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: 1768.


363 servation of the peace, the honour of subjects who are capable of bearing the laws, and the security of govern- arms; that he is empowered to arm ment. Among the magistrates, thus them with such weapons as are molt discharging their duty, Mr. Gillam likely to quell any rivt, and that conwas very much distinguished. He sequently if he has a right to give expoftulated in the gentlelt terms with them arms, he has a right to direct the populace, on the dangers which the use of these arms, as he judges rewere likely to arise from such an ille. quifite for the preservation of the peace. gal asiembly, and made use of every His lordship mortover observed, that argument to disperse then, which a magistrate upon proper application could be offered by reason, or urged to him, was obliged to take eve.y poiliby humanity.- -Ushappily, how. ble method to suppress riots, which erer, his expoftulations, as well as are, of all other things, the most difthose of the other justices, were whol. graceful as well as the moit dangerous ly disregarded they preached to the infractions of the laws of the commu. winds—and were reduced to the dila- nity: Unless the peace was preserved, greeable necessity of reading the pro- he judiciously added, that we hati no clamation: But though the confe- security for our property, our lives quences were fully explained to the or what was still more valuable, our inconsiderate rioters, though they were liberty; and therefore as the magistrate informed that all, who remained an was obliged to stand forth in times of hour after the proclamation was read, necesity, for the support of the laws, would be guilty of felony, without be- the laws had expreisly declared, that nefit of the clergy, they were as in. he should be indemnised for any persensible to threats as to exhortations, fonal injuries, which, in the execution and not only histed, hooted, and re- of his duty, fnould happen to the viled the soldiers, who endeavoured to disturbers of the public tranquility.scatter them, but actually threw ftones To this purport, but in arguments at the magistrates. - They were the most forcible, and in language then told, that the Guards would cer- the most correct, Sir Henry Gould de. tainly be ordered to fire, unless they livered his opinion-and was immedidefifted from such wanton, such scan- 'ately seconded by that great ornament dalous outrages; but this information of his profellion, the Lord Chief Ba. had no effect whatsoever; and Mr. ron Parker. Gillam, immediately after, receiving a The Lord Chief Baron, belides exviolent blow liom a stone, the order pressing the warmest approbation of for their firing was accordingly given, the arguments made use of by the very in which the unfortunate Redburn learned judge who spoke before him, lost his life. Such was the general sub- said, that he was old enough to restance of the evidence given against member the occasion on which the Mr. Gillam; though one or two of riot act was made, in the reign of the witnelles put the most unfavoura. George the first; and knew that it was ble construciion on his conduct, and drawn up by two lawyers, perhaps as declared, that, to the best of their able as any that ever appeared in this judgments, there was no absolute ne- country. He remarked, that if any cenity for firing

mob continued together an hour after As Mr. Gillam neither called a fin. it was read, they had nobody but gle witness in his favour, nor made themselves to blame for dilagreeable the minutelt defence, either by himself confequences; and added, that if in or his council, the moment the evi- cases of this nature, where the laws dence for the prosecution was closed, were refilted, an innocent perion the Hon. Mr. Justice Gould stood up, thould even sufler, it was to be laand declared, that he thought Mr. mented as a misfortune, and not imGillam perfe&tly justifiable in the whole puted to the magiftrate as a crime. of his proceedings; bis lord thip quot. To Mew the propriety of this realun. ed several established authorities, which ing, his lordship was pleased to put the proved, beyond a doubt, that a ma- following cases : Suppote, observed he, gistrate, when there is any occasion that a man thould fire at a person to to support the laws, has a right to de- whom he bore tome implacable hatred, mand allistance from all his majesty's and milling his person, the ball thould

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364 Letter to the Author of An Appeal, &c. July kill one, against whom he did not en- opinion, that Mr. Gillam had not only tertain the least resentment: In this behaved juftifiably but meritoriously cafe, remarked his lordthip, the very he saw that he took all the pains of accident would be murder, because a good man to suppress the riot he acted with a mischievous intention. without proceeding to rigour; but he But suppose, continued he, that a also saw, that when no entreaties could man, attacked by a highwayman on prevail upon the mob to disperse, Mr. the road, should draw a pistol to de. Gillain then proceeded like a good fend himself, and in firing at the rob. subject, to consult the welfare of the ber should kill an iņnocent man, the public. - This he was obliged to do, act would neither be'murder nor man. and was punithable if he did not do flaughter ; it would only be a misad. it; and Sir Richard Aston concluded, venture, pitiable as an unhappiness, by expressing his concern, that a mabut not punithable as a crime. gistrate like Mr. Gillam, should be

After the L. C. Baron, Sir Richard brought to the bar of justice as a criAfton, so eminent for his abilities, minal, for a conduct' which entitled and so distinguished for his humanity, him to the universal approbation of delivered his sentiments : He agreed, his country. The recorder spoke he said, entirely with the two learned last, and agreed in every thing with judges who had spoken, and gave feve. the judges but politely oblerved, ral instances where, from a want of that there was no occasion for him to attention to suppress riots in their fay much upon a subject which had commencement, the constitution of been fo very ably discussed by their this country was in danger of being to- lord ships. The jury, upon hearing tally subverted.-Particularly in Rich. these opinions, without going out of ard' II's time by Wat Tyler, where court, or hesitating a moment, prothough the matter of dispute was ori. nounced Mr. Gillam not guilty, and a ginally no more than the payment of copy of his indictment, upon the moa groat, the issue threatened inevitabletion of the attorney general, was grantruin to the kingdom. His lordshiped to him, after some very ingenious observed, that if the assembly in St. arguments between Sir Fletcher NorGeorge's Fields was not a riotous one, ton, the Attorney and Solicitor Genehe knew not by what name to call it. ral, on the part of Mr. Gillam; and The populace there, had attacked Mr. Serjeant Glynn, and Mr. Lucas one of our principal prisons, continue against granting the copy, on the part ed their unlawful assembly, after the of the prosecution. time limited by the riot act, and not The court was uncommonly full uponly insulted, but threw Stones at the on this occafion; Mr. Gillam bowed magistrates, who were attempting to with great respect to the Bench, and disperse them.-As to the introduc- the jury, on his entrance and on his tion of the military, in preference acquittal. He was dressed in a suit of to the Posle Comitatus, he took no- black full trimmed, and wore a tyetice that the justices were no way re. wig; a chair was ordered for him prehensible. = The law made no dif- close to the council, but he fainted ference between a red coat and white once through the exceflive heat of the one; soldiers were no more exempted place, as the crowd presled very much by their military character from allift. about him, from motives of curiosity. ing the magistrate in quelling riots, I mention these little circumstances bé. than any other members of the com- cause the most trifling particulars of a munity. The law obliged all his gentleman in such a situation, are mis majesty's fubjects indiscriminately to nutely fought after by the public, allift upon these occasions; and, con- And sequently, as there was a necessity for

A Lover of Liberty, but a some assistance, none could be more

Friend to the Laws. proper than the military, who are always in readiness, more eafily collect. To the Author of An Appeal, &c. ed, more subject to command, and more" capable of defence, than any I Nath, you are pleased to say that

London for April other parts of the people. Upon the whole, his lordship was of “T.I. appears to hold a peculiar notion





Letter to the Author of An Appeal, &c.

. 365 of the trinity, which you never met wise and powerful. Doubtless God the with in any modern writer, viz. that Father is infinitely wise and powerful; the trinity means no more than three but infinite goodness is not infinitely distinct attributes of the deity, infinite wise without infinite wisdom, nor omgoodness, wisdom, and power : That nipotent without infinite power. Infi. you gave a particular and distinct, an- nite goodness is a divine person, and swer to his notion, and pointed out the greatest person of the three, but no the absurdity of it, and likewise its one person is God exclusive of the other being condeinned by Unitarian and two. Athanasian writers."

The fame Mr. Jackson in p. 126 deYou was, Sir, particularly fortunate clares it to have been tbe opinion of the in finding Unitarian and Athanasian antients, that Christ (the Logos) is the writers condemning a notion of whose Son of God, and that the Son of God, is existence they had no knowledge, which the wisdom of God. must necessarily be the case if this no- It is from hence apparent that the tion be, as you say, peculiar to T. I. antients held Wisdom to be a person, ill-fated notion, to be condemned be- unless they denied the Son to be a fore it was found guilty, nay, before person. It appears likewise from hence it was known to exift. Your affertion that they did not by the word person is altogether incredible; I could as mean an intelligent agent. Wisdom foon believe you, if you was to tell is, indeed, intelligent, but power is me of a man who was executed for fe- the agent : Wisdom knows, power acts, lony before he was born.

It is, by this time, evident that the We will now enquire if you speak notion you oppose is not peculiar to T.I. truth when you say this is a peculiar no- except the reason he gives why a dition of T. I.

vine hypostasis is called W99TUTION In p. 103 of a volume entitled, a person; which reason you have his Christian liberty asserted, and the doctrine permission to reject, if you dislike it, or of the trinity vindicated againf a book can find a better. written by Dr. Waterland, may But

t you

have never met with this no. found the following paragraph. tion in a modern writer.

“ Mat. 19, v. 17. Why callest thou me This may be; it has nevertheless good? There is none good but one, that is been entertained by many moderns. God. This text was understood by all It was entertained by the modern Mr. the antients as spoken of God the Fa. Jackson, unless we suppose him to ther, the original, supreme, underived to have quoted authorities against Dr. good; the Son being the image, as of Waterland which in his own opinion the person, so of the goodneis of God had no weight. But then, perhaps, the Father."

you will say, Mr. Jackson was incon According to this writer, who I am liftent, with himself: I grant it; but told was the famous Mr. Jackson, all how can you or I help that: he was an the antients held original, supreme, Arian *. underived goodness to be God the Fa. Dr. Cudworth entertained the same ther. Consequently all the antients notion of the trinity and declares it to held Goodness to be a person, provid. have been the christian doctrine : And ed they held the Father to be a person. for the truth of what I affert I appeal But I cannot agree with Mr. Jackson to his Intellectual system. Candour that the ancients held goodness, mere obligeth me to own that in one place goodness, to be God the Father : This the Dr. seems to speak with some doubt; would be denying the Father to be but in other places he is very positive.

* I would not be undersiood to afirm that Mr. Jackson in the above pasages in. tended to speak the exact language of the Trinitarians. According to Mr. Jackson, the Father is Goodness, the Son is Wisdom. According to Mr. Jackson, Goodness is a perfon, Wisdom is a perfon. Thus far the Trinitarians and Mr. Jackson agree. But Mr. Jackson proceeds, and says the Father, or Goodness is a superior God, tbe Son, or Wisdom is an inferior God. Here Mr. Jackson and the Trinitarians differ. According to the Trinitarians, there is but one God, which one God is both good and wise. The Father is the goodness, the Son, or eternal emanation from the Father, is I be swisdom of God.


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July The most excellent Bihop Berkeley

Nec tertia culpis apertum entertained the same notion of the tri. E: fe præbenter valuit defiringere nity, and also declares it to be the 98num. chriftian doctrine of the trinity. And

Your, &c. for the truth of these assertions I appeal July 8.

A. B. 'to his Siris.

But, say you, if the attributes Good. To the PRINTER, &r. ness, Wisdom, and Power be perfons,

SIR, God is not three persons only, but three times three or more. God is in

ly remarks, on the prefent finitely merciful, infinitely just, omni- 'famionable way of dreffing Ladies present, &c.

heads, I take the liberty to send I answer, the divine nature being you some advertisments which appear. immutable, it now is what it always ed in the Dublin Universal Advertiser, was: God always was infinitely good, about twelve years ago. Signior Flowise, and powerful; but if by merciful rentini and Mr. St. Laurent were the be meant any thing difinct from these, two rival frizeurs, and had practiced mercy seems to have a relative existence, some years with pretty equal success and consequently like other relations and reputation. The Frenchinan, cannot be without its correlate. God, however, by his talent at agreeable fafor instance, had not mercy before tire, with which he entertained every there existed beings on whom he could lady under his hands, at the expence have mercy. Neither was God just be- of her absent acquaintance, during fore there existed objects to whom he the time of his operation, had mani. could be just. Unless by justice, befestly gained a great ascendant over meant that which pondereth, distin. the Italian. This induced Florentini guisheth, judgeth; which bath weigbed to make a bold effort to raise his own ibe mountains in scales, and the hills in a reputation, and ruin his rival, whole balance : In which case justice and wil- great character he envied, and whom dom seem to be the same. Nor was he withed to be undone. God omnipresent before any thing was

Advertisement 1. made.

“ Signior Florentini, having taken You boast of a formidable army of into consideration the many inconvetexts, which, you say, entirely overthrow niencies which attend the method of the Athanafian doctrine, and which no hair-dressing, formerly used by himself man has yet ventured to oppose in the Lon- and still practised by Mr. St. Laurent, don Magazine.

humbly proposes to the ladies of quzIt would, indeed, be bold in any lity in this metropolis his new method man to oppose texts before he knows of stuccowing the head in the most the precise point they are brought to fashionable taste, to last, with very lit. prove. Pray, Sir, are these texts tle repair, during the whole session of brought to prove that the Godhead doth parliament. Price only five guineas.“ not consist of three distinct intelligent

FLORENTINI. agents? Or, are they brought to prove N. B. He takes but one hour to that the wildom of God is not eternal, build up the head, and two for baking and consequently, that God was not it." always wise? Or are they brought to Answer by St. Laurent. prove that God is wife without his

" Whereas dere have appear vone widom? I shouid be glad to see a can- scandaleuse avertisment of Signior Flo. did answer to these queries; but I al- rentini, moch reflectin on Mr. St. Laumost despair of this pleasure, having rent's capacite for hair dressing; he a strong suspicion that this dispute dety said Signior Florentini to tell any grows very irkiome to you.

inconvenience dat do attend his me. I will now dare to congratulate thode, odervise he thall consider said the publick on a period being put to Florentinias boute seuand calumuiateur. thae Trinitarian controverly. If the

ST. LAURENT." Arians do not perceive themselves in Florentini, who was not so good at an error, it ought furely to be imputed English as the other, replied by his into the infenfibility and impenetrability terpreter : of their heads.

" Whereas


of I ,

A Caveat to the Ladies.

367 " Whereas Mr. St. Laurent has The following is handed about as the challenged Signior Florentini to pro- Speech made by a certain Great Law. duce an instance where his (St. Lau- yer in a Court of Yudicature, at the rent's) method of hair-dressing is in. Time of the Reverjal of an Outlawry. convenient to the ladies; he begs to Have now gone through the several thrust into the skull, will not fail to and which have been ingeniously arcaule a constant itching, a sensation gued, and confidently relied on, by that much distorts the features of the his counsel at the bar: I have given face, and disables it so, that a lady, by my sentiments upon them, and if upon degrees, may lose the use of her face; the whole, after the closest attention belides, the immense quantity of po- to what has been said, and with the matum and powder, laid on for a gen- strongest inclination in favour of the teel dressing, will, after a week or two, defendant, no arguments which have breed mites, a circumstance very disa- been urged, no cases which have been greeable to gentlemen who do not love cited, no reasons that occur to me, cheese, and also does afford a fætid are fufficient to satisfy me in my consmell not to be endured : From which, science and judgment, that this outa and other objections too tedious to lawry should be reversed, I am bound to mention, Signior Florentini apprehends affirm it--and herelet me make a pause. his new method is entirely free, and Many arguments have been suggestwill admit of no reasonable exception ed, both in and out of court, upon whatever.

the consequences of establishing this FLORENTINI.” outlawry, either as they may affect the St. Laurent replies:

defendant as an individual, or the pub“ Hah! hah! hah! Dere is no ob- lic in general: As to the first, what. jelhon den to Signior Florentini's vay ever they may be, the defendant has of frizing de hair of fine ladie? I Mall brought them upon himself; they are tell him von, two, three : In de forst inevitable conlequences of law arising place, he no consider, dat his fiuccow from his own act; if the penalty, to vill be crack, and be break by de fre- which he is thereby subjected, is more quent jolts to vich all ladies are so lob. than a punishment adequate to the ject, and dat two hour baking vil spoil crime he has committed, he should de complehthon, and hort de eyes. fortunate predicament, by flying from

not have brought himself into this unAnd as to his fcandaleuse asperthon, dat my method breed a de mite, so the justice of his country, he thought odious to gentleman who do not love proper to do so, and he must taste the de cheese, I lay 'tis falle and malitieuse; fruits of his own conduct, however and to make good vat I say, I do en

bitter and unpalatable they may be ; vite all gentlemen of qualitie to exa

and although we may be heartily mine de head of de countess of

sorry for any person who has brought (vich I had de honor to dress four himself into this situation, it is not in week ago) next Monday at twelve

our power, God forbid it Thould ever o'clock, through Monsieur Clofent's be in our power, to deliver him from it: great mikroscope, and see if dere be we can't prevent the judgment of theany mite dere, or oder thing like de law, by creating irregularity in the mite vateeer.

proceedings; we can't prevent the conN. B. Any gentleman may smell her fequences of that judgment by pardoning lady ship's hede fen he please.".

the crime; if the defendant hasany preThe controversy ended in a duel; must be urged, and that power exercised

tensions to mercy, those pretensions but no hurt, as the combatants be. haved like Flash and Fribble; but has wisely and necessarily velted it :

in another place, where the constitution whatever was the cause, it is certain The crown will judge for itself; it the monstrous fashion lon ceased; and in a few months the ladies leads reco.

does not belong to us to interfere vered their natural proportion, and clare the law; none of us had any

with punishment, we have only to debecame a piece of themselves.

concern in the prosecution of this buia I am, Sir, you ‘s, &c. finess, nor any wishes upon the event


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