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1768. Experiment on Tea.
297 nied with fewer symptoms of inflam- rienced in myself. This seems to be mation, than they were wont to be. a proof, that the mischiefs ascribed to This advantageous change however this oriental vegetable, do not arise is more than counterbalanced, by the from the warm vehicle by which it is introduction of a numerous class of conveyed into the stomach, but chiefly nervous ailments, in a great measure from its own peculiar qualities * unknown to our ancestors, but which And these qualities probably accomnow prevail universally, and are com- pany the highly flavoured parts of the plicated with almost every other dis- leaves, and depend upon the nicety temper. The bodies of men are en- and care observed in the collection feebled and enervated, and it is not and preparation of them. When fresh uncommon to observe very high de- gathered, they are said to be narco-' grees of irritability, under the exter- tic, and to disorder the senses; and nal appearance of great strength and the Chinese cautiously abstain from robustness. The hypochondria, pal. the use of them, till they have been Ges, cachexies, droplies, and all those kept for twelve months ř. It is rediseases which arise from laxity and markable that only one species of the debility, are, in our days endemic tea plant is yet, discovered, and that every where; and the hysterics, which all the varieties of this dietetic article used to be peculiar to the women, as of commerce are owing either to the the name itself indicates, now attacks difference of climate, or to the diverboth sexes indiscriminately. It is evi- fity in the method of curing it. The dent, that so great a revolution could fine green teas, which are the first not be effected, without the concur- crop of the thrub, are gathered with rence of many causes; but amongst, the utmoft caution and dried with the these, I apprehend, the present gene- gentlest heat, that their perishable fi:ral use of tea holds the first and prin- vour may be preserved. The bohea cipal rank. The second place may teas are more hastily exsiccated, and perhaps be allotted to excess in spi- even slightly parched over the fire, rituous liquors. This pernicious cus- by which they acquire that brown co. tom, in many instances at least, owes lour which distinguishes them. And its rise to the former, which by the as their more volatile parts are disli. lowness and depression of spirits it oc. pated by this management, they becasions, renders it almost necessary to come proportionably less injurious to have recourse to what is cordial and the nervous system. exhilerating. And hence proceed those But however cogent the objections odious and disgraceful habits of in. may be, against the general and too temperance, with which too many of frequent use of tea, candour obliges the lofter sex of every degree, are now, me to acknowledge, that it is capable alas! chargeable.
of being applied to very important, From the 27th and 29th experje medicinal purposes. From its sedative ments it appears, that green and bo- power, and the weakness which it sudhea tea are equally bitter, strike pre- denly induces, it might be administercisely the same black tinge with green ed with advantage in ardent and invitriol, and are alike astringent on flammatory fevers, in order to abate the finpie fibre. From this exact fimi. the force, and lessen the inordinate aclarity in so many circumitances, one tion of the vis vitæ. In such cases it thould be led to suppole, that there should be given either in substance or would be no sensible diversity in their in strong infusion; and besides aloperation on the living body. But laying the troublesome sensations of the fact is otherwise. Green tea is heat and thirst, which are the conmuch more sedative and relaxant than ftant concomitants of those distembohea ; and the finer the species of pers, it would probably serve as tea, the more debilitating and perni. good substitute for some of the usual cious are its effects, as I have fre- evacuations. And thus instead of quently observed in others and expe- producing wa:chfulness, which is a • Theæ infufum, nervo musculove rane admotum, vires motrices minuit, perdit.
Smitb tentamen Inaug. de celione mujculuri, p. 46. exp. 36.
† Neumann's Chemistry, p. 376, June, 1768.
June common effect ascribed to it in weak kind of weariness, they are neglected. habits, it would in all likelihood prove The complexion becomes wan, pale, the safest and most falutary opiate and not to lively, the eyes appear dull After a full meal, when the stoniach and faded, the appetite is faint and is opprefled, the head pained, and unequal, returning by fits, and if the pulse beats high, tea, is a great meat is not immediately given, the ful diluent, and agreeable sedative. patient is like to faint away, and the And as studious, sedentary men are appetite goes off; at other times the particularly subject to indigestion and hypochondres are so inflated with ihe head ach, it is on this account wind, that the patient cannot eat : juftly stiled “the poet's friend." He complains of heartburns, belch
ings, and bilious vomiting, pain in Extra£t from Dr. Smith's Dissertation the pit of the stomach, attended someupon the Nerves, &c.
times with shortness of breath, or He learned author hias discusled symptomatic altlıma, tickling cough, though, perhaps, some of his positions or visible swelling; and the patient may not be admitted. He investigates perceives unusual smells. After these the nature of man, the nature of symptoms have continued some time, brutes : and here he is an advocate they produce lowness of spirits, faintifor an inmaterial principle in them, ness, anxiety, watching and reftlerequivalent or analogous to what we ness; sometimes great timidity; a dize call understanding in ourselves (See p. ziness of the head, inveterate pains in 112.) with a language, or method of particular parts, about the size of a communicating their knowlerige, ad- crown, iharp and acute pains, in the vice, and alliitance, to each other; temples, and other parts of the head; nay he pronounces their souls immor: fometimes there is a tingling noise or tal, from scripture, evidence, reason, hitling found, a thumping, or beating and argument, which he has, with in the inside of the head; the tempogreat shew of reason, endeavoured to ral arteries, at times, beat so strongly, prove. He next examines the nature, in the night particularly, as to occamanner, and consequences, of the de- fion so considerable rubbing or fricpendance, influence, and connexion tion against the bed-cloaths, as to be of the soul and body; treats of man, heard by a bystander. The patient considered as enjoying a vegetable, perceives a faintinefs to seize him, animal, and spiritual life; and after which is succeeded with motes, clouds, wards proceeds to the causes that im- and mifts, floating backward and forpede the foul in the exercise of its facul. ward, in the atmosphere before his ties : In his thoughts on the spiritual life eyes; a coldness and chillness seize of man, he has advanced some things the extremities; a burning in hands that we apprehend will bear a dispute, and feet; flushing, especially, after in which the doctor would be far froin meat; cold damp sweats, fainting, jnvulnerable ; nor, indeed, do we and fickness, which is removed by a ever remember a physical writer who Jax stool. The patient is very irregudid not hzodle religious subjects in a lar in going to stool, sometimes he is very whimsical and peculiar manner. too cortive, at other times lax; the His third section treats of the symp- ftools are of various colours, sometimes toms and causes of nervous diseases, of a mucous, jelly-like substance, at and as this is the part of the bonk of other times black, dark brown, green most general use, we shall give there- and yellow; sudden Authes of heat, from the tollowing extract:
especially in the night over all the bo“ift. The first iymptoms are a dull, dy; fiverings, a sense of cold, in heavy unealinels, debility, faintinefs, a certain parts, especially down the sense of great emptiness about the sto. back, as if water was poured on the mach, a yawning, gaping, stretching body; at other times, an unusual out the arms, twitching of the nerves, glow of heat ; troublesome pains befreezing, sometimes dron finess and le- tween the shoulders ; pains attended thaísy, heaving up the brealt: As with hot sensations; cramps, and conthese symptoms have little pain, but a vulsive motions of the muscles, or a
UPON THE Nerves.
299 few of their fibres; sudden starting of heart; the pulse very variable and ir. the tendons of the legs and arms; regular; a sense of Suffocation, fre. Jarge and frequent discharges of pale quent fighings, convulsive twitchings and limped urine. Some have all of the muscles, tendons, and nerves these symptoms, others have but some of the back, loins, arms, hands, and of them ; but a ptyalism, or discharge a general convulsion affecting, at once, of phlegm from the glands of the the stomach, bowels, throat, legs, throat, generally attends all the symp- arms, and indeed almost the whole toms. In the first period you may ob- body, in which the patient struggles serve one good day, and another bad ; as in a violent epileptic fit. The paand also mon hly periods : But these tient sometimes falls into a catalipsis periods or crisis are very uncertain and and tetanus, and finks gradually into irregular, as I observed before. The a nervous atrophy : Has generally a weather too, has a surprizing effect up- quick apprehension, forgetful, unleton nervous people. When these symp- tled, and constant to nothing but intoms have continued sometiine, they constancy, jealous; has wandering so relax the fibres of the solids, that and delirious imaginations, ridiculous the digestion is very imperfectly and fancies, groundless and impertinent Nowly performed, consequently wind, fears, often complaining of his sure crudities, &c. are bred in the prime• ferings and calamities, no person sufvia, which produce many more and fering equal to him ; he supposes him. dilmal symptoms, as :
self a dying, when perhaps there is 2dly, Frequent ritts, belchings, hic- no great danger, while a person under cups, ftrange grumbling, croaking, another disease, as a consumption, is and murmuring in the bowels; trou. hardly persuaded there is danger, blesome heartburns, four and very when he is really dying ; sometimes he acrid belchings, and squeamishness'; is chearful, gay, and agreeable; by and vomitings of watery Ituff, tough by peevith, heavy and gloomy; fome. phlegm, corrupted bile, a visible (wel- times it is impossible for him to keep ling and inflation of the stomach, e- from crying and weeping, with great specially after eating; weakness and extremes of grief and anguilh ; and trembling of the limbs; wandering these sudden fits of convullive crying pains, suddenly tarting from one return without the will or consent of place to another; wandering pains in the patient; at other times he falls inthe sides, back, knees, ancles, arms, to iromoderate fits of laughing and wrists, not unlike rheumatic pains; joy, which is as involuntary as the cold shiverings running down the other; sometimes te loves a person to back bone, often after making water, despair, anon hates him to as great like the cold fits of an ague; some excess; presently wills a thing, by times there is a heat in one part of and by is entirely against it. If there the body, then in another; the head symptoms are not soon cured, they is generally hot, even while the rest of foon terminate in hysteric fits, epi. the body is cold and chilly; the hypo. leply, hyp, pally, madness, apo. chondres, but most frequently the plexy, or in some mortal disease; as right one is swelled. Now the patient the black jaundice, dropsy, consumphas vertigos, long faintings, the tion, &c." fightest motion raises pains in the The doctor then enters into the head, which often return periodically; causes of these symptoms, and treats also moist, cold, clammy sweat, great. of the cure of nervous diseases; the est commonly about the temples and certainty of which he acknowledges forehead, obitinate watchings, disturb- depends upon the certainty of the theed deep, frightful dreams, and some- ory; but the certainty of the theory times a drowsiness and too great an in- depends upon intuition, clination to sleep, the nightmare ;
« First then we are exactly to regu. often starting when awake, terribly af- late the use of the non-naturals; for in frighted with horrors : Any sudden vain do we prescribe medicines, if the surprise greatly affects and often patient is not directed and willing to throws the patient into fits and faint. observe certain regulations, in relation ings, tremors or palpitation of the to air, diet, and exercise. We should
June chure a free open air, not encumbered give place, for a while, to a way of with hills or woods; a cool and dry life, which Bath gives a pattern of, air brace and invigorate the whole bo- I cannot but highly approve of a dy; and hot, confined, and damp air, practice there, of having mufic, while weakens and relaxes the habit. When the patients drink the water; which the stomach and bowels are weak, they has a very great and good effect upon tould be well guarded against cold the motion of the finer animal fibres. and damps, especially in winter; and Mufic has been allowed, in all ages there is no dress better and more ne- of the world, to have a noble power cessary to keep up a due perspiration, in raising the dejected ideas of the than flannels worn next the skin. soul. Those that have the most deli.
Constant exercise, every day that cate constitutions, are most sensible allows of it, either in walking, or on of its good effects: it opens the ob horseback, or in an open chaise, is of structions of the finest veffels; assuages vast service; it should be as much the passions, and at the same time as the strength will admit, with. communicates a pleasure to the soul, out weakness, fatigue, or hurry; de- and makes its ideas chearful, gay, and ver weary yourself, nor raise a sweat; lively; by the oscillatory motion of go no further, than you can return the air, vibrating against the timpa. with as much spirit as you went out. num of the ear, there is such an imExercise strengthens the whole nervous pulsive motion give to the finest fibres fystem ; affifts digestion, (but retards of the brain (upon which the soul it after a full meal; therefore after more immediately displays its facul. dinner fit a while) fanguification, and ties) as to enable them to bring reguthe distribution and secretion of all the lar impulses to the sensorium. animal fluids. By muscular motion, But though music restores the tone the blood and juices are kept in a due of the finest fibres of the brain ; yet state of Auidity; their viscidity is bro- the inferior organs demand coarser ken and dissolved, and all obstructions treatment, to restore them to the either prevented or removed. The standard of health. flesh brush is an excellent thing for We mult abridge the quantity and strengthening the folids; as friction, quality of our food, which ought to either with the flesh brush, flannel, or be nourishing, easy of digestion and coarse linen cloth, strengthens the suited to the stomach of the patient. body, promotes the circulation, and is Fat meats, and heavy sauces, particularly useful in weak bowels. hurtful ; and all excess is to be avoid.
People of weak nerves are gene. ed. The patient ought never to eat rally quick thinkers, from the delicacy more than the stomach can easily diof their sensitive organs, which are gest: eat therefore little at a time, therefore more liable to be fatigued but often of innocent, plain, and lime and relaxed with exercise, than those ple meat ; for every time the stomach of a coarser make; whence we see the is over.loaded, the strength is imnecessity of keeping the mind easy, paired, and its neryes are disorderquiet, and chearful; since nothing ed. hurts nervous people more than fear, Above all things, heavy suppers grief, and anxiety. Use therefore ought to be avoided; since the sto. agreeable amusements, and a little mach is much more apt to be oppressfight, entertaining and diverting ed with the same quantity of food, in reading, that requires no thought; an horizontal position, than in an erect for all study is penicious and hurtful. posture ; and since the digestion goes Conversation ihould be agreeable, on flower in time of deep than whien trifling, and easy, without dispute or awake, as the vessels are then much contradiction ; amusements be inno- relaxed. cent, various, and not expensive; It is a great blessing, that loathing otherwise, upon reflection the money and inappetency, in fome degree, atlaid out would do more hurt, than tend all disorders; which prevent mathe amusements could recompence. ny people from infallibly and quickly In a word, all thought and care muft ruining themselves without resource. be laid aside: and rationality must Those who have only a few transient
A NECESSARY CAUTION.
301 toms, and are but in the firft stage of ther, a secret one, but little thought nervous diseases, should live with a of: That is, the cruel ftifling them in due degree of temperance suited to their dark prison, and not suffering their conftitution ; and abate a little them once to see the light. of the quantity of their food, while It is therefore greatly to be regretthey are more immediately under the ted, that the prevention of this crying fymptoms. Indeed, if the disorder is mischief hould be so much disregard deep, and hath continued so long as ed in all places; for the pregnant woto produce more violent symptoms, men are in all parts buried with their then there is a neceffity to be ftill more fruit, which frequently are alive, careful.
without the least remorse, or scruple Drink small beer, soft fine ale, or of conscience. wine and water; but never use water Reason and example prove that the alone. Wine in excels enfeebles the fætus in utero has its own distinct life ; body, and impairs the faculties of the and experience teaches, that although soul; but a few glasses of wine in time the mother be dead, the child may of eating, affift digefion. A glass of frequently live several hours in the wine, before dinner, on an empty fto- womb: The extraction and preservamach, and when one is languid, fee- tion, of children by the Cæsarian opeble, or faint is of great service. Wine, ration, timely performed, after the in general, is preferable to malt li- decease of the mother, proves the quor; the best wine is rhenith, moun. fame. tain, or small French wine. When If the fætus indeed remains along the stomach and bowels are troubled time in utero, of the dead mother, it with acidity, water mixed with rum must needs at length die : but if not or brandy, is preferable to wine, or buried alive, which is a shocking remalt liquor. That too common Aection, the loss of its life may be of. drink tea, is very hurtful, both to ten imputed to the bad neglect of the stomach and nerves, especially if opening the mother. drank hot, with little bgead. I would Harvey, de generatione animalium, I therefore recommend, not to the think, tells us of a child taken out of disuse, but the more moderate use of the secundines alive, (which a wench tea: It were well, if something else had brought forth entire, and conwas joined with it in the morning." cealed in the cold) several hours after
We can only afford room for these birth. preliminaries to the cure; but would And if prostitutes are punished, recommend the nervous patient to as an example to others, who destroy the book itself for the doctor's medi. the fruit of their body, born at a procines, and form of administration, per time, by neglecting the ligature which we imagine are justified, with of the umbilical chord (though that a few exceptions, by general practise. does not always prove fatal) or other The Doctor next treats of a nervous necesary care, by which neglect the fever ; its causes and cure ; of convul. infant perishes, it surely appears that fions, spasms, nervous and hysteric fits great care ought to be taken that such with their cure; of an epilepsy; of an impious neglect, as now complained the palsy, and St. Vitus's dance, an of, should be provided against, as the apoplexy, &c. &c. all which we re- extraction of such children from the commend to the perusal of the curious womb may eafily be performed, and reader ; but if he is an hypochondriac, the infant thereby be happily snatched we would advise him neither to read out of the jaws of death. this nor any physical book of the fame Some time ago I was hastily called tendency.
at ten at night, to a patient who died
before morning of a strangulation from To the AUTHOR of the LONDON a sudden sore throat, big with child, MAGAZINE,
and near her time. I could certainly SIR, Leigh, April 18, 1768. have saved the child, only as her hus. MONG the many causes of the band had left her the noon before, for
great mortality of babes I sent London, when she was seemingly well, you in my last account, there is ano. I could not answer to open her witti