conquests, carried on with uninterrupted suco enquire by what autbority it was, that a recess in every part of the globe, and beyond presentative of the people in parliament was the example of former ages, the most valuable seized in his own buje, dragged out of his of chole conquests, particularly, the RICH own bouse, and in defiance of the babeas core and important city and dependencies of pus act, and magna charta, imprisoned in the the HAVANNA, and the fertile illands of Tower of London; and although for a bailaGUABILUPE and MARTINICO were ceded ble offence, no person suffered to come near to the enemy; and this at a time when our him for three days in order to bail him : All a.nballador, it is laid, was in actual treaty his papers the most secret of them rifled and for one of them, and the ceilion but little carried away, under an avowed design of collitigated on the part of the ministers of France, lecting evidence against him for a supposed liwhen he received positive orders to fign the bel; thereby obliging a freeborn Englishman preliminary articles of the peace: And we allo to turn his own actuser, contrary to the known recommend and expect you will enquire by laws of the land. We also defire and ex. whole advice it wa, that the MANILLA pect, that you will use your utmost endearansom money fill detained and with-held, vors to find out by wbom it was that a writ in opro breach of public honor, and public of Habeas Corpus, granted by a chief justice was fairn on the part of the crown of Spain, and eluded, and its authority disobeyed, in time in defiance of the facred articles of capitula- of public peace and tranquillity; and the act lation, was not insisted on ; but that just and of Habeas Corpus, that greatest and strongest national claim tamely and submislively given bulwark of English liberty, broke down and up, to the great discredit of this kingdom. trampled under foot; the powers of which

III. We delire and expect that you will were never known to be even suspended, but enquire by whose advice it was that a staMP. in times of public danger; of fuspected con

was imposed upon the colonies : An Ipiracies, open rebellion, or when a foreign act, according to the opinion of the greai- enemy was in arms in the kingdom : the lurest lawyer in this kingdom, publicly de. pention of the Habeas Corpus act, though by clared, “ To be in it's very existence abo- au bority of parliament, is ever understood to Juiely ILLEGAL ; contrary to the funda- be a luipen hon of the liberty of the subject. mental laws of the curfusion of ENGLAND: And we, therefore, defire and expect that A conftitution, whole foundation and center you will enquire by whose advice it was, is IBERTY; which jends liberty to equiry that private persons in office, armed with fubject that is, or may lappen to be, within that iron engine of oppression, and bearing any part of it's ample circumference: Taxa- that ignominious badge of lavery a general tion and iepre 'entation are io parebli, they warrant, were employed or set on and en. are coeval with, and eflential to our happy couraged to dare to do that by tbemselves, conftitution, and the colonies are no: repre- which king, lords, and commons, the three sented in the British parliament." The su- eftates of the realm can only do rogeeber. preme power in the opinion of that consum- V. We defire and recommend to you most mate reasoner and politician Mr Locke, earnestly, to use your utmost endeavours to “cannot take from any man, any part of his promote a remedial bill in parliament for pri party wi'écut dis own conlene: And the quilting the popifion of the subject, and to colonies have a right to expe&t and look for prevent ministers under the crown from harprotection and not cbains from their motber- ralling the private subject with antiquared Pruflia were to be scrambled; for tbe most indecent, vulgar, and infamous cxpreffion for an ally Gjite crotun of Ergéand, we arm mirifier ever uttered."

Londen, St. James's Chronicle, May 3, 1768.

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ACT

271

1768. Instructions to Representatives in Parliament. claims, vexaticus fuits, and breats of confif- ftrained from intruding upon the legislature cation, giving thereby a shock to the wbole of South - Britain beyond their ftipulated landed property tbroughoet the kingdom, and number by the act of Union, it is time they. other detestable proceedings inconfiftent with pould be so, or, in the process of a few years, the freedom of the British constitution, and a swarm may be brought in upon us that may the rights and privileges of the people: And be too strong for English representatives to that you will do your utmost to rescue private turn out, Remember the speech of one of property from the violence, arbitrary en- your predeceflors, and imprint it in your croachments, breach of faith, injufice, and hearts : “ Mr. Speaker, I hear a lion roartyranny of profligate and corrupt ministers. ing in the lobby; shall we shut the door, fir,

VI. We request also, and recommend to against him, or shall we let bir in, to fee if you to enquire, how it comes to pass that we are able to turn him out again ?" If the the eldest sons of peers of Scotland, who present Scotch commoners, already elected, are declared incapable to represent any bo. are permitted to enjoy their seats in the inrough or shire in tbat kingdom, should be fuing parliament, the number will increase permitted to represent any borough or shire upon you in another; and in time, all the in England : And why, when * all the com- subjects of England will be taxed by a mamons of Scotland are, aceording to the act of jority of Scotch members : Flagrant absurdiznion, represented by forty-five members in ty! Intolerable yoke! In this case. which is the British parliament, Scors Commoners are far from being impossible, and whicb event permitted to represent English boroughs, and perhaps is nearer taking place than the geneto have additional voices in parliament: And rality of people may imagine, it is not a Pora whether the permitting Scots commoners and rion of members of the Scorch parlianent eldeft fons of peers of Scotland to fit in par- sent by deputation to the Britih house of liament for English boroughs, be not incon- commons. who fit there, but it is the Scorcb fiftent with, and contradictory to, the true parliament adjourned 10 Ergland. For which spirit of the act of union : And whether a fin. important realons, we moit earnestly recomgle instance can be produced fince that act mend to you to propose an enquiry into the took place, where any one English commoner true spirit of the act of union; and as far as was ever returned to parliament to represent in you lies, by all conftitutional endeavours, a lise or borough in Sco:land : We recom- to exclude Scoich commoners already elected, mend to you in your enquiries to consider the exceeding the number of forty-five, and not true spirit of the act of Union : The lord's representing fires or boroughs in Scotland, house took care to prevent any Northern ir- from a seat or voice in the Britih parliament; ruptions upon the English nobility; the and to promote a resolution of the house of dukes of Hamilton and Queensberry are not commons, whereby they may be declared at this day allowed to fit in their house, tho' incapable to fit in that house; and that the actually created English dukes by the titles Speaker may be ordered to issue out his w28of Brandon and Dover. The wisdom of the rants to the clerk of the crown to make out lords gave this conftru&ion to the act of newu writs for the eleđing representatives in Union : They restrained and confined the their room, according to former precedents to North British representatives in ibeir house VII.We detire and expect, that you will use to the number fixed by the act of Uni- your utmost endeavours, by all constitutional on, the number fixteen. Is it not then ex. measures in your power, that a law may país traordinary that the house of Conmons for refturing triennial parliaments : Triennial fhould open a door which the other has fhut? parliaments were established foon after I the Or can it be supposed, with any degree of glorious revolution took place, which faved reason or propriety, that the framers of the this kingdom from impending, from inevia act of Union could ever mean to bar access table destruction: They were established as to natives of Scotland from becoming mem- the best security for the conftitution againt bers of one part of the legislature beyond their the arbitrary attempts of all wicked and delimited number, and give them free admit. figning minisers in futuro; frequent elec. tance into the other? It never was, it never tions deprive them of that enormous influence could be their intent; and if Scots commo- power they rotu have to corrupt the reners have not hitherto been expressly re- presentatives of the people, and to secure a

* Article 22 of ibe A? of Union. " A wrii sha? be imme liar:ly issued. Bc. For the firewoning obe fixteen peers, and for elering forry five members, by whon Scotiand is to be sepsea sented in the parliament of Great-B itain."

+" December 6, 1708. The commons ordered their Speaker to ištie out his warrants en the clerk of the crown to make out new purits for the electing cummiflioners for the l'hise of Aberdeen, the roʻm of William Lord Haido ; and for the thire of Linlingov, in the Tuom of James lord Johnstown, who being videft forns of peers of Scotland, were destared to be incapable to fie in ihat house” Hur muzik gradevo the impospriery jam, tij ema7032, or any Scols-Commouer zularcup, to fit in thub.is; for siis kires or bring! I December 22, 3694,

renal

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272 Wben Triennial Parliaments laid afide.

May venal majority of members in the house of Aill, and are equally in force now as at the commons, which might prevent, or put a Revolution. Septennial parliaments have a Atop to, all enquiries into their public conduct. long time been complained of as a heavy naThese conftitutional triennial parliaments were tional grievance, and can be agreeable to none first unconftitutionally laid alide in the year but ill designing minifters, and self-interefted 3716, on a fate necefity, and when the pub. representatives of the people; the fooner lic was thought to be in immediate danger; a therefore they are abolished, and triennial Scotch rebellion barely quashed, and in the parliaments restored, the sooner may we exinfancy of a new succession to the throne: pect the halcyon return of public virtue to Unconflitutionally laid afide, because the people bless these kingdoms; the fooner may we exbad no choice of their representatives ; and pe&t to bruise the head of corruption, and to Surely nothing could be more extravagantly keep down all aspiring, arbitrary, over-bear: absurd than that the representatives of the ing favourites, ever at dangerous as ob. people should choose tbemselves, vote themselves noxious to the community. Ministers and into their own seats, and fit likepeers in their favourites have the means of corruption own right, at the same time deriving their now in their hands, but these would be authority from the people: A manifeft con- greatly diminished, “ if not only the feffiona tradiction in terms ! No man confitutionally of parliament, but the parliament itself were can continue, himself in deputation for a reduced to the ancient and primitive conftitu. longer term of years than he is deputed for: tion and practice of frequent and new parliaAnd the house of peers and the house of com- ments; for as a good miniftry will neither mons which continued that triennial Parlia- practice or need corruption, so it cannot be ment of 17:6 for seven years, might by the any man's intent to provide for the security of fame authority have continued it for a term a bad one *." Aill longer, might have made it perpetual; For these reasons, and many others which and this would have been an express and ab- could be added, being thoroughly convinced solute fubverfion of the bird eftate of the of the utility arising to the nation from short scalm. The house of commons that did it parliaments, and the great danger anfing was so house of commons of England, after to the confitution from long ones; and as the expiration of the three years for which being also a means to curb the growth and they were elected : at that time they became prevent the spreading of corruption, and to a house merely of common, or rather un- repair the breaches made in the constitution common men, and, ftri&tly speaking, were no by the innovation of a septennial parliament, longer a bouse of parliament, or composed and to remedy the disappointment fo severely the bird eflate of the kingdom.

felt by the nation in 1722, when triennial The usurpation of these septennial parlia. parliaments were not, according to the vni. ments (for lo, perhaps, it might be called) verlal expectation of the people, restored to has been continued eyer Goce, though the them, and the constitutional rights and lifame reasons, (fale necessities) which then berties of the commons of England thereby prevailed, are no more in being, and subfift more firmly secured and established, on the no longer; but the same reasons for establish- basis f built for them by their great and gloing short and triennial parliaments remain rious deliverer King William, to whom we

* Lord's proteft in 1716.

It is sbe fare of weak princes," says Lord Lyttelton, to think ibat obey are never so we!! served as by ibose of wbose aur bority ebe people complain the most; and to make sbe public hatred a ground of their confidence ; as if sucb persons, having no other frength or procetion to depend upon, must belong more io tbem, and be more devotedly attached to ibeir intereft."

Hiftory of Henry tbe second. + In ebe bill of rights palled February 13, 1688-9 is obe following article or clause: Art. 13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for be amending, ftrengthening and preserving of be laws, parliaments ought to be beld frequently."

A parliament of a long continuar.ce seemed to be very dangerous, eirber to tbe crown or to be nation : If tbe conjuncture and sheir proceedings gave obem mucb credit, tbey migbt grow very uneasy to the crown, as bappened in King Charles ibe forft's time; or in anot ber fituation of affairs, tbey might be so prallised upon by obe court, tbar tbey migbe give all the money, and all the Tiberties of England up, wben ebey were to bave a large share of tbe money, and were to be made tbe inftruments of cyranny; as it was in King Charles Ibe second's time. It was, likewise, boped, tbar frequent parliaments would put an end to be great expence candidates put tbemselves to in elections. And that it would oblige obe members to behave themselves so weli, bo:b with respect to obe public, and in obeir private deporsmeri, as to recommend item to ibeir ele&tors at Three years end : Whereas, wben a parliament was to fie many years, members covered with pri ileges were apt to take great liberties, forgot that they represented others, and took care only of obemselves. So ibat it was I bougbi tbar Ergland would bavi a truer representative, soben is was chosen anew every chird year, 16.29 Wben it Tua v 2. Eifoap Barnei's bift. Vol. II.

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MOST.

1768.
Manners, &c. of the Turks.

273 owe religion, law, and liberty : For these at ele&tions; thereby invading the birth. reasons wę do most earnehly recommend to right and privilege of the British subject, you, our representatives, and especially if you and flagrantly insulting the conftitution profefs revolution principles, to use all contie and libirly or their country *. tutional means in your power, that a law We also recommend to you, to promote a may be parfed, in the approaching feslion, bill for laying a duty of ios. per hundred for limiting the duration of this present and weight on sugar, which according to the best all future parliaments to THREE YEARS AT calcujation made by a late great chancellor

of the exchequer, (Mr. Legge) vniversally vill. We do also recommend to you, to acknowledged to be the most able financije in promote an enquiry, by which the confi- Europe, will raise 500,000l. per annum; tution itself may be examined into according And to repeal thereby the additional tax upto it's first principles, in order to correct such on beer fubftituted in it's room in the year aboles as may have crept in through length 1754, and which has ever linee been levied of time, and to supply such defects as may with such peculiar cruelty and opprell on be wanting, and to refore it as nearly as it upon the laborious peor of this great king. can be done to it's original principles: And dom; the poor, already difressed and almost also, that the representative authority of this famiíhed by the high and extravagant prices kingdom may be more equally settled. of provisions and corn; the reduction of

ix. We recommend' to you, and Ariely which high and extravagant prices we also charge you, carefully and impartially to moft earnesly recommend to your confideenquire into the condu&t of all such returning ration in parliament; and that you will use oficers, of whole proceedings complaint all your utmoit endeavours to give relief to the at any time be made before the house; and to crying and very alarming necessities of the inde justice to the nation by bringiog'all such to digent and industrious part of the nation, cendiga punifoment, who shall appear to have your fellow subjects, and many of them your violated the right of freebolders and legal voters conftituents and electors.

In tbe bouse of Commons of Ireland, in ebe Sefions of 1756, ebe present earl of Arran, (tben Sir Artbur Gore) upon a perition before ebe boule, complaining of undu: proceedings, and affe rewr for ebe county of Wexford, made use of this remarkable expression in a debate cbat tbe kingdom of Ireland had been (courged by sheriffs : and moved ibe house ebar, the bigb Jeriff of Wexford, baving acted in an arbitrary, illegal manner, bereken into tbe caftody of ibe jerjeant at arms attending ibe boufe, and be committed 10 Newgate; wbich was agreed to by Ibe boufe witbout a division.

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Ax IMPARTIAL REVIE W of NEW PUBLICATIONS.

OBSERVATIONS on ebe Religion, Law, who may have discussions or altercations with

Government and Manners of ebe Turks. Turks, if he has a woman of spirit, a virago e oils, 12mo. Nourie.

for his wife, fers her to rout and brow. beat This is a sensible, entertaining perform them; and by this means nos unfrequently aace, and as it contains many things which gains his point. we do not remember to have seen so acci. The highest disgrace and shame would at. rately handled in any account of the Turkish tend a Turk who Thould rafhly lift his hand manners we fall give an extract from it, for against a woman; all be con venture to do, the entertainment of our readers.

is to treat her with harsh and contemptuous • The Turks are ftrong in their parental words, or 10 go off. affe&tions, and the children reciprocal in their The fex lay foch stress on this privilege, obedience, submission, and filial duty: such that they are frequenily apt to indulge their education leads them to much seeming mo- passions to excess, to be inoft unreasonable in defty with their superiors, and the young their claims, and violent and irregular in the men to great veneration towards the old, pursuit of them. They will importune, Perhaps this, with their total, and very ear. teaze, and infale a judge on the bench ; or ly separation from women, has infured that even the Vizir at his divan : The officers of remarkable bashfulness in their behaviour to justice do not know how to refent their cure wards them, and occafions that respect with bulence : and it is a general observation, which they treat the sex.

that to get well rid of them, they often give A man, meeting a woman in the freets, them their caure. turns his head from her, as if it were for A remarkable scene was acted by the wo. bidden to look on her : they seem to detest men at the accesfion of sultan Mustapha. an impudent woman, fun and avoid her. His Vizir, Regib Mehemet Palha, who,

Any one, therefore, among the Chriftians, towards the end of the preceding, reign, had May, 1768.

found

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