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292 The History of the last Session of Parliament. June due consideration, nothing can be more building of the bridge at Black Friars, manifeft, than that the ability of those inadequate for the purpose of rendercolonies to purchase the manufactures ing it a toll-bridge, and wanting seve. of Great Britain, immediately depends ral other sums, to carry into execution upon, and is in seperably connected that and some other schemes that had with the progress of their commerce; been formed for beautifying and im. and that ability, by removing the ne. proving the city, Mr. John Paterson, ceflity of home manufactures, would one of the common.council of the cia leave them at liberty to pursue agri. ty, deputy of his ward, member for culture, in which their true interest Ludgarthall, in Wiltshire, and chairconfifts. The petitioners, therefore, man of the committee of ways and pray the houie to take the above into means, formed a plan for completing confideration, and to grant such relief all these works, only by continuing therein as should be thought consistent the orphan tax, the term for which it with good policy, and the mutual in- was granted being almost expired, and terests of Great Britain and her colo- having published a very ingenious nies.

pamphlet on that subject, distributed There was never perhaps a petition the impression among the lord mayor, of more consequence, in relation to aldermen, and common-council. The trada, presented to parliament than citizens, who had conceived an idea this, or one in which our colonies, that new and burthensome taxes were the British merchants trading to the to be laid upon them, to carry on those continent of America, with our arti- great and expensive works, were ftruck zans and manufacturers are more with surprize and pleasure at finding nearly interested, and, therefore, if all their fears groundless, and that the facts upon which the petition is nothing more would be demanded of founded, could be sufficiently proved, tiem, than what they were accustomthey juftly called for an immediate re- ed to pay, chearfully gave it their apdreis ; especially if the regulations probation, and a petition was soon here recommended would be of little after drawn up for leave to bring in or no disadvantage to our Welt-India a bill for having it passed into a law. illands. But the majority of the house On the 31st of January, the house appear to have been lo much offended being informed that the sheriffs of the at the inhabitants of our colonies in city of London attended at the door, North America, and particularly with they were called in; and at the bar prethole of New York, as to resolve not fented to the house a petition of the to fend a thought on their advantage, lord mayor, aldermen, and commons, whatever effect this might have on of the city of London, in commonour merchants, tradesmen and manu- council afsembled, and then withdrew. facturers; and theretore this petition When the petition was read, That by was rejected, by its being ordered to lie an act paired in the 29th year of on the table. But it is to be hoped, King George the Second, intiileil, that the time is at hand, when effec. An act for building a bridge cross the tual measures will be taken to revive river Thames, from Black-Friars in our declining commerce ; and that a the city of London, to the opposite more judicious parliament, that has fide in the county of Surry, the petimuch better ideas of trade than the tioners were impowered to build the lait, will conciliate the affections of faid bridge, to make, enlarge, or imour colonies to their mother country, prove streets, ways, and pallages, on and enable them to trade with us, on each fide of the river, to and from the a footing equally advantageous to bo-h. said bridge, to fill up the channel of

We now come to forne acts of a Bidewell-Dock, and to light and more limiteal nature, as not having an watch the said bridge, when built ; inmediate relation either to the whole that the petitioners, for the p!rposes kingdom in gener), or to our exten. aforelaid, were impowered to take certive piantations, and hall here begin tain tools for the pasiage of the bridge ; with the capital of Great Britain. and, on the credit thereof, to raise

The corporation of London having any fum not exceeding 160,000l. and find the lens which the parliament the petitioners have accordingly prohadde entitled them to raile for the ceeded to carry the laid act into execu

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1768. The History of the last Session Parliament. 293 tion, and, towards the expence there- 'And that the wharfs between Paul's of, have borrowed the sum of 144,000l. Wharf, in the city of London, and besides which they have contributed Milford Lane in the county of Middlethe sum of 16,2001, and have raised sex, by their different encroaahments, the sum of 12,1801. 178. by the divi- not only form an irregular and disa. dends and profits upon part of the greeable outline ; but afford the own. said monies invested in the publicers of some an undue preference and funds, and the sum of 6591. 10$. 6d. advantage over others, at the same by the sale of old materials, and tem- time that the reflected sett of the porary rents of some premises purcha- tides, both of ebb and food, throws sed for the purposes of the said act; · the force of the stream upon the Sur'which several fums amount together ry shore, opposite to Black-Friars, and, to the sum of 173,0401. 7s.6d. of consequence, flackens the current whereof the petitioners had, at Mid. on the London fide ; which, together summer last," expended the sum of with the large sewers that empty 140,5951. 195. 10d. i; fo 'there themselves in the neighbourhood, octhen remained a balance in hand of casions a constant accumulation of 32,4441. 75. 7 d. l; which, together fand, mud, and rubbish, and thereby with the sum 6951. ss. then expected not only destroys a great part of the to be received, will raise the said ba- navigation at low water, but renders lance to 33,089 1. 12 s. 7 d. į; and the wharfs inaccessible by the loaded that by estimates of the works which craft, even at high water, unless at remain to be done, to coniplete the spring tides : That the petitioners are said bridge, and of premises necessary advised all these inconveniences might to be purchased for the avenues there be removed, if the north side of the to (exclusive of roads on the Surry river was imbanked, so as to range in fide) the same require a further sum of a line with the north entrance of the 58,500l. and that the petitioners con- said intended bridge, the north abutceive the intended toll on the said ment of which is so constructed, as bridge, when the same shall be com- that it may, at the expence of labour pleted, will be a great obstruction to only, be made to coincide therewith, its passage, and a burthen upon the and that the expence of such imbank public; and therefore presume to ment is estimated at the fum of 7500l. hope, that the house will be of opi- The Royal Exchange, originally erectnion, that the freeing the faid bridge ed by Sir Thomas Grelham, under the from such toll will be of public utility auspices of Queen Elizabeth, and reand advantage ; in which case it will built foon after the fire of London in be neceflary to provide some other 1666, is so much decayed as to fufficient fund for raising, as well the threaten its total demolition, unless fum of 144,000 1. to discharge the speedily and effectually repaired; and money borrowed, as the said sum of that the necessary repairs are estimated 58,500l. still wanting for the purposes at the sum of 10,0001. a sum which aforesaid. That the paslage over Lon- the present state of the revenues apdon Bridge is subject to a preicrip: propriated thereto can by no means tive toll upon all carts, waggons, and afford; and that the gaol of Newgate, other carriages, palling to or from the which is not only the county gaol of faid city, loaden with any kinds of Middlesex as well as London, but the goods or provisions, which toll is ap- general prison for state prisoners and propriated to the support of the said smugglers from all parts of the kingbridge, and is, at this time, let upon dom, is so small and ill-contrived, that a lease for twenty-one years, for a fine it is impossible to accommodate the of 21001. and at and under a yearly unhappy persons contined there with rent of 7351. and that the collection a suficient supply of fresh air and waof this toll greatly ob{tructing the ter, the dehtors fide not enjɔying even pasiage of that bridge, and being a the common benefit of light in any hurthen upon trade, the petitioners hour of the day, or at any season of conceive, that the freeing of the said the year; from which circunstance the bridge therefrom will also appear to said gaol is in general unhealthy, und be of public utility and advantage, often visited by a malimant fever, and will require the sun of 30,000 b. Called the gaoi difenpai, ine fatalets

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294 The History of the last Session of Parliament. Junc fects of which have sometimes extend. every ton of such coals as were sold ed beyond the prison walls; besides by the ton, the like sum of 6d. the which, the said gaol is so old and rui- said imposition of 6d. to continue nous, asto beincapableofimprovement, from the said 29th of September for or any tolerable repair; and that the fifty years. And that, by an act of rebuilding the said gaol in a more airy parliament passed in the reign of his and coinniodious manner, is estima- late majesty king George the Second, ted at the sum of 50,000l, and that intitled, An Act for the farther Relief the said jums amount together to the of the Orphans, and other creditors sum of 300,000 l. wbich (how much of the city of London, and for other soever the petitioners have the above- purposes therein mentioned, the faid mentioned purposes at heart) cannot duty of 6 d. per chaldron, or ton, of be raised without the aid and authori. coals, or culm, was farther continued ty of parliament.

during a term of thirty-five years from That by an act passed in the fifth and the expiration of the said term of fifty fixth years of the reign of King Wil- years, and out of the money arising liam and Queen Mary, intitled, An from the said impofitions fo continue Act for the Relief of the Orphans, ed, the yearly sum of 3000l. was diand other Creditors, of the City of rected to be paid, during the said term London, it was amongst other things of thirty-five years, to the wardens enacted, That for and towards raising and commonalty of the mystery of a perpetual fund, to pay the yearly Mercers of the city of London, in the interest of 4 1. for every 100l. princi- manner, and for the purposes, in the pal money, and interest thereof then said act mentioned; and the residue due to any orphan of the said city, or of the said money was thereby approthe executors, administrators, or af- priated to make part of the fund for signs, of any luch orphan, all and even paying the intereit to the said crphans, ry the city's edates and

and other creditors of that city; and should be for ever charged with tbe it was thereby directed, that from clear annual sum of 8000 l. and the 29th of September, 1750, the cithe said act also appropriated to ty's estates and revenues should be the purposes aforesaid, the rents and charged with the yearly sum of 2000). profits of the city's aqueducts; and and no more, over and above the said the fum of 2000 l. was thereby direct- yearly sum of 80oolwherewith they ed to be annually raised upon the then stood charged; and that the fura personal estates of the several inhabi- plusses arisen, or to arise, from the iants within the faid city and liberties, funds to appropriated for payment of towards that fund; and for the farther the said intereit, mould be applied to increale thereof, the sum of 25. 60. the payment of the said capital debt; was directed to be paid upon the bind. and that the said furplufles have been ing of every apprentice, within the applied accordingly, and thereby the faid city, and gs. by every person ad- laid capital debt was at Midsuinmer mitted a freeman; and the said act lait reduced to the sum of 610,084 1. imposed upon all sorts of wine im- 6 s. 10 d. and (computing the future ported into the port of the said city, surplusies at a medium of the last five or the members thereof, by way of years) the whole may be expected to merchandize, a duty of 4s. per tun, be paid off and discharged by Ladyover and above the duties then paya- day, 1803 ; and that if the several du. ble thereon; and for every chaldron ties and impositions, which compose of coals or culm, imported into the the orphans fund, were continued to faid port, or the river of Thames, Lady.day, 1832, the said fund would, within the liberty of the said city, a with the addition thereto of 1500l. per duty of 4d. for metage for ever; and annum, be sufficient in that time to also for all coals or culm, usually fold discharge the principal and intereft, by the chaldron, for every chaldron not only of the orphans debt, but of thereof, which should be iniported in the farther sum of 300,000l. and that, to the laid port, or members thereof, if such fund might be made a security from the 29th of September, 1700, for raising the laid fum, for the purover and above all other impofitions pores above itated, the petitioners are and duties, the sum of 6d. and for willing and delirous that the faid city's

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1768. The History of the last Session of Parliament, eftates and revenues should, during works, of paving the town and bothat period, be charged with the pay- rough of Southwark, and parts adjament of the said yearly sum of cent, and therefore praying the houle 1500l. towards the increase of the said to take the premises into consideration, fund, over and above the yearly fum of and to do therein as to them should 10,000). with which the said estates seem meet. On which it was ordered, and revenues now stand charged; and that this petition should be referred that, as there will be no fund for de- to the consideration of the committee fraying the expences of lighting, of the whole house, to whom the pewatching, cleanling, and repairing tition of the lord mayor, aldermen, the said new bridge, when the same and commons of the city of London, thall be exempted from the intended in council assembled, was referred. toll thereon, the petitioners conceive The next day the commissioners for that a reasonable quit-rent, upon the paving, cleansing, and lighting, the city ground to be taken in from the river, and liberty of Westminster, presented within the limits aforesaid, would to the house a petition to the same form a proper and unexceptionable purpose, which was also referred to the fund for that purpose ; and therefore fame committee. praying the house to take the premises On the 16th of April, Sir Robert into consideration, and that leave be Ladbroke reported from the commitgiven to bring in a bill, for authori. tee of the whole house, to consider of fing and enabling the petitioners to the report which was made from the execute the several great works and committee, to whom the petition of purposes aforesaid, in such manner, the lord mayor, aldermen, and comand under such direction and limita- 'mons of the city of London, in comtions, as to the house Thall seem meet. mon-council assembled, was referred,

After reading this petition, it was and to whom it was referred to confiimmediately ordered to be referred to der of the petitions of the commissie the consideration of a committee, au- oners for paving, watching, and lightthorized to examine and state to the ing the borough of Southwark, and house the matters of fact it contained; the city and liberty of Westminster, and this committee being appointed the resolutions which the committee accordingly, were, as usual, impow. had directed him to report to the ered to send for persons, papers, and house; which he read in his place, records.

and afterwards delivered in at the taOn the 24th of March, the commif- ble, where they were again read, and fioners for paving, watching, and agreed to by the house. In these relighting the streets and lanes of South- folutions all the several particulars in wark presented a petition, in which the above petition from the lord may. they acknowledge that the above will or, aldermen, and commons of Lon. be of great use and advantage to the don, were agreed to, and at the fame city of London and county of Middle- time it was also resolved, that the cia. sex; but presume, that the works car- ty should pay sool. a year towards the ried on by them in the town and bo. Westminster pavement, and 4801. a rough of Southwark, and parts adja. year towards that of the borough. cent, are also works of a public na- After which it was ordered, that a ture, equal to those proposed to be biil Mould be prepared and brought in done by the city, and that a very con- upon those resolutions, by Sir Robert siderable proportion of the above du Ladbroke, Mr. Paterson, Sir Richard ries is paid by the inhabitants, there Glyn, Mr. Alderman Beckford, Mr. being many brewers, glass-makers, Alderman Hurley, Sir Joseph Maw. distillers, dyers, founders, and others, bey, Mr. Thrale, and Mr. Burrell. using immente quantities of coals in Accordingly, on the 4th of May, Sir their several manufactures and busin Robert Ladbroke presented the bill to nesles; wherefore the petitioners bum- the boule, and it was then received bly presume, that it will he thought and read for the first time, and on reasonable, if the said duties upon the 8th of May was read a fecond coals be farther continued, a moderate time. proportion of the money to be raised On the 13th of the same month the ihereupon Thould be applied for the commiffioners for paving, watching, purpose of completing time public and lighting, that part of the parith of

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296 The History of the last Sesion of Parliament. June

St. Botolph, Aldgate, which lies in the same purpose, was also presented • the county of Middlesex, who had to the house and read; but it was

been appointed on an act passed while dismifled, or, in other words, ordered this bill was depending, presented a to lie upon the table. After this the petition to the house, in which they bill met with no more opposition, for observed, that as they paid their hare on the 21st it passed the house ; when of the duty appropriateu by the bill, Sir Robert Ladbroke was ordered to for the improvement and advantage of carry it up to the lords, and on the the cities of London and Westminster, 29th of June it received the royal aja and borough of Southwark, and were, sent. in every respect, in the same situation

[To be continued in our next.] as the inhabitants of the city of Westminster and borough of Southwark, From Dr. Priestley's Elays Medical and they hoped to be entitled to a propor

Experimental. tionable advantage, ariting from a THE Dr. after relating the success fund to which they contributed in an of the experiments he made to equal degree with the rest, and there. trace the differences, and ascertain the fore prayed the house, that a provision proportion the aftringency and bittermight be made in the said bill, for ap- nels of vegetables reciprocally bear propriating such a sum of the money to each other ; former experiments to arise from the continuation of the having frequently caused bim to ob. faid tax, for the carrying on and serve they were diftinct and separate amending the above pavements, as to properties; and by the last experiment the house shall seem just and reasona. finding two pieces of calf-ikin, just ble. But this petition was ordered to stripped from the calf, immersed in lie upon the table.

cold infusions of green and bohea tea, The same day a petition of the ru- at the expiration of a week, were lers, auditors, and assistants of the bard and curled up, and that there company of watermen and lightermen, was no sensible difference between on behalf of themselves and the whole them; proceeds thus : fraternity, was presented to the house, “ This experiment affords a strikagainst the embankment of the river ing proof, of the difference between 'Thames, which they apprehended the action of a medicine on the dead, would be highly injurious to the trade and on the living libre. Tea, when and navigation of the said river, and applied to the former, is manifestly greatly obstract and impede the pas- aftringent; and yet when received infage between London and Welimin. to the stomach, it is highly debilitat. fter, and prove detrimental both tu ing and relaxant; and the immodethe public in general, and to this com- rate use of it is attended with the most munity in particular; and therefore pernicious effects. It is curious to obhoped the house would take the case of serve the revolution which hath taken the petitioners into confideration, and place, within this century, in the conthat they might be heard by their ititutions of the inhabitants of Europe. counsel againit the said bill. Upon Inflammatory diseases more rarely octhis a motion was made, that this pe- cur, and, in general, are much less tition should be referred to the consi- rapid and violent in their progress, deration of the above committee, and than formerly. Nor do they acimit the petitioners to be heard by their of the fame antiphlogistic method of counsel ; but, upon putting the queso cure, which was praciiled with success tion, it jutily palled in the negative; a hundred years ago. The experinothing being more ablaid than tó enced Sydenham makes forty ounces fuppole, that railing a bank in the of blood the mean quantity to be Mallow parts of the river next the drawn in the acute rheumatilm; fhore, which would only fomewhat whereas this disease, as it now appears contract its bed, and render it deeper, in the London Hospitals, will not would prejudice its navigation. But hear above half that evacuation, absurd 'as this must at firit right ap. Vernal Intermittents are frequently pear, the next day a petition from the cured by a vomit and the bark, with lightermen, wharfingers, owners of out venefection; which is a proof, craft, and wher dealers in coals, to that, at present, they are accompa.

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