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Á S P E E C H.

353 A SPE E C H.

rests of a few who govern, are diffeI .

F the noble lord, who is so anxious rent from those of the many, who are ftantly shut against strangers, had con- noble lord will not insinuate, that the tented himself with insisting, that there house of and the people of is a standing order to this effect, and Great Britain have different or sepathat a standing order should be strict rate interests from each other, or that ly observed, I should have thought it we can have any vieyys, which it may my duty to submit to his lordship’s import us to conceal from our constimotion, though I confess with some re- tuents. Such a case may possibly hap. luctance. But when the noble lord, not pen hereafter, but I am sure it cannot satisfied with an authority paramount be said with any appearance of truth to all argument, thinks it necesary to of the present house of give reasons for his opinion, he seems to His lordship tells us, that by admitting admit that the point is at least dispu- ftrangers to hear our debates, the table; therefore I hope he will permit speeches of the members are soon me to offer some reasons to the house, carried abroad and generally misrewhy I differ from him entirely. presented. Perhaps it may be fo;

The only tolerable pretence for re- but will barring our doors prevent fusing admittance to strangers of de. that inconvenience ; does he think cent appearance and behaviour, is, that in an assembly of above five lett there should not be room for the hundred persons, the discourses held members to attend to business with here will not be carried abroad, eale and convenience to themselves. will not be misrepresented ? the memWhenever this happens, and we all ber of this house are neither bound to know how seldom it does happen, secrecy, nor is our memory or judge every member has a right (and I dare ment infallible. But if his anxiety say his lordship will seldom fail to turns chiefly upon this point, I would make use of it) to move that the house with him to consider that a stranger, may be cleared. In every other light, who sits quietly in the gallery, is much I think that, so far from being offend. more likely to retain, with exactness, ed at the presence of strangers, we what be comes on purpose to hear, fhould wish to have as many witnefies than a member who perhaps is inte. as possible of all our proceedings. rested in the debate, and who probaWhat his lordhip’s motives may be, bly hears the arguments on one side I cannot pretend to determine ; but, with prejudice, while he listens with for my own part, as I am neither partiality to those of the other. Shall alhamed nor afraid of what I say in we then, sir, without any reasonable this house, I care nor how soon, or motive whatsoever, give this house the how universally it is reported abroad. appearance of a foreign inquifition? We are not a council of state, nor is fall it be said that a British boule of it our business to deliberate upon, or

makes laws for the people, direct the secret operations of govern- as some flavish courts of judicature ment, though it be our duty toine- abroad try state criminals, januis clautimes to enquire into them. We are fois ? To the honour of our courts of the representatives of the people, and justice, they are open to all mankind in effect a popular assembly. To aim to make them respectable in the eyes at secrecy in our debates, would not of the people. We are not indeed a only be a vain and ridiculous attempt, court of judicature, but every argubut, I apprehend, absolutely contrary ment for opening the courts in Westto the principle upon which this house minster-hall operates with equal or is constituted. It would be turning a greater force upon us. We are a podemocratical assembly into the forny pular assembly.--. There is nothing of an aristocracy. The nobility of secret in the nature of our business...a Venice wisely bar the doors of their By publishing our votes we admit that Tenate-house, because they are not the the nation has a right to be informed representatives, but the tyrants of of our proceedings. But above all, the people. Such a policy may be it is of the bighest importance to the prudent and necellary, where the inte- people to know the tensiinents and July, 1768.





A REMARKABLE PROTEST. July conduct of each particular member, 5. The earl of Buchan. that they may be able to form a just 6. The earl of Eglington. judgment of our integrity and ability, 7. The earl of Strathmore. and in what manner we support the 8. The earl of Abercorn. interests of our constituents. And 9. The earl of Loudon, Thall motives such as these have no 10. The earl of March. weight with us ? fhall our in hospitable 11. The earl of Marchmont. doors be closed, because one member 12. The earl of Dunmore. is afraid of being misrepresented ? I 13. The earl of Roseberry, with the noble lord was as cautious of 14. The earl of Bute. what he writes in other places, as of 15. Lord viscount Stormont. what he says here. But in that re- 16. The lord Cathcart." fpect he has taken care to be perfectly After the election his lordship enfafe. The military manifesto, which tered the following protest, which he has thought proper to give under they had the m—ss to refuse to put his hand, is too plain to be misundere in the minutes. stood, and too bad to be misrepre

PROTEST. sented. [Polit. Reg.]

willing that my name, or the names Account of the Election of Sixteen Scots of such peers of Scotland, as may think Peers.

proper to adhere to this my proteft, SIR,

should be handed down to posterity, as S you have a great gusto for fresh joining or acquiescing in a ministerial I have taken the earliest opportunity fixteen peers to represent the peerage of transmitting to you, an account of of Scotland in parliament, do proteit, the proceedings of, what is common. in my own name, and in the names of ly called the election of fixteen of the all those who shall adhere to this my Scottish peerage at Edinburgh, to protestation, That, whereas a list of represent that community; (in other fixteen peers for Scotland has been fra. words the Congé d'Elire, pour Ecofe.) I med, long before the time of this happened to be in Scotland at the election, by persons in high trust un. ume, and as I write the short-hand as der the crown, and that such lifts well, I believe, as any of that posté have been in a most scandalous man. who came down to Edinburgh, on ner called by the most sacred name of occasion of the Douglas cause, I am the King's Lift, to the prostitution of enabled to give you a description au. that most venerable authority, which thentic enough of the business, and it is well known cannot be used conof the earl of Duchan's proteit, whichi, ftitutionally in matters of election, defor the honor of Scotland, I beg clared to be free by the most imporleave just to observe, was neither sign- tant charters of Britilh liberty. And, ed nor feconded by one of that illur. likewise, when we consider, that this trious fraternity, nor did one peer ad- list has been daringly thewn by the venture to vote for Lord Buchan in minister to several peers now present preference to Lord Je, although in this asembly, and the contents of ihat lord was entally unknown, and it supported and conveyed, by still that the earl had offered himself, above more daring agents, to other peers fix weeks before, on the basis of a free likewise now present, to the fubverelection ; but I add no more : " Let fion of the freedom of election, by the stricken deer go weep."

intimidating those who were to give When it came to the vote of the earl their suffrages for fixteen men, who of Buchan, his lorifhip stood up, and are to be veited with the depoît of the taid, “ My lords, Without the least de liberties of the order, and capable of terence to the miniier or his agents, I operating, in a most remarkable manvote for the following peers :

ner, upon the liberties of the 1. The duke of Gordon.

-, and of the nation in 2. The duke of Argil.

general, when we consider these mat3. The duke of Atholl.

ters, we cannot but be filled with the 4. The earl of Niorton.

highest indignation, at the attempts,



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Letter to the Earl of Shelburne.

355 which have been but too successfully timated to the speaker of the house bis made, to reduce the election of the desire of having a copy of a certain fixteen peers for Scotland to a mere letter, which the house had directed to ministerial nomination, at once dis. be sent to the speakers of the several graceful to the community, and sube houses of assembly in the other coloversive of the freedom of parliaments. nies, a copy of which, it is presumed,

BUCHAN.” will be laid before your lorddhip, the I shall make no comment on what is house appointed a committee to wait gone before, and shall only add, that on his excellency, and acquaint him, I am your constant reader

that they were ready to lay ore him (Polit. Reg.]

John Bull. the said letter, and their whole pro

ceedings, relating to an important af. An Account of the Expences of his pre- fair than before them, if he should de

fent Majesty's State-Coach, made in fire it. And the same committee was the Year 1762.

directed, humbly to request his excel

1. d. lency to favour the house with a copy Coachmaker

of your lord thip's letter, together with Carver


his own letters to which it referred : Gilder

933 14 Whereupon meflages paffed between Painter


the governor and the house, which the Laceman

737 10

houte beg leave to inclose to your Chaser

665 4 6 Lordfhip. Harness-maker

385 150 As the house think they have just Mercer

5 10 grounds of suspicion, that his excel. Bitt-maker

99 6 6

lency's letters to your Lordship contain, Millener

31 3 4 at least, an implication or charge and Sadler

10 16 6

accusation against them, which they Woollen-draper

4 3


are kept in ignorance of; they rely Cover-maker

3 9


upon your known candour and justice,

that upon this their humble request, 9562 4 31 you will be pleased to give orders that

copies be laid before the house of reA Letter to the Right Hon. the Earl of presentatives; that they may have the

Shelburne, occafioned by bis Lordship's opportunity of vindicating themselves Letter to bis Excellency Governor Ber- and their constituents, and of happily nard. (See p. 306.)

removing from your mind an opinion Massachusett's-Bay, Feb.22, 1768. of them, grounded, as your Lordship My Lord,

might then reasonably judge, upon IS excellency governor Bernard good information, as having behaved to the secretary of this province to read ter of loyal subjects. They hope you to the house of representatives a letter will be so favourable as to fulpend your he had received from your Lordthip, further judgment of them, till they dated Whitehall, the 17th of Septem can be made acquainted with the matber, 1767 ; which having done, the ters that may have been alledged a. secretary withdrew, without leaving a gainst them, and can make their decopy as usual.

fence. In the mean time, they beg The house were both grieved and leare just to mention to your Lordship, astonished, to find your Lordfhip un- that the elections of the last May, so der a necessity of expressing such unta- far as this house had a part in them, vourable sentiments of the two houles were made with a freedom and delibeof the general asembly, as well as of ration suitable to the imporiance of some particular members of this house, them : That they were influenced by altogether strangers to you, with re- no motives, but the prosperity of his gard to the election of counsellors in majesty's government, and the happiMay last. They observed that your neis of his subjects ; that the nonLordship’s letter tad a reference to le- election of several gentlemen of diveral of his excellency's letters, upon itinguished character and Itation, was which your sentiments seemed to be by no means the effect of party prejuformed ; and as his excellency had in- dice, private relentment, or motives



Y y z


Remonftrance from New-England. July ftill more blameable; but the result of the following among other represencalm reflection upon the danger that tations. might accrue to our excellent constitu. “ The blessings of the British con. tion, and the liberties of the people, ftitution will for ever keep the subjects from too great an union of the legislac in this province united to the mother tive, executive, and judiciary powers ftate, as long as the sentiments of li. of government, which, in the opi- berty are preserved : But what liberty nion of the greatest writers, ought al- can remain to them, when their proways to be kept separate : Nor was perty, the fruit of their toil and in. this a new opinion, formed at a cer- dustry, and the prop of all their fu. tain period; but it has been the pre- ture hopes in life, may be taken from vailing sentiment of the most sensible them at the discretion of others ? and unexceptionable gentlemen in the It has, till of late, been the invarią. province for many years past, upon ble usage for his majesty's requisitions principles which your lordship's tho- to be laid before their own represenrough knowledge of the constitution, tatives : And their aid has not been and the just balance of the several tributary, but the free and voluntary powers of government, this house is gift of all: The change is in its nas assured, wil jukify. And although ture delicate and important; your his excellency was pleased to exercise lordships will judge whether there be his undoubied right of negativing any necefsity or pressing reasons for it: some of the gentlemen elected, the The house are not intensible that the house have had no reason to alter their colonies have their enemies, who may opinion of them, as being unexcep-' have misrepresented them to his mationable, in point of ability, fortune, jesty's ministers and the parliament, as and character. They beg pardon for feditious, difoyal, and disposed to set this further trouble given to your up an independency on Great Britain : Lordhip, which they could not avoid, But they rely upon the candour of being sollicitous to set their conduct your lordships judgment: They can in its true point of light before you; affirm, that with regard to this proand they rely upon your known jus- vince, and, they presume all the cotice, that you will intercede with the lonies, the charge is injurious and unthrone for this province. They are just.. The superintending authority assured, that your Lordihip will not of his majesty's high court of parliasuffer a province to be misrepresented, ment, the supreme legislature over the even by persons in station here; and whole empire, is as clearly admitted if there be any such, they fatter here as in Britain ; so far as is conthemselves that their removal will ren- fiftent with the fundamental rules of der this people happy in the esteem of the constitution; and it is not further the parent country, and much more admissible there. so in the smiles of the best of kings. The house are humbly in opinion,

Signed by the Speaker. that a representation of their constitu. The house of Representatives of ents, in that high court, by reason of New England have transmitted, among local circumstances, will for ever be other letters to several of the great offi- impracticable: And that his majesty's cers of state, one to the lords commis- royal predecessors were graciously plea. fioners of the treasury, dated Feb. 17, sed, by charter, to erect a leginative in which the house beg leave to lay power in the province, as perfectly free before their lordthips the great diffi. as a subordination would admit, that the culties to which they are reduced, by subjects here might enjoy the unalienthe operation of divers acts of parlia- able right of a representation. And ment, imposing duties, m be levied on further, that the nation hath ever since the subjects of the American colonies, considered them as subjects, though and made with the fole and express remote, and conceded to acts of their purpose of railing a revenue : And fubordinate legitlation. Their char. They intreat the favour of their lord- ter is a check upon them, and effectuMips candid judgment and great inte. ally secures their dependance on Great red in the national councils for redreis: Britain; for no acts can be in force To induce them to which, they make till the king's governor has given bis


17 68.

Use of Tobacco, in Fumigation.

357 assent; and all laws that are made are advice of his friends he was persuaded laid before his majesty, who at any to learn the practice of smoking totime, during three years after they bacco, which he foon did, and, during are made, may disannul them at his the fumigation, to wet his finger flightroyal pleasure. Under this check, the ly with the faliva then tinctured with house humbly conceive, a representa- the fumes of the tobacco, and with tion in parliament cannot be necessary this finger wet his upper eye lids so as for the nation, and for many reasons to keep them moist during the time of it cannot be eligible to them: All they his smoking. This practice at the defire is to be placed on their original rate of no more than two pipes in a ftanding : That they may still be hap- day, recovered his fight fo'well in three py in the enjoyment of their invalua. weeks time as to enable him to read ble privileges, and the nation may without spectacles, and with rarely still reap the advantage of their growth more than one pipe in a day afterwards, and prosperity,

not to want the use of them till he was The house intreat your lordships near eigliły years of age, about which patience one moment longer, while time he died. The author of this stothey just mention the danger they ap. ry was a person of remarkable good prehend to their liberties, if the sense and memory, and in giving her crown, in addition to its uncontro. teftimony to it could entertain no por. verted right of appointing a gover

lible motive to misrepresentation or nor, should also appoint him a fti falsiood; other examples of success in pend at the expence of the people, this practice have been well known to and without their consent. And, al myself-one, in the case of a person so, whether, as the judges, and other turned of fixty, who has been thence civil officers of the province, do not enabled to relinquish the ute of spectahold commissions during good beha- cles; another, that of a clergyman of viour, there is not a probability, that the same age, who was a man of emiarbitrary rule may in some time take nent learning and piety, read and effect, to the subversion of the princiwrote much, and from this application, ples of equity and justice, and the and that of bathing his eyelids now and ruin of liberty and virtue.

then with tar-water, defended himself It is humbly hoped, that your lord- from the necessity of spectacles till he ships will conceive a favourable opi. was near seventy. He was upon the nion of the people of the province; point of taking to them several years and that you will patronize their lie before fixty, but assured me, that he berties, so far as in your great wisdom convinced this method bad and candour you shall judge to be strengthened his fight in the manner right.

here described. Signed by the Speaker." In regard to myself, my usual prac

tice is one pipe in the evening, but To the AUTHOR of the LONDON this not every day; sometimes indeed MAGAZINE.

two, but were it not for the purpose SIR,

abovementioned, I hould very rarely He following matters of fact re- smoke at all. From my daily engageT

ment for several hours in reading or migation are what I cannot but elteem writing or both (few days excepted) worth the notice of the publick, and, I cannot but infer the utility of this if this is your opinion too, e'en publish practice in my own case, and am senthem.

sible of as much strength in the use of A gentlewoman of my acquaintance my eyes, now at forty-four, as I enlate deceased, amused me one day with joyed at twenty-eight. And let me the following account of one of her here obviate an objection, viz. that near relations, viz. About the age of neither the exactest regularity in the forty his eyes grew so weak and dim, quality, nor temperance in the quanthat he was obliged to have recourse tity, of diet ; proportion of exercise, to spectacles, the use of which he con- or firmness of conititution will exempt tinued for a fhort time, only till the from fatigue and weakness the limb following application of common to- that is encumbered with afliduous apbacco entirely superseded it. By the plication; which would undoubtedly



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