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piness and prosperity of the people of that the provinces of East and West Canada, Colony advancing in steady and successful in which they deprecated the evils likely progression, under a moderate system of commercially to result to them, and in protection, they feel it their duty to represent which they avowed as the greatest of all to Her Majesty that they view with serious evils the danger which he (Lord Stanley) alarm and apprehension, as detrimental to took the liberty of pointing out to their the best interests of the Colony, the adop- Lordships, that the consequences of the tion of the proposed principle of commer- measure would not be wholly commercial, cial intercourse now under the considera- but would be political also; and that the tion of the Imperial Parliament. They people of Canada might, in consequence of say they cannot but feel that the abandon this policy of the Government, be led seriment of the protective principle, the very ously to consider whether their union with basis of the colonial commercial system this country is of that paramount advan(the very words used by him during the tage which they have hitherto felt it to be. recent debate)—is not only calculated ma- He would not add one single word to the terially to retard the agricultural improve force of that Address. Remembering from ment of the country and check its hitherto whom it came-remembering to whom it rising prosperity, but seriously to impair its it was addressed—remembering the strong ability to purchase the manufactured goods but yet loyal and affectionate terms in of Great Britain, a result alike prejudicial which it was couched-remembering at to the Colony and the Parent State. The what time it came—he felt that it would Address went on to thank Her Majesty and be a satisfactory vindication of the apprethe Parliament for the loan of 1,500,0001., hension which he had expressed to their for the improvement of the public works of Lordships. He deeply regretted that it the Colony; but at the same time they ex- did not arrive before their Lordships depressed their apprehension that the agri- cided on the second reading of the Bill. culturists of the province would be deprived He trusted, however, it was not yet too of a fair and remi

munerating price for their late to remove the apprehensions which supplies, and that consequently the increase had been entertained by the contradiction of the staple product would be checked to given to his statement by his noble Friend such an extent as materially to lessen the the President of the Board of Trade and profits of their canals and other public the noble Lord opposite; and that when works; and they summed up their Address their Lordships again came to consider the to Her Majesty in these terms :

provisions of the Bill for the total removal “ It, therefore, becomes our duty, as faithful of all protection-he was not speaking of subjects of Your Majesty, to point out what we the sliding-scale or of the present amount sincerely believe will be the result of the measures of protection—but when their Lordship which have for their object the repeal of the laws affording protection to Canadian exports. First, came to consider the effect of the total it will discourage those at present engaged in removal of all protection from the agriculagricultural pursuits from extending their opera- tural interests of this country and the Colotions. Secondly, it will prevent the influx of re

nies, he trusted they would bear in mind spectable emigrants from the mother country, who, by their industry and capital, materially the loyal and dutiful Address unanimously contribute to the rapid advancement of the inter- agreed upon by the House of Assembly of ests of the Colony. And, lastly, it is much to be Canada. feared that should the inhabitants of Canada, from the withdrawal of protection to their staple prop debate on the subject, but, after the speech

Earl GREY had no wish to prolong the duct, find they cannot successfully compete with the United States in the only market open to of his noble Friend, he was bound to make them, they will naturally, and of necessity, begin one remark. He ventured to say, from to doubt whether their remaining a portion of the what he had seen in the newspapers, that British Empire will be of that paramount advan- the tone of the discussions which took place tage which they have hitherto found it to be. These, wo humbly submit, are considerations of in the Canadian Legislature, after the grave importance to Your Majesty and the people policy of Her Majesty's Ministers was of this province. We trust we need not assure known, was not one of despair or of alarm. Your Majesty that any change which could tend Having not yet seen a statement of the in the remotest degree to weakeu the ties that have for so many years bound the people of Canada subsequent discussions, he had no means to the land which they are proud to call their of learning what had led to the change of mother country, would be deemed the greatest opinion, and the reasons which had created misturtune that could befall them."

apprehension. But he contended, that in These were the terms of the and the first instance, none of the existing apdutiful Address unanimously agreed to by prehensions were entertained by the Cana

dian Assembly, but that, on the contrary, | ties upon raw materials should be rethey combined to pass a Resolution expres- moved; that articles wholly manufactured give of their confidence in the policy about should be subjected to a duty of 20 to be pursued by Her Majesty's Govern- per cent; and that those partially manufacment. He was satisfied that the measure tured should be subjected to a duty of 10 which had since been sanctioned by the per cent. A list of the principal articles

Legislature would tend to the advantage with regard to which changes were then ! of our colonial and domestic interests. made, had recently been laid on the Table; Subject at an end.

they amounted to nearly 600 in number; and reductions were made in duties which

reached to upwards of 1,300,0001. In the CUSTOMS DUTIES BILL.

following year, 1843, still further reducThe Earl of DALHOUSIE proceeded tions were made upon seven different artito move the Second Reading of the Cus- cles; and, in 1844, four others of great imtoms Duties Bill, and said that the Bill portance, and involving large amounts of was made up of details, which he would revenue, were included in the reduction; not trouble their Lordships by entering and, in 1845, the duties were proposed to largely into; but would content himself be reduced on 112 articles, and entirely rewith stating generally the reasons which pealed on 54 of them. By these alterations induced Her Majesty's Government to sub- very large reductions were made from armit the Bill to the consideration of the ticles from which we derived a large reveLegislature. In 1842, one of the first acts nue; and a very large number of articles of Her Majesty's Government was to sub- were expunged from it, as far as duties mit a proposal to the Legislature for a re- were concerned, although left for the purconsideration of the Customs laws, and poses of registration, and that the resources for a complete revision of the Tariff, with of the country might be ascertained. These a view to the removal of prohibitory, and changes, especially those of 1842, were the relaxation of protective duties. That introduced in the firm belief that the reFas not the first adoption of the principle; | moval of the duties on the raw material of it was only following in the wake of that manufactures, and the reduction of duties course of commercial legislation commenced on manufactured goods, while beneficial to twenty years before, which had been gra- the consumer, would also give a stimulus to dually advancing in the direction the Le- trade, which would tend directly to the begislature was now called upon to take. nefit of commerce, and in the end leavo To go no further back than 1819, consider the revenue very little, if at all, a sufferer able reductions were then made in the by the change; and the mention of a very duties on the import of several foreign ar- few of the articles would show how ticles; and between 1819 and 1826 still this anticipation was fulfilled. In 1842, more numerous and important changes of and again in 1844, very large reductions the same character were made. There were made in the duty upon coffee, the were great alterations even in the naviga- duty on the import of foreign coffee having tion laws, and in our colonial commercial been reduced in the former year from 15d. policy; large reductions were made in the per lb. to 8d., and on colonial coffee to case of almost all the principal articles of 4d. He would state the amount entered import into this country, and with respect for consumption three years subsequent to to some of them the trade was almost the reduction : thrown open. It was found, however, in In 1843 the amount was

30,000,000 lbs. 1842, that there was still a mass of duties

31,300.000“ imposed upon different articles, regulated

1845 ...

34,300,000 “ apparently by no one pervading principle; and that, in fact, no recognised principle This was only the amount entered for conpervaded our system of commercial tax- sumption; it did not include the amount ation. Under the superintendence of the imported, and afterwards re-exported. In noble President of the Board of Control 1844, a large reduction was made in the (the Earl of Ripon), and the present Secre- duty on sugar. Ile did not intend to enter tary for the Colonies (Mr. Gladstone), into the sugar question then, as that article those articles were classified, and the would form the subject of separate consicharges regulated as far as possible upon deration on another occasion. He would a fired scale—the principles applied to the only just state the effect of the reduction Tariff being, that as far as possible du- upon the consumption :






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In 1813 the amount was

4,000,000 cwts.

years, that there had been a very large in

4,100,000 crease in their official value. The official 1845

4,880,000 value of the imports, exclusive of corn,

amounted He wished particularly to draw attention to the effect of reduction on this article; for In 1841


£59,000,000 an increase in the consumption of sugar 1812

59,000,000 tended to an increase in the consumption 1843

68,000,000 of other articles on which the duty had not 1844

71,000,000 been reduced. Accordingly, although there 1845

82,000,000 was no reduction in the duty on tea, the quantity entered for consumption had in- The same effect was observable under creased largely.

perhaps the most important head, viz., the In 1843 the amount was 40,000,000 lbs. exports. The total real or declared value

of British and Irish manufactured articles 1844


in the same period, according to the same 1815

44,100,000 “

returns, was In the year 1844 a similar reduction took

In 1840

£51,000,000 place on currants, which, however insig


51,600,000 nificant it might appear, was an article of


47,300,000 great importance to the comforts of the


52,000,000 people, which brought a considerable sum

1844 to the revenue.

58,000,000 1845

60,000,000 In 1843 the amount entered was 254,000 cwts. 1845

285,000 showing an increase since 1841 from 1846

309,000 51,000,000 to 60,000,000 in 1845. As

far, therefore, as regarded the imports With respect to wool. In 1843 the amount and exports of the country, there was unentered was 48,000,000 lbs.; and in 1845, doubted proof that the reduction of the after the reduction in the duty took place, duties upon the various articles included the amount entered was 74,000,000 lbs. in the Tariff, had been attended with the Flax had also experienced similar results. most complete success. The effect on the In many material objects of consumption a revenue--not on the general revenue, but similar large reduction had taken place on the particular revenue derived from with the same results, as, for instance, in these articles—was not less striking. In the raw material of the linen manufacture, 1812, as their Lordships were aware, there in hemp, in indigo, in logwood, and in had been reductions made in the customs various dyeing materials. The Paper which duties of this country to the extent of he held in his hand would show their Lord- 1,338,0001. The net produce of the cusships that in all those articles upon which toms duties in that year was 19,643,0001., this reduction had taken place, the antici- exclusive of the duty on corn, notwithpations which had been previously formed standing this reduction. In 1843, there of an increase in the imports and the con- was a further reduction, equivalent to sumption were fully realized. But it was 171,0001., and yet the customs revenue not, he needed not to remind their Lord for that year amounted to 20,200,0001. ships, merely to the import of the parti. In 1844 there was a still further reduction cular articles that they were to look for the to the extent of 286,0001.—and in 1845 a effect of the reductions that had taken reduction to the extent of 2,418,0001.—a place; for though the import of any given total of about 2,700,0001., and yet the article might not, at any particular time, customs duties, which amounted in 1844 have materially increased, still the stimulus to 21,000,0001., amounted in 1845 to which was given to trade by the impetus 19,000,0001. This showed that the reafforded by a reduction of duty in some duction of duties had not been followed by one particular branch of industry, produced a corresponding deficiency in the revenue; a movement through the whole, the effect the actual deficit being only 1,200,0001., of which was shown on the general exports whereas the reduction was 2,700,0001. and imports of the country. Accordingly, The sum of the whole was this: that, their Lordships would find, on looking at whereas in the four years-1842, 1843, the account of the imports for the last four 1844, and 1845—there had been reduc

tions in the customs duties to the amount | articles connected with them. He had of 4,214,0001., yet the customs revenue now given their Lordships very shortly an amounted in 1845 to 19,800,0001., whilst outline of the effect of the reduction of in 1842 it amounted to only 19,600,0001.; duties during the last four years; and it that was to say, that whilst there had was on a review of these facts—it was been a reduction in the customs duties of from observing that the anticipations en4,200,0001. in four years, the customs re- tertained with respect the effect of revenue was larger in the last of those four ductions of the customs duties on the trade years than in the first by 200,0001. No and prosperity of the community had been stronger proof could be afforded that the realized, that it was resolved, on the part reduction of duties, while it increased the of the Government, to submit to their imports and exports of the country, de- Lordships a still further reduction. Accreased in no material respect the particu-cordingly, Her Majesty was advised to lar revenue arising from those articles on suggest from the Throne whether it would which revenue was raised. He (the Earl not, looking to the history of the past, be of Dalhousie) did not wish for a moment desirable that their Lordships should conto lead their Lordships to suppose that he sider whether a further removal of prohibiwished to represent that the whole of the tory and restrictive duties might not be increase in the customs revenue was trace. advisable. The Tariff which he now had able to the reductions which had been the honour of presenting to their Lordmade in the customs duties-very far from ships comprehended very many articles, it: but what he had a right to contend for and proceeded in the same direction as the was, that the anticipations expressed that Tariffs of preceding years; it was reguthe reduction of the customs duties would lated by the same principle, but in a difDot only be injurious to the community ferent degree. By the 4th Clause of the but to the revenue, were completely con- Bill, it was proposed that the duties should tradicted by these figures, inasmuch as be removed entirely from all articles of they showed that the customs revenue had food of first necessity, whether they conincreased by 200,0001.; and if that im- sisted of live animals, or of meat fresh or provement were not to be attributed to preserved, or meat in any shape that could the reduction of the customs duties, it be called an article of necessity. In conmust be owing to the improved condition formity with this principle, actuated by the of the people. Thus he had the fact that desire to do strict justice, and in considerthe reduction of the duties had not dimin- ation of the other measure, to the princiished the revenue, and had not been at- ple of which their Lordships had given tended with those injurious effects on the their assent on a previous evening, it was population which by some had been prog- felt by Her Majesty's Government that Dosticated. He was aware that much of they could not, upon any principle of justhis prosperity might be attributed to fa- tice or good faith, keep up a protecting vourable circumstances in reference to the duty upon any articles of manufactures bountiful harvests with which it had pleased which came under the same category--on Providence to bless this country. He woollens, on linens, and on cottons-with Fas ready to admit that; but, never- the exception of those articles which were theless, their Lordships would recollect made up for the purposes of luxury less other times, when harvests had been than for those of general use and necessity. equally bountiful, and when the same ef- The duty was, therefore, proposed to be fects had not been shown on the customs removed from all articles manufactured revenue. So, while he admitted that the from woollens, cottons, and linens, in the bounty of Providence in bestowing fruitful mass, except those articles which were and abundant harvests had had some effect, manufactured for luxury, such as damask he was not prepared to admit that to that table-cloths and cambrics, and others of a circumstance was to be assigned the entire like nature, on which a certain amount of result. He was entitled likewise to attri- duty was still to be retained. He held in bute the increase in the customs revenue his hand a return of the value of the seto the reduction of the duties on raw ma- veral articles of cotton, woollen, and linen terials, reducing the price of articles to entered for home consumption in the last the consumer, and leading not only to the year. It appeared that the value of the inereased consumption of the particular articles made from cotton was 39,1001., articles with respect to which the reduc- while the amount proposed to be repealed tion of duty was effected, but also of other upon these articles was 35,0001., leaving only a duty upon 3,6001. to be levied. manufactured articles, whereas that of Again, upon woollens the value of the im- 1842 was 20 per cent. There were two ported articles manufactured abroad was other articles of consumption upon which 162,0001., and it was proposed to reduce the duty was now proposed to be altered, the duty upon 158,0001. of these; conse- namely, butter and cheese. In 1842 these quently the value of the articles on which articles had not been touched purely upon the duty was to be retained was about consideration of revenue, because both pro3,0001. There was some difficulty in re duced large sums to the public. But when gard to linens, as one portion of the arti- it was proposed to reduce the duty genercles made of it were taken by value, and ally upon food and clothing of all kinds, it another by measurement; but it appeared would be at once inconsistent and unjust to that the value was 12,4531., the value of omit them for that reason from the reducthose upon which it was proposed to reduce tion. When their Lordships came to the the duty was 9,9001., being cambrics, Committee he would be prepared to state French lawns, embroidered handkerchiefs, the case at large; but he believed that the damasks, diapers, &c., all purely articles quantity of these articles introduced into of luxury, and not of necessity to the great this country from abroad, as compared with body of the people. He was anxious to the produce of England and Ireland, would make this statement, because at the outset be found to be very insignificant, and that the Government had been met with the ob- the price of the articles depended not upon jection that inasmuch as the measure was the amount of the duty, but upon the

par. a free-trade measure, the principle of excep- ticular demand for them in certain places. tion, as applied to any article, was one of The other articles which it was proposed to injustice : and that the whole duty should deal with were brandies and generally founder such circumstances, be removed, or reign spirits. The duty upon them at preotherwise not removed at all. But in sent was 22s. 6d. the gallon. It was well point of fact, with respect to those articles known to their Lordships that in spite of of linen on which the duty was retained, all the exertions of the Custom-house, the they were purely articles of luxury; and quantity of these articles brought into the with regard to those which were composed country surreptitiously was extremely large. of linen and woollen, they were principally The Government were of opinion that the made-up articles, such as shirts and other duty of 22s. 6d. was a far higher duty than matters of that kind, which gave employ- the article would bear, without fostering ment to the poor when made in this coun- smuggling. The Government did not antry; and in justice to them the duty on ticipate, by the reduction they proposed, these articles should be retained. The any very general increase of consumption. next article on which the duty was to be But their object was to defeat the operaremoved was silk; but as his noble Friend tions of the smuggler, and only to impose near him had given notice of a Motion on such a duty as would not make it worth that subject on going into Committee, he his while to carry on the illicit trade ; so (the Earl of Dalhousie) should not detain that the article when imported, would be their Lordships by dwelling on it then. He sent through the Custom-house, and a should merely state the single fact that, demoralizing and irregular trade extinwhereas the duty upon that article now guished. The last article to which he professed to be 30 per cent upon the value, should refer was one, the reduction of in consequence of the alterations in value which was only prospective — namely, which had taken place since 1826—the timber. In 1842 à reduction had been period of the last regulation of the Tariff made in the duty upon colonial timber to as respected it—the duty had practically 1s.--a nominal amount; while upon foreign increased, so as to be now in effect 100, timber it had been reduced, in 1843, from 150, and even 200 per cent. In the Tariff 55s. to 25s. The return which he had alnow proposed, the whole was calculated at ready alluded to showed the effect of the a uniform duty of 15 per cent upon the reduction upon the imports of articles in article. In like manner, in respect to the periods that had intervened. Between articles manufactured of metal, brass, iron, 1840 and 1842 the customs duties on steel, lead, tin, &c., the principle of the timber were computed on a different prinduty in 1842 was 20 per cent upon them ; ciple to what they were subsequently. In but it was now proposed to reduce it to 1842, under the new system, they were 10 per cent. The ruling figure of the taken by measurement. These were the Tariff now proposed was 10 per cent upon returns as regarded

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