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Shewing what troubles befel in his reign, concerning the wars between him and his subjects; and also the manner how he set up his standard near Rudland, Henry of Essex being General, and the manner how he left his crown; necessary to be observed in these dangerous and distracted times of ours.

Printed at London for H. B. 1642. Quarto, containing eight pages.

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IN of year our Lord 1154, Henry the Second was crowned; he

was a man of a low stature, and fat of body, of a fresh colour, a valiant soldier, a good scholar, and of good expression in his speech; very wise, and much delighted with peace.

In the second year of his reign a council was held at Wallingford, where the nobles were sworn to the king and his issue, by an oath of allegiance composed by the king and his council for that purpose; after which Geffery the king's brother rose in rebellion, and did much hurt, but was afterwards overcome by the king, and all was yielded into the king's hands.

In the third year of his reign the Welchmen fose against him, and the king raised an army, and made Henry of Essex his chief general of the army; and, when the king was come into Wales, Henry of Essex, by the commandment of the king, raised the standard, and open war was proclaimed, and many from their own habitations (as also out of divers prisons) came to assist the king, and there was a great battle fought near to Rudland, where there were many men slain on both sides; but the king recovered the castle, and marched towards the castle of Basingwirk, where there was a great slaughter on the king's army, by reason whereof the army was much discouraged, and Henry of Essex, and those under him who had the trust of the bearing of the standard, did at that time let the standard fall down to the ground in the battle, which did so exceedingly encourage the Welchmen, that they pursued with great eagerness; the king himself was exceedingly dismayed hereat, and fled to save his life, but the two armies fought daily, for by the help of the Earl of Clare it was raised up again.

Now the king had appointed a navy of ships also to go forth against them, and Madoc ap Merideth was admiral of the seas, who had spoiled divers churches, and done much hurt in the Isle of Man, and Anglesey; but after much blood-shed they began on both sides to be weary of war, and there was an agreement and peace concluded, and

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And I am further to tell you, That there is little cause for his Majesty to make this demand, considering that he himself doth, by force, keep away many accused in parliament, as my Lord Digby, and many more impeached of high-treason, besides divers other great delinquents, that stand charged there for heinous crimes; all which, by force, are kept from the due proceedings and legal trial in parliament.

It is alledged, in this answer, That my Lord Mayor, and those other persons named, are countenancers of Brownists, and Anabaptists, and all manner of sectaries.' To this I am commanded to say, That hereof there is no proof; it doth not appear, that they give any such countenance to sectaries of any kind whatsoever; and, if it did, his Majesty hath little reason to object it, while, notwithstanding the profession, he hath often made, That he will maintain the protestant reformed religion, he doth in the mean time raise an army of papists, who, by the principles of their religion, are bound, if power be put into their hands, to destroy and utterly to root out the protestants, together with the truth which they profess.


It is affirmed, 'That men's persons have been imprisoned, and their houses plundered, because they will not rebel against his Majesty.' To this I am commanded to declare, that no men's houses have heen plundered by any direction of the parliament, but that they have been careful to restrain all such violent courses, so far as they were able; and that they have never committed any man, but such as, by due information, they conceived to be seditious persons, and like to trouble the peace of the state.

It is objected further; "That the property of the subject is destroyed by taking away the twentieth part, by an arbitrary power. To this they say, That that ordinance doth not require a twentieth part, but doth limit the assessors, that they shall not go beyond a twentieth part, and that this is done by a power derived from both houses of parliament; the lords, who have an hereditary interest in making laws in this kingdom, and the commons who are elected and chosen to represent the whole body of the commonalty, and trusted for the good of the people, whenever they see cause to charge the kingdom: And they say further, That the same law that did enable the two houses of parliament to raise forces to maintain and defend the safety of religion, and of the kingdom, doth likewise enable them to require contributions, whereby these forces may be maintained; or else it was a vain power to raise forces, if they had not a power likewise to maintain them in that service for which they were raised.

And to this point I am commanded to add this further answer, That there was little reason for this to be objected, on his Majesty's behalf, when it is well known that, from the subjects, which are within the power of his army, his majesty doth take the full yearly value of their lands, and in some cases more; that not only particular houses, but whole towns have been plundered by command and design; and that by proclamations men are declared to forfeit all their estates, because they will not obey arbitrary commands; and this is commonly practised by his majesty, and on his part, and therefore, there was little reason

narrow and hard passage (at Colleshell) most fraudulently throw away, the king's standard.

2. That he did with a loud voice pronounce the king to be dead. 3. That he turned back those that came to relieve the king's army against the Welchmen.

These articles he denied, and after great debate thereof, before the king and council, the matter was adjudged to be tried by combate, and Henry of Essex, supposed to be slain, was carried away, but he revived, and spent the rest of his days in reading.

In the twelfth year of his reign the king appointed a collection to be, made through all the countries, in this manner, viz.

1. For every Pound in moveable goods being so valued for the first year, 2d.

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2. For four years after for every pound so valued, 1d.

3. For arable lands, and for vines, the charge and cost of them not reckoned for every pound thereof after the same manner also.

4. He, that hath an house valued to be worth one pound, to pay one penny.

5. He, that hath some office agent, one penny.

After the payment whereof, the king caused his son Henry to be crowned, by the persuasions of Robert, Archbishop of York, thinking it would prove to the great quietness of himself and his realm, but it proved otherwise; for the young king received the fealtics of the earls and barons.

Henry, the younger, rebelled against his father, and many earls and barons fled over to him, and many great and bloody battles were fought between them; but, at the last, the old King subdued this rebellion, and, finding that the Scots had joined against him, gave to many of the young nobility, whom he had found to be loyal unto him, the most part of the land in Scotland, and imprisoned and fined many of the English, for this rebellion.

In the twenty-first year of his reign, a brother of the Earl of Ferrers was slain in the city of London; whereat the King was much displeased, and vowed revenge against the city; and there were great troubles between the court and the city, insomuch that the city was distracted and disquieted within itself; for, in the end, there were many unruly citizens, who did give themselves to the pillaging and robbing of rich men's houses, of whom one Andrew Buckequint and John Ould were chief; but the grave wisdom of the King soon suppressed them; and there was peace between the young King and the old, and the father and the son did eat and drink at one table, and all was ended in peace; and, shortly after, the disobedient son was cut off, and the old King reigned quietly alone.

Then the King called a convocation of the clergy at London, and the pope's legate sat in the chair, and, next to him, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on his right hand, as primate of England; but, when the Archbishop of York saw, that he must sit on the left hand of the pope's legate, he disdained the place, and did strive to croud his arse between

them; but, because the legate was not to remove, and the archbishop would not remove, therefore he most unmannerly swopped him down on the Archbishop of Canterbury's lap, for which he was thrown down to the ground; and, after his complaint made to the King, of whom he thought to have found relief, but was deceived, he was well laughed et for his remedy.

In the twenty-fifth year of his reign there was again a rebellion, after great taxes laid upon the subjects for the voyage to Jerusalem; whereat the king's majesty was so perplexed and troubled, that he cursed the day wherein he was born, and none about him, neither clergy nor nobles, could comfort him; through the extremity whereof he was brought to a grievous sickness: After he had reigned thirty-four years, being above sixty years of age, and leaving in his treasury above an hundred thousand marks, he died.


When this royal king was carried forth to be buried, he was first parelled in his princely robes, and his crown upon his head, and rich gloves on his hands, and boots on his legs, wrought with gold spurs on his heels, a ring of gold on his finger, a scepter in his hand, and a sword by his side; and, lying thus, like a prince in state, though a dead corpse, he was uncovered, and, looking upon him under his robes, he looked with a most sweet and pleasant countenance, as if he had only slept; who was again covered, and, as he deserved, most honourably buried,





The other, an Answer to the said Letter, by the said Prince, now his Majesty of England.

Printed in the Year of Discoveries, 1642. Quarto, containing four pages.


Most Noble Prince, Salvation and Light of the Divine Grace.

ORASMUCH, as Great-Britain hath always been fruitful in virtues, and in men of great worth, having filled the one, and the other world, with the glory of her renown; she doth also very often draw the thoughts of the holy apostolical chair, to the consideration of her praises. And, indeed, the church was but then in her infancy, when

the King of kings did choose her for his inheritance, and so affectionate ly, that we believe the Roman eagles have hardly outpassed the banner of the cross. Besides that, many of her kings, instructed in the knowledge of the true salvation, have preferred the cross before the royal scepter, and the discipline of religion before covetousness, leaving examples of piety to other nations, and to the ages yet to come. So that, having merited the principalities, and first place of blessedness in heaven, they have obtained, on earth, the triumphant ornaments of true holiness. And although, now the state of the English church is altered, we see, nevertheless, the court of Great Britain adorned and furnished with moral virtues, which might serve to support the charity that we bear unto her, and be an ornament to the name of Christianity, if, withal, she could have, for her defence and protection, the orthodox and catholick truth. Therefore, by how much the more, the glory of your most noble father, and the apprehension of your royal inclination, delights us, with so much more zeal, we desire that the gates of the kingdom of heaven might be opened unto you, and that you might purchase to yourself the love of the universal church. Moreover, it being certain that Gregory the Great, of most blessed memory, hath introduced to the English people, and taught to their kings the law of the gospel, and the respect of apostolical authority: We, as inferior to him in holiness and virtue, but equal in name and degree of dignity, it is very reasonable, that we, following his blessed footsteps, should endeavour the salvation of those provinces, especially at this time, when your design, most noble prince, elevates us to the hope of an extraordinary advantage: Therefore, as you have directed your journey to Spain, towards the catholick king, with desire to ally yourself to the house of Austria, we do much commend your design, and, indeed, do testify openly, in this present business, that you are he that takes the principal care of our prelacy. For, seeing that you desire to take in marriage a daughter of Spain, from thence we may easily conjecture, that the ancient seeds of Christian piety, which have so happily flourished in the hearts of the kings of Great Britain, may, God prospering them, revive again in your soul: And, indeed, it is not to be believed, that the same man should love such an alliance, that hates the catholick religion, and should take delight to oppress the holy chair. To that purpose, we have commanded, to make continually most humble prayers to the Father of lights, that he would be pleased to put you as a fair flower of the christianism, and the only hope of Great Britain, in possession of that most noble heritage, that your ancestors have purchased for you, to defend the authority of the sovereign high priest; and, to fight against the monsters of heresy. Remember the days of old, inquire of your fathers, and they will tell you the way that leads to heaven; and, what way the temporal princes have taken to attain to the everlasting kingdom. Behold the gates of heaven opened, the most holy Kings of England, who came from England to Rome accompanied with angels, did come to honour, and do homage to the Lord of lords, and to the Prince of the apostles in the apostolical chair: their actions and their examples being as so many voices of God, speaking and exhorting you to follow the course of the lives of those to whose empire you shall one day attain.

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