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Tobacco excellent for the Eyes.

July by degrees sink under the burden, were of difcernment to ascertain in what it not enabled by artificial helps to cases this is useful or prejudicial, and keep pace with it’s fellow members in to what degree it may be used with it's progress to decay. Prevention moderation. therefore is the beft remedy: for if the That the use of smoking common aslistance here proposed, or any other tobacco in a moderate way is not preis deferred, till the power of refraction judicial to the eyes is, in my opinion, in the natural lens is once so far weak- abundantly evident from the many ened, as to demand the use of the ar- instances of old people continuing the tificial, the recovery in that case will use of that and their fight together to not render the eye so firm and effective, a very late period of life. This negaas it might have proved by the uniform tive proof, together with the positive use of a preventive, like wounds in the ones I have advanced, and others of a body, which may be healed and dura- like kind which I have from time to bly closed, but the part affected can time read, owing to the use of the celenever receive such a solid, incorpora. brated British herb, and other private tion as there was in the original com- confiderations, have confirmed my pofition.

convictions, methinks beyond the The tobacco here used in two of the power of defeat. I cannot therefore last mentioned instances was a discre- embrace all this evidence in favour of tionary compound of British herbs ga- my subject without puffing it off to thered, and dried, shred and mixed you and the world; to the service of with tobacco in the proportion of two which I hope to dedicate my eyes, as to one. Even common tobacco I ap- long as they retain any fire in them, prehend to be of much service this way; and continue in a better condition than but not nearly so much as the mixed. that of dust and ashes. With respect to the usefulness of to- I have only to add, that the examples bacco differing in different constitu- here alledged in proof are absolute facts, tions, or it's production of heats, and well worth credit-Sure, I should relaxations, stupefactions, &c. bluh to find any person whatsoever riously, in the smoker, these must be smoke the cheat, and blast the name submitted both to better judgments, of yours, &c. and to personal experience ; but in Dorset, May 18, 1768. CLERICUS. this latter case private examples may be easily led into mistake either from To the AUTHOR of the LONDON the excess, or the unreasonableness of

MAGAZINE. the practice, to which they may have variety of temptations, from company, The Spirit of Churchism farther explaining liquor, pasime, even solitude itself

itself;- no reforination! However, the eyes are a part of the

SIR, human constitution, liable, perhaps, third letter to the author of the to the least exception of any, and con- confeffionalabounds with matter. sequently more capable of generai ap- I shall beg the favour of laying before plications.

the pablic a few remarks upon it, by In the medical use of common to- the channel of your very reputable bacco there are many subjects in whom and extentive Magazine. it operates as a gentle aperitive; tho' Civil ejiablishments of religion do harm: even this, probably, by relaxation : upon the whole, where the people, with But the effect of it in drying the brain, out them, would have better notions of hurrying secretions, wasting the nu- religion, than they have with them." P. tritious fluids, or accelerating intenfi- 29, a conceilion, that is erough of all ble perspiration, is most probably the conscience, to blow up--and yet, this result of it's abuse; in foine of which church-defender has given us full ar. caies I have received burt from the surance, that there thall be no reforexcess of it several times. Without mation in such matters which are doubt, the efficacy, of leveral medio complained of by the author of the cines has been disowned by means of Coniesional.---This our doctor says hatty and injudicious conclusions expressly, p. 144. Now the doctrine of formed upon their trial, and therefore the trinity is what we cannot ever give it requires a very competent degree up.--To prove he is in earnest, we


Spirit of Churchism, &c. .

359 find him reproaching and reviling se- And who would not rather chuse to veral of the most venerable characters, subscribe this creed of Mohammed, who have done the greatest honour to as it respects God and Jesus Christ, the English church establishment. The than either the Athanafian, or Nicené commodious cafuiftry of Clayton, Clarke, creed?... Did not the Athanafian here. Sykes, and others P. 107,--. in p. 32 hefy give Mohammed the greatest adSpeaks of the obliging sophiftry of Dr. vantage, in the credit that was at first Clarke the poisonous sophiftry intro- given to his Koran? And is it not duced in 1712, P. 93, comp. p. 105, at this day the sheet anchor of popery in the point of subscribing in the sub- and of all church tyranny ? scribers own sense, and not in that The letter writer, nevertheless denies of the imposers. Surely this must be that thechurch of England hasany leanpoisonous sophistry!-But proposals of ings towards popery, p. 164. In a more small changes may introduce great ones, full confutation of this, see An inquiry inp. 110. not any reforming attempt can to the causes which obstructed the reformahave the least countenance. And to tion, and hath hitherto prevented its give the Athanasian greater spirit, and progress. Printed for T. Becket, &c. bribe his passions on the side of that 1768. An excellent little pamphlet. heresy, this doctor has placed the uni- Our L. W. has advanced some other tarian in a light, which he thought popish principles, as in p. 23, where the most obnoxious! For he tells his be puts the question, who shall be judge readers p. 160, where he had been to of what is read in fcripture or may get his information---and that there is be thereby proved? -She for herseli: an authentic instrument in the archbisbop's Every private person, who thinks he can library at Lambeth, in which a number for bimself;---This he mumbles--- his of English Socinians apply to the emperor meaning is more intelligible, p. 28, of Morocco and his subjects as their bre- where he rallies the notion of the ibren in the faith, p. 160. Here- common people being able to judge by our church-defender thinks, he for themselves the sense of scripture, has effectually disgraced the Unitarians, and so far from defending Bithop ClayBut does he know that the belief of ton's principles or practices.-- in his one God, is the first principle of all judgment, doubtless every difsenter does true religion? And that Jesus Christ harm : yet be may accidentally do good, himself has said, that this is life eternal by making others more studious and cira to know thee the only true God, and Je- cumspect, p. 29. However, focieties, be sus Christ thy mellenger? And does not says, Jbould bear with the harm, because Mahommed, in his Koran, ask, chap. it must be prejumed to proceed, without 27. “Is there any other God partner bad intention, from the imperfeflion of with the true God ?" And in Koran, buman nature: and intolerance of tolerachap. 5. “ They are surely infidels, ble opinions and practices would do much who say, verily, God is Christ the son more barm.--- Here truly, the protelof Mary; fince Christ said, O children tant diflenter is treated with more of Israel! Serve God, my Lord and tenderness than he has lately been from your Lord; whosoever thall give a the pulpit in R-I C.--), where it companion unto God, God Mall exclude was said April 17, in the ear of M.--y, him from paradise *"-..will this Atha. that the protestant diffent was nasian be able to sew us any thing in from conscience; but from vanity, consistent in the address of the English perverseness, &c."... This made me Socinians, when they owned the Mo- imagine, that we are going to have a hammedans their brethren in the faitian new edition of Queen Anne's four last of the one God, and of Jesus Christ's years !---our L. W. we own, is more owning the one God, his Lord ?... favourable. And yet, every difsenter Or can he tell us, what impropriety does barm. In what? why, in aflerting there would be in an Unitarian calling and maintaining the rights of private a Jew his brother, in the faith of the judgment, and in suffering no human one God? It does not appear that authority to be exerciled over his the English Socinians did ever own faith or conscience, in religious mat

that Mohammed was the prophet of ters.--. daring wretch! tread upon him. . the one God, and in that sense Monam- Our doctor, tenacious of bis Atha. medans were their brethren.

nafian heresy can thus rally the au

thor * Sale’s Koran, vol. 1, p. 146, printed 1764.

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360 E X C E L L Ε Ν Τ. July thor of the Confessional. An excellent able for the noblest and most merito. reformer! to feed the ignorance and pre- rious exertion of all those powers judice of the people by indulging them the which God has given them. ufe of creeds which are not agreeable 10 It is farther infinuated, that a Brijcripture ! on what principles can this be tish-protestant-prince may be put into jullified? I suppojë you learned it from circumstances that would justify his apTurretine and your fri:nds at Geneva” plying even to the pope for his assistance. p. 155. One would be aftoniihed at a Perhaps it may be jaid, diftrefy princes man's using such staring addrels, with may be glad 10 compound with his holiness the two myftical creeds in his right for some power, agains rebellious subjekts hand.

who would grant him none. Let such The farther to assure us, no refor- . rebellious subjects consider this, wobo, front mation can take place in the church, their principles of election and grace, enhe informs us, In the principal points of deavour to drive their princes into this faith and worship, the bishops and clergy distress. As to Charles the first, all his wanted no alterations ; not even under injuries from the Calvinists could not drive George the second," p. 113.

bim into popery, although his queen was Once, indeed, I find him mentioning affiduous to intice bim to it," p. 87. real corruptions or deficiences. But he A worse idea, a more debaling and says that we are not to judge of what more detestable one cannot be formed things are so, or of what moment, or of any British Prince! Nor a fuller what may be hoped or feared from proof given of his anti-protestant-spirit, them, but, of all these things those than his taking such a scandalous reonly in high stations, are, each to judge fuge.--. Neither did papal Rome stand for himself, this appears to be his rea- in need of more evidence than they soning p. 153:

had of Charles's favourable dispositions which leads me to notice one or towards popery. It therefore could not two strictures of his political principles. be any other than the influence which The author of the Confesional had his popith queen had over him, that led oblerved, that the English Arnnnians, him to every violation of law, and of at the Synod of Dort, had advanced the rights of a free people; which indefeasible hereditary right, jure divi- brought him into all his diftreffes : His n0; by means of which doctrine, re- tyranny was the mere result of popish sistance, even to a Nero or a Caligula, counsels. Nor could he have abused became a damnable fin. Upon which and perverted the ends of government, the doctor says. But why by means of had he not been a most despicable deibis doctrine ? St. Paul, who probably votee of Rome....But why should this bad never heard of it, pronounces rejij: oppofition to him be ascribed to the iance to Nero a damnable fin. Now St. principles of election and grace, when Paul cannot be mistaken by any care- the articles of the church of E. avow ful readers, for he expressly fays, that thele principles ? and yet the moft rulers are not a terror to good works, zealous defenders of them are for non. but to the evil.-.. Do that which is good refifiance and paflive obedience?...Witand thou shalt have praise of the jame: neis the letter-writer. For he is the minifier of God to thre for An Advocate for religious Liberty, good. For though, as a minifier of God, be is a revenger to wrath upon him that Extract from the Rev. Mr. Blackburne's doetb evil: Yet he is not, as a minijier of Confiderations on the present State God, such a wrathful revenger on kim of the Controversy between the Pro. ibat is a doer of right things. Reliltance testants and Papiits of Great Britain therefore to Nero, when he did not be- and Ireland, &c. have in character as a fupreme magis. “ trate, could not incurr damnation ;


E reem, in matters of reli.

gion, to be arrived at a very neither in the judgment of St. Paul, interesting crisis, wherein the prophecy nor in the realon and truth of things. of our blesed Saviour, namely, that It could not, because the weal of the “ because of the abounding of iniquity, people is the divine end of government; the love of many thall wax cold," is and not the arbitrary will of the prince. fulfilled among us, as visibly at least as -- But if it was a damnable fin to re- it has been among Christians of any A a tyrant, mankind would be punishe other period since the prophecy was


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361 delivered. There seems to be at this their own duty nor that of their time not only a general coolness to teachers, and who, defiring to be in. wards the protestant religion, as dif- dulged in their turn, are ready enough tinguished from the spirit and practices to screen themselves under examples, of popery, but likewise a general inat who, they will say, would certainly tention to those interests of the tempo- direct them to a better practice, if a ral as well as of the spiritual kind, better practice was necessary. which it was the glory and praise of But let no man deceive himself with our ancestors to support.

vain words. In any general calamity, Unhappily for the public, as well as such as a return of popery would bring individuals, the fashion of the times upon us, even these thoughtless men prevails too often in religion, as well must suffer as well as others, either by as in matters of less importance. The submitting to a remorseless ecclesiastiword of God, for which the poor cal tyranny, or by a merciless vengepeople hungred and thirsted in the be. ance for opposing it, and will then be ginning of the reformation, now that sufficiently awake to see clearly from it is set open to every one with the whence their sufferings are derived; greatest freedom, seems, in too many and would be the first to reproach those instances, to be despised and neglected, who have flattered them in their llumlike other thirgs, which lose their va- bers, and complied with them in those lue, when they lose their novelty. follies and dissipations, which now Many seem, now, even to pride them- keep them secure and insensible of the Selves in their ignorance, and to think common danger. It will be our hapthemselves happy in being able to ex. piness and our comfort in such an cuse their ungodly, fraudulent, or im. evil day, to have the testimony of our moral practices, on the pretence of consciences, that we have not ceased to wanting learning, or what they call warn every one, within our respective scholarship ; unmindful that he who is departments, of the just judgments of wilfully ignorant of his Lord's will, God upon those who either neglect the when he may have the opportunity care of their salvation in the world to of learning it, will be beaten with as come, or undervalue the means of many stripes, as he who knows it, and working it out to the greatest advandoth it not; and that the few stripes tage, which have been so bountifully mentioned in the parable are allotted afforded and so repeatedly preserved to those only, from whom their mass and rescued from the destructive jaws ter's will is concealed by some unavoi- of popish tyranny and arbitrary power, dable obstruction or incapacity. by the vigilance of a gracious provi

On another hand, it has been ob- dence, over this particular country,
served, that a selfish spirit prevails too perhaps without example in any
much in those concerns wherein our other."
very conftitution is at stake.
public, fay fome people, is the last The Bat. From British Zoology, lately
thing that is cared for, even by those

classes of men, who, both by their sta.
tion and abilities, are under the high-

HIS fingular animal was placed

by Pliny, Gesner, Aldrovan. eft obligations to consult its welfare, dus, and some other naturalists, among without which individuals can have no the birds : they did not consider, that security for their peace, their property, it wanted every character of that oror even their very existence."

der of animals, except the power of This state of the case must turn the flying : if the irregular, uncertain, and eyes and expectations, of those who jerking motion of the bat in the air, perceive the approaching effects of can merit the name of flight. No birds this indifference, upon the clergy, of whatsoever are furnished with teeth or course. Their conduct will be marked bring forth their young alive, and by the judicious few, though the secu- fuckle them : Were other notes want. Jar and nothful among them may be ing, these would be suficient to de. indulged and even applauded for con- termine that the bat is a quadruped. forming to the fashion of the times, by

The Spe

now described, is the those who, thunning the light of the larger of the two kinds found in EngGospel themselves, neither understand land; and the most common: the usual July, 1768.

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Sketch of the Trial

July of it, is ahout two inches and a half : A cursory Sketch of the Trial of Samuel the extent of the fore-legs nine inches.. Gillam, Ejq; for Murder.

The members that are usually called the wings, are nothing more than the ONDAY morning (July 11) four interior toes of the fore-feet, pro

, duced to a great length, and connected Gillam, Eq; one of his majesty's by a thin membrane; which extends juftices of the peace for the county of also to the hind legs; and from thein Surry, was tried at the Seslions-house to the tail: The first toe is quite loose, in the Old Bailey, for the murder of and serves as a heel, when the bat one Redburn, a weaver, in St.George's walks ; or as a hook, when it would fields, on Tuesday the 10th of last adhere to any thing. The hind feet May, by giving orders to a party of are disengaged from the membrane, the Third Regiment of Guards to fire and divided into five toes, furnithed upon the populace, which order be. with pretty strong claws. The mem- ing complied with, Redburn unfortubranes are of a dusky colour: The nately lost his life. body is covered with mort fur, of a The prosecution on this trial was mouse.colour, tinged with red. The conducted in the name of Redburn's eyes, are very small : the ears like those widow, and in the course of the evi. of the mouse.

dence against the prisoner it appeared, This species of bat is very common that a prodigious concourse of disor. in England : It makes its first appear- derly people had assembled on Mon. ance early in the summer, and begins day the gth of May, in St. George's its Aight in the duik of the evening : Fields, where after they had continued It principally frequents the sides of a confiderable time, exclaiming Wilkes > woods, giades, and thady walks; and and Liberty, they made an attack upon is also frequently observed to skim along the King's-Bench prison, threw stones the surface of pieces of water, in quest into the marshal's house, and at length of gnats and infećts : these are not its burst open the outward gate of the only food; for it will eat meat of any prison, to the inexpressible terror of kind that it happens to find hanging the keepers, who not only apprehende up, in a larder,

ed that the prisoners would, in this The bat brings only two young at a confusion, make their escape, but time ; which it suckles from two teats imagined that their own lives must placed on the breast, like those of the be inevitably endangered if they re. human race: For this reason, Linnus lifted the ungovernable fury of the has claffed this animal in the same or- rioters. Notwithstanding these appreder with mankind; and has honoured hentions, however, the keepers guard. both with the common title of Priced the inner doors of the prison so mates, or the chiefs of the creation. successfuily, that the mob disperfed

Towards the latter end of summer, without effecting their purpose. But the bat retires into caves, ruined the marthal dreading their return the buildings, the roofs of houles, or hol. next day, and fearing till greater low trees; where it remains the whole outrages from their turbulence, apwinter in a state of inaction ; suspend. plied to the inagistrates for assistance, ed by the hind feet, and closely and a party both of horse and foot wrapped up in the membranes of the guards was ordered to be in constant fore-feet.

readiness to give every necessary sup: The voice of the bat is (omewhat port to the civil authority. like that of the mouse; but very low, Next Day, as the marshal suspected, and weak. Ovid takes notice both of the mob came, encreased greatly in that, and the derivation of its Latin number, to St. George's Fields, ex

claiming as before, Wilkes and Liberty; Lucemque pero e

and appearing not only from the cirNocłe volante, ieroque tenent a ves- cumstance of their increase, but from pere nomen.

the tenor of their exclamation, to be Minimam pro corpore vocem

determined upon a repetition of their Emittunt peraguntque levi stridore outrages, the magistrates, attended i querelas.

by the guards, judged it absolutely Met. lib. iv. 10. necellary to Itand forth for the pre



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