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289 The History of the last Session of Parliament, &c. The History of the Session of Parliament which began Nov. 11, 1766, being the fixth

Seffion of the Twelfth Parliament of Great Britain, with an Account of all the ma. terial Questions therein determined, and of the Political Disputes tbereby occasiones without Doors. Continued from p. 180.

o the history of the above pro- little that affords a direct remittance · seem to have been treated with no lit. from necessity they have been driven tle severity, we shall here add a cir- to seek a market for their produce, cumstance which happened a little and, by a course of traffic, to acquire earlier in the session. On the 16th of either money or such merchandize, as February, the Lord Clare (from the would answer the purpose of a remitcommisioners of trade and plantations) tance, and enable ihem to sustain their acquainted the house, that his majelty credit with their mother countıy: As had commanded them to inform the the nature of the petitioners commerce, house, that they had received, inclosed when free from the late reltraints, in a letter from Sir Henry Moore, ought to be understood, they beg bart. (his majesty's governor of New leave to observe, that their produce York) a petition of the merchants then sent to our own and the foreign in the city of New York, addresled to lands, was chiefly bartered for lugar, the Houle of Commons, which the rum, melasses, cotton, and indigo ; governor says, he transmitted to the that the fugar, cotton, and indigo, commiffioners of trade and planta- served as remittance to Great Britain, tions, at the request of a committee of which the rum and melafles constituta merchants of New York. This peti- ted essential branches of their comtion, which certainly deserved a par- merce, and enabled them to barter ticular attention, from that regard to with our own colonies for fish and the trade and prosperity of this king- rice, and by that means to pursue a dom and our plantations, which valuable trade with Spain, Portugal ought always to actuate every branch and Italy where they chiefly obtained of the legislature, would not certainly money, or bills of exchange in return, have been treated with so little regard and likewise qualified them for adven. as it was, had it not been for the ill tures to Africa, where they had the temper of the majority of the mem- advantage of putting off great quanbers then present.

tities of British manufactures, and of This petition being brought up and receiving in exchange gold, ivory, read į let forth, that the commerce of and llaves, which lait being dispored the North American colonies is lo fe- of in the Welt India islands, comverely clogged and restricted by the manded money or bills: Rum was instatutes of the 4th and 6th of his pre- dispensable in their Indian trade, and fent majesty's reign, as to afford a with Britih manufactures, procured melancholy pretage of its deltruction, furs and skins, which both served for the fatal eflccts of whici, though first considerable returns to Great Britain, felt there, must be finally transferred and encreased its revenue. The trade to Great Britain, and center with her to the bay of Honduras was also of merchants and manufacturers : that great importance, it being managed an evil lo extensive, could not fail of with fmall cargoes of provisions, rum, alarming the petitioners, whose fitua. anul British maufaciures, which, ticn exposes them to the first impress while they were at liberty to send fon of this calamity; whence they foreign logwood to the different ports think it their duty to implore the , in Europe, furnished them with ano. house to resume the confideration of ther valuable branch of remittance. the plantation trade, for efectual re- From this view, it is evident that 11dress. It is the fingular disadvantage gar, rum, melafies and logwood, with of the Northern British colonies, thiat, cotton and indigo, are the elentials while they stand in need of valt quan- of their return-cargoes, and the chief tities of the manufactures of Great sources, from whici, in a course of Britain, the country produces very trade they have maintained their creJune, 1768.



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290 · The HISTORY of the last Session of Pariament. June dit with Great Britain. That consi- branch of business, while, to people dering the prodigious consumption less scrupulous, it presents an irreliltaof the produce of the West Indies in ble temptation to smuggling. That Great Britain, Ireland, and the colo- the pressure of this duty is not aggranies on the continent of America; the vated, the petitioners appeal to the rapid increase of those colonies; the officers of the customs of their port, vast accession of subjects by the late who must confess that there have not conquests; the utter incapacity of our been wanting instances where mer. own ifland, to supply to great a de. chants have been driven to the disamand, will, the petitioners presume, greeable necessity of bringing their be out of all question ; on the other very plate into the custom-house to hand, the lumber produced from discharge it. The petitioners, there. clearing this immense territory, and fore most humbly entreat that a more the provisions extracted from a fertile moderate duty be laid on foreign fufcil, ...ft raise a supply for exporta. gars, which, they are allured, would for much greater than all our illands not only greatly promote the prospecu consume; it seems therefore con- rity both of those colonies and their fitent with sound policy, to indulge mother country, but encrease the trole colonies both in the free and un. royal revenue far beyond what can be restrained exportation of all the lum- expected under the present restraints. ber and produce they can spare, and The compelling merchants to land and an ample importation of sugar, rum, store foreign lugars in Great Britain, and meiafles, to supply the various before they are exported to other branches of their trade ; fince without parts of Europe, is another expensive the one the clearing of lands will be and dilatory restriction, without being discouraged ; and provisions, for want of any material advantage to the reof vent, become of little profit to venue of Great Britain ; for it puts it the farmer; without the other, the out of the petitioners power to meet petitioners must be plunged into a foreigners at market upon an equal total incapacity of making good their footing. That British plantation supayments of British debts; their cre- gar exported from North America, dit must fink, and their imports from thould be declared French on being Great Britain gradually diminish, landed in England, the petitioners till they are contracted to the narrow conceive may be juftly classed among compass of remittances, in articles of the number of hardthips inflicted by their own produce; whence the colo. thote regulations, as in effect it de. nies muít, from inevitable neceffity, prives them of making a remittance betake tliemselves to manuiactures in that article, by exposing them to of their own, which will be attended the payınent of the foreign duty in with consequences very detrimental Great Britain, which appears the to thole of Great Britain,

more severe, as their fellow subjects The petitioners having thus repre- of the il ands are left at liberty to exsented the nature of their commerce, port those lugars for wliat they really humbly beg leave to point out the fe- are, and a diftinction is formed which veral grievances under which it la- the petitioners cannot but regard with bours, from the regulations prescribed uneatinefs. That foreign rum, French by the two before mentioned acts. excepted, is the next article which The heavy enibarrassments which at. the petitioners molt humbly propose tend the article of sugar, is a capital for confideration, as its importation, fubjeót of complaint; and, besides the on a moderate duty, would add conabfolute neceffity of a great importa- fiderably to the revenue, prevent smugtion to tulain their trade, it often glirs, encrease the sale of British ma. happens, that at the foreign islands, nufactures, and enable the petitiona fufficient return-cargo, independant ers to bring back the full value of of fugar, cannot be procured, which their cargoes, more especially from the render trade precarious and discoura. Danish islands of St. Thomas and St. ging; besides, the bigh duty of 55. Croix, where they can only receive Sterling a hundred, is found by expe- half the value in sugar and cotton, rience to he lo exceflive, that it has in- and consequently rum alone can be duced the fair trader to decline that expected for the other half, thole



1758. The HISTORY of the last Session of Parliament. 290 illands having no spice but of a base employing so great a number of thipkind. That it is with the greatest ping, it constitutes a respectable nurconcern the petitioners observe, that sery for seamen, and is so advantaforeign logwood is also made subject gcous for remittances in payment for to the delay, hazard, and expence of British manufactures ; whence the being landed in Great Britain ; which petitioners humbly presume it will be with its low price, its bulk, and the cherished by the house, and every imduty with which it is now burthened, pediment removed that tends to check nuit totally destroy that valuable its progress. The enlarging the jubranch of the petitioners commerce, risdiction of the admiralty is another and throw it into the hands of foreign- part of the statute of the fourth of his ers unfettered with those heavy em- majelty's reign, very grievous to the barrallinents. That their lumber and trade and navigation of the colonies, pot-ath, even when shipped for Ireland, and oppresive to the subjects, The where the latter is so necessary for the petitioners beg leave to express their progress of their linen manufacture, warmeit sentiments of gratitude for the and even provisions, though intended advantages intended by parliament in to relieve that kingdom from a fa- the opening free ports in the islands of mine, are subject to the same distres- Jamaica and Dominica; yet, at the fing impediments ; nor is flax-feed, lame time, cannot but lament their on the timely importation of which being so unhappy as to be unable to the very existence of the linen manu- reap the benefits, which, it was imafacture immediately depends, exempt. gined, would flow from so wise a policy. ed: Yet both flax-feed, lumber, and The collecting great quantities of the pot-ash, may all be imported into produce of Martinico, Guadaloupe, Ireland directly from the Baltic, where &c. at the island of Dominica, would they are purchased from foreigners be of real advantage to the colonies, under the national disadvantage of be- were they permitted to take them in ing paid for with money instead of ma- return for their Jumber and provisions; nufactures ; the petitioners, therefore, but as they are now prohibited from humbly beg leave to express their taking any thing but melases, the pehopes, that an evil so highly prejudi- titioners think it evident, that they cial to them, to the staple of Ireland, can derive no substantial advantage un. and to the trade and manufactures of der such a restraint, and are unable to Great Britain, will not fail of obtain- discern the principle on which the ing the attention of the house, and prohibition is founded; for since sugar an immediate and effectual redrels. may be imported directly from the The petitioners beg leave farther to foreign islands, it seems inuch more represent, that the wines from the if reasonable to suffer it from a free port lands, in exchange for wheat, flour, belonging to Great Britain. The pefith and lumber, would considerably titioners, therefore humbly hope, that augment the important article of re- the house will think it equitable to mittance, was the American duty adopt this trade to their circumstances, withdrawn on exportation to Great by granting them liberty to import Britain : It is therefore humbly sub- into the colonies all Welt-India promitted to the house, whether such an ductions, in exchange for their comexpedient, calculated at once to attach modlities; and that, upon the whole, the inhabitants to husbandry, by en- the petitioners, with the greatest ancreasing the consumption of American xiety, tind themselves obliged to inproduce, to encourage British many form the house, that altlough, at the factures, by enabling the petitioners lait feflion, the necessity of relieving to make good their paymenis, and to the trade of those colonies seems to encrease the royal revenue by an addi. liave been universally admitteit, and tional import of wines into Great the tender regard of parliament for Britain, will not be consilient with their happiness highly diftinguished; the united interests both of the mo. neverthek is, experience has evinced, ther country and her colonies. The that the commercial regulations then petitioner's also conceive that the North enacted, iniicad remediving, hare American filhery is of the higheit na- encrease I the heavy buchen under sional importance, lince, by annually which it already laboured. HC",

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