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be approved, by such as are able to judge him, to be fit for that charge, but, to the end he may continue so, he be injoined, once in four or five years to go personally, for the summer-time, into some actual war abroad, if any be, to retain and renew his knowledge. That the captains of the trained-bands be injoined themselves to pass the seas to learn the duties of their places, or at least to keep, at their own charge, one that can discharge their place; and, if neither, to quit their commands to such, as will do the one, or the other.

By this means, his Majesty, may have an army of foot on a sudden, in any part of England, to answer all occasions, without drawing his forces much far out of their proper countries; for an enemy may make a shew of landing in one place, and, having drawn the greatest strength of the kingdom thither (winds serving for it) suddenly transport him. self to another, before that army can,, by land, come thither.

Now, for horse, wherein this kingdom is more defective, than, I think, is any other, it were a work worthy of his Majesty seriously to take it into consideration how to amend it; and, though on a sudden, it is not to be hoped to bring the work to any great perfection, yet, a good foundation once well laid, in process of time it may be effected, and for the present be much helped; It is so great a work, and my experience being not so much that way, as in foot, I will not take upon me to deliver any certain grounds for it, but will only point at some ways, whereby, I conceive, it may be reformed. The defects consist chiefly in want of fit horses, and fit men to be horsemen, which I take to be the greater want of the two, and can but wonder, that so great a kingdom should be so defective in so brave and noble a strength, wherein our nearest neighbours so abound. In ancient times we were not so: it may be, one reason is, That now our nation is more addicted to running and hunting-horses, than in those elder times.

For remedy, under correction, first, That there were care taken, that there were, a stronger breed of horses through the kingdom;, then that his Majesty would begin at his court, and there convert his bands of pensioners into a brave troop of cuirassiers; their horses at least so ready, as to give and charge a pistol on, sometimes to excercise them, by shooting at a mark on horseback with their pistols, and always to keep this band so. To admit none to those places, but such as before were known to be horsemen, and could use a pistol on horseback : Then that the lords, and others of his Majesty's great officers, and council, did follow this example, and every one to keep some great horses, to have arms, and pistols, and some such servants as were fit to be horsemen, and to induce other lords, and gentlemen of great estates, to do the like, and encourage them thereto; to reserve all personal honours (except experienced soldiers that had borne good command) for such noblemen and gentlemen as did in this conform themselves to do his Majesty and country service, whereby those, which never intended. to make the wars their trade, miglit be brought so far, as to be enabled to do something for the defence of their king and country : If the noblemen and gentlemen would take this to heart, as they have done running of races for bells (which, I could wish, were converted to shooting at a mark, with pistols on horseback for the same bell) they would be sufficient for cuirassiers. Now, for other kinds of horse, I would that the trained-bands were increased, and all reformed to harquebusiers, but whether their pieces to be with firelocks or snaphaunces, is questionable ; the firelock is more certain for giving fire, the other more easy for use. For the present, my opinion is, at first, it were best to take up the snaphaunce, until pistols be more frequent, which, being more difficult to use, are fittest, as before, for gentlemen to begin first to bring into use. When they bave once brought them to be ordinary, it will be more easy to bring them into use amongst the inferior sort; and, for the present, this kingdom hath not (except in London, and it may be some few towns besides) artificers, that can make or mend firelocks: Then I would have a muster-master a-part, for the horse, as well as for the foot, well chosen, some old horseinan out of the Low-countries; for that it is scarce possible to find men that are fit and able for both horse and foot. The kingdom thus armed and exercised, an enemy cannot land in any part of it, but (without unfurnishing the other parts) there will be a competent army presently found to make resistance.

It may be said, these advices will be found not practicable, or very difficult, so are all great works at first; but, I conceive, if his Majesty would take it to heart, and give encouragement of honour and preferments, to such as conform themselves to his pleasure herein, and make this the way of advancement, it would not be difficult; but if, without this way, honour and advancement may be had, well may many think, why should they take such pains, or be at such charge, for that which may more easily be had. And here I cannot but blame our nation in the general, for, I believe, the most glorious of our neighbours will grant it as

a nation as is on the earth, that they should not be more addicted to arms, but give themselves, for the most, to expensive pleasures, altogether unserviceable for king and country: Whereas there is not a French gentleman, that so soon as he begins to write man, but learns to ride, to use his arms on foot and horseback, and, whether younger or elder brother, puts himself into some actual war for some time, to learn the trade of a soldier, though he never intend to make it his profession. I would further advise, that all the principal harbours and good landing-places were so fortified, as far as is possible, that no enemies' feet should anchor in them, or much less land in them, without remarkable disadvantage. The command of which places I would have given to none, but experienced soldiers, and such, as are sound in religion, and had borne commands in the wars for many years, and they to reside in them: Not unto noblemen, or gentlemen of great estates, which seldom, or never, come at them; and much less to meaner men that are no soldiers; for maintenance whereof the charge once arrested, to repartite them on some revenue near adjoining, and, being well paid, to have strict oversight had, that there be always such, and so many able gunners and soldiers present in them, at his Majesty's pay, on alt occasions to be used; if less will serve, then why should his Majesty be charged to pay more?

To conclude: If his Majesty would reserve the places properly belonging to the wars (whereof he hath the fewest of any great Prince of Christendom) as, the Governments of his islands, the keeping of the forts and castles, and places of command in Ireland, only for soldiers, and worthy soldiers, and men sound in religion : It would be a great encouragement to his subjects to follow the wars, to enable themselves to do him service, though to their cost and charge, when they have to hope, that, though they serve a strange prince or state, to their no advantage, yet, thereby enabling themselves to do their own King service, they may, in time, be provided for in their own country; whereas, if charges of command, advancements of honour, may be had better cheap, by staying at home and following their pleasures, there will but few ever take the pains and labour, or be at the charges to enable themselves, by following the wars abroad, all men being led, either by honour, or profit, 'or both.

The late Earl of Essex's Instructions for England's Safety.

AFTER I had resolved to publish this manuscript of my brother's, I remembered I had read loug since, in a little treatise, written by that brave and worthy commander, the late Earl of Essex, concerning sea preparations (though then written in a time when we had an open enemy, and now no such occasion, yet we know not how soon we. may); which, though but short, yet my brother's judgment concurring with it, which was, that the safest and surest defence for this kingdom was our navy, and that we could never be hurt by land by a foreign enemy, unless we were first beaten at sea: I thought it not amiss to annex it to this of my brother's, and, by that occasion, reading the whole discourse from which I had it, I found in it, besides, what concerns this point, which was, directions for the securing of this kingdom, some such worthy expressions, which, as they did much affect me in the reading, so, I conceive, they might be of some use also for these times; as, some for imitation, others for other purposes. I thought it not amiss to revive and bring them again to light; some things were spoken by that great lord of himself, some others are related by him of those ancient and renowned Romans, where we may see a braveness of spirit, even in those that were but heathens. Now, if there were such brave spirits in them that had nothing but the light of nature. to direct them, what should be then in christians, that have a sun to their candle: Shall they come short of them, in love and affection to their country? Will it not one day rise up in judgment against us, as our Saviour saith of Tyre and Sidon, that have such principles and such encouragements of rewards above thenı They had but honour and reputation, I may say, a vain and windy motive : We have the command of God, and a heavenly reward promised, even a kingdom, and that everlasting; and shall we come so short of them, as not to venture any thing for God, his gospel, and our religion ? Did a Roman say, he cared not to leave to bury him, so the commonwealth might flourish? What shall a christian do for his country: Shall he not lay aside all

private respects of his own, and only seek God's honour, in his care of the common good.

Now, most noble lords and gentlemen, God having called you unto it, let your country see, and all the world know, that there is more power in religion, than in heathenish principles : Join all your forces together to promote his gospel, and your country's good.

that the reviving of these few sparks that I have, by this occasion, brought to light, might add fervour to your brave English spirits : What though there be some so. degenerate, as, to raise their fortunes, and keep their

honours, care not what becomes of the commonwealth, and gospel of Chirst: Yet we have found there are many, yea, wany, that still retain that ancient virtue in them, and do, even at this time, practise it; to such I will say, Go, on, noble lords and gentlemen, do worthily in Bethlehem, and you shall be famous in Ephrata ; set aside all private respects, and, as you have begun with unwearied pains and patience (which in all due thankfulness we do humbly acknowledge) go on still to continue your care of us, and our country's good, and for all others contrarily minded, the Lord either convert them, or suddenly confound them.

In this ensuing relation, I shall only use that honourable lord's own words. I leave their application to all true-hearted Englishmen. The beads are these:

First, His advice for sea preparations, which are not (as I conceive) unuseful for this present time.

Secondly, His protestation of his affection to his country, worthy the imitation of men of his quality. Thirdly, His extraordinary affection to soldiers and men of


the favouring and cherishing of whom will be no small security to this kingdom.

Fourthly, His judgment concerning pluralities of religion, tolerated in a state; a thing worthy of due consideration.

Fifthly, The sweet harmony betwixt a loving prince, and loyal subjects, a desi reable and imitable thing.

Lastly, A sweet reprehension of the superfluous expence of these times, which, if some course were taken therein to limit them, I see not, but it would make much to the general good of this commonwealth.

First, for his advice for sea preparations, it was this, that, if her Majesty would be pleased but to raise up a sum of a hundred and fifty thousand pounds a year, and put it into the hands of an honest and sufficient treasurer, for the wars, and to be issued by a council of war wel? chosen, it would fully and sufficiently maintain the war with Spain; yea, such a force should be maintained thereby, as, her Majesty having a convenient number of her own ships, and repairing and furnishing them, as yearly she doth, the enemy should bring no fleet into the seas for England, or Ireland, or Low-Countries, but should be beaten, nor seek to gather one into Spain, but the parts of it should be defcated, before the whole could be assembled; yea, those services

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should be done upon the enemy, that the poorest prince or state in Christendom should have little cause to fear his malice.

Secondly, For his protestation of his affection to his country, it was, that the reputation of a most faithful subject, and zealous patriot, with the hazard of his life, and decay of his estate, he had sought to , purchase: and when he was offered by the King of Spain, what title, sam of money, or pension he would desire, so as he might be woń to take their part, he did profess, that, if God had not put him back, and arrested him by contrary winds and tempests that summer, he would have taught that proud King what effects his proffer had wrought in him; and, the longer the will of God and his sovereign did restrain him, with the greater interest he hopes to pay him in the end, that had sought him out as a fit man to betray his queen and country.

Thirdly, for his respect to soldiers, and men of war, he professed he did intirely love them. First, for his own sake; for he found sweetness in their conversations, strong assistance in their employments with him, and happiness in their friendship: That he loved them for their virtue's sake, and for their greatness of mind (for little minds, though never so full of virtue, can be but little virtuous) and for their great understanding; for to understand little things, or things not of use, is little better than to understand nothing at all: That he loved them for their affections, for self-loving men love ease; pleasure, and profit; but they that love pains, danger, and fame, shew that they love publick profit, more than themselves : That he loved them for his country's sake, for they are England's best armour of defence, and weapons of offence; if we have peace, they have purchased it; if we should have war, they must manage it: Yea, while we are doubtful, and in treaties, we must value ourselves by what may be done; and the enemy will value us, by that which hath been done by our chief men of action. Before action, providence made him cherish them for the service they can do; and, after action, experience, and thankfulness, made him love them for the service they had done.

Fourthly, concerning plurality of religion, professed, in one estate, that it was against the policy of all states; because, where there is no unity or order in the state, it is the manifest ruin of that state; for as the mingling of poison with wholesome liquor, in one vessel, doth not correct that which is lethal, but corrupts that which is wholsome; so the poisoned doctrine of those Hispaniolised Jesuits, once brought in that-state, will not endure any profession, save their own.

Fifthly, for the sweet harmony, betwixt a loving prince and loyal subjects; thus doth he say, We, thanks be to God, have a Queen, who hath never been wastetul in her private expence; yet will she sell her plate, and jewels in the Tower, before her people shall be undefended. We are a people that will turn our silken coats into iron jacks, and our silver plate into coats of plate, rather than our sovereign shall be unserved.

Sixthly, and lastly, His pleasing reprehension of the superfluous expences of those times, it is, by way of objection that was made in those times, that they could neither have a good peace, or just war i

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