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evidences of fidelity on the part of the city, and without any such expressions, as were unbeseeming the majesty of a King, or the duty of subjects; that he resided divers days at Whitehall, and afterwards at Hainpton-court, Windsor, and places adjoining, with small forces about him, and yet never any attempt was made, which might give him any apprehension of fear: By all which it is manifest, that this is an unjust aspersion cast upon this city, That any tumultuous carriage of your's was the occasion of his Majesty's leaving the parliament, and withdrawing himself to remoter parts.
It is affirmed, "That the government of your city hath been managed by a few desperate persons, and that they do exercise an arbitrary power.' In answer to which, the two houses of parliament give you this testimony, That you have, in most of the great occasions concerna ing the government of the city, followed their direction; and that direction, which they have given, and you have executed, they must and will maintain to be such, as stands with their honour in giving it, and your trust and fidelity in the performance of it.
It is objected, in the third place, “That contributions have been publickly made for the maintenance of that army, which did join battle with the king, and did, by all the means that treason and malice could suggest, endeavour to take away his life, and destroy his issue.' To this I am commanded to say, That the design of bringing up the English armies, the gathering together of the cavaliers about Whitehall, the violent coming to the house of commons, the king's going into the north, and raising armies there, are clear evidences, that violence was first intended, and divers practices were made against the parliament, before they took any course, or made any preparation to take up arms for their defence. For the danger of his Majesty's person, they were sorry for it, and did, by divers humble petitions, labour to prevent it; and, as touching the royal issue, they have sufficiently declared to the world their good affections towards them, by the care, they have taken, both for the safety and maintenance of those who are left here.
It is further expressed, in this answer, That the king demands the Lord Mayor, Mr. Alderman Fowke, Col. Ven, and Col. Manwaring to be delivered up, as guilty of schism and high treason. Concerning which, I am commanded to tell you, as the sense of both houses of parliament, That this demand is against the privilege of parliament (two of them being members of the commons house) and most dist honourable to the city, That the Lord Mayor of London should be subjected to the violence of every base fellow, be assaulted, seized on, without due process or warrant, which the law doth afford every prie vate man; and that you should be commanded to deliver up your chief magistrates, and such eminent members of the city to the king's pleasure, only because they have done their duty, in adhering to the parliament for the defence of the kingdom ; and that it is against the rules of justice, that any men should be imprisoned upon such a general charge, when no particulars are proved against them; and this you are to take notice of, as the answer to those scandals, and to that disgrace upon my Lord Mayor and the other members of the city.
And I am further to tell you, That there is little cause for his Majesty to make this demand, considering that he himself doth, by force, keep away many accused in parliament, as my Lord Digby, and many more impeached of high-treason, besides divers other great delinquents, that stand charged there for heinous crimes; all which, by force, are kept from the due proceedings and legal trial in parliament.
It is alledged, in this answer, That my Lord Mayor, and those other persons named, are countenancers of Brownists, and Anabaptists, and all manner of sectaries.' To this I am commanded to say, 'That hereof there is no proof; it doth not appear, that they give any such countenance to sectaries of any kind whatsoever; and, if it did, his Majesty hath little reason to object it, while, notwithstanding the profession, he hath often made, That he will maintain the protestant reformed religion, he doth in the mean time raise an army of papists, who, by the principles of their religion, are bound, if power be put into their hands, to destroy and utterly to root out the protestants, together with the truth which they profess.
It is affirmed, 'That men's persons have been imprisoned, and their houses plundered, because they will not rebel against his Majesty' To this I am commanded to declare, that no men's houses bave heen plundered by any direction of the parliament, but that they have been very careful to restrain all such violent courses, so far as they were able ; and that they have never committed any man, but such as, by due information, they conceived to be seditious persons, and like to trouble the peace of the state.
It is objected further; "That the property of the subject is destroyed by taking away the twentieth part, by an arbitrary power.' To this they say, That that ordinance doth not require a twentieth part, but doth limit the assessors, that they shall not go beyond a twentieth part, and that this is done by a power derived from both houses of parliament; the lords, who have an hereditary interest in making laws in this king, dom, and the commons who are elected and chosen to represent the whole body of the commonalty, and trusted for the good of the people, whenever they see cause to charge the kingdom: And they say further, That the same law that did enable the two houses of parliament to raise forces to maintain and defend the safety of religion, and of the kingdom, doth likewise enable them to require contributions, whereby these forces may be maintained; or else it was a vain power to raise forces, if they had not a power likewise to maintain them in that service for which they were raised.
And to this point I am commanded to add this further answer, That there was little reason for this to be objected, on his Majesty's behalf, when it is well known that, from the subjects, which are within the power of his army, his majesty doth take the full yearly value of their lands, and in some cases more ; that not only particular houses, but whole towns have been plundered by command and design; and that by proclamations men are declared to forfeit all their estates, because they will not obey arbitrary commands; and this is commonly practised, by his majesty, and on his part, and therefore, there was little reason
narrow and hard passage (at Colleshell), most fraudulently throw away the king's standard.
2. That he did with a loud voice pronounce the king to be dead.
3. That he turned back those that came to relieve the king's army against the Welchmen.
These articles he denied, and after great debate thereof, before the king and council, the matter was adjudged to be tried by combate, and Henry of Essex, supposed to be slain, was carried away, but he revived, and spent the rest of his days in reading.
In the twelfth year of his reign the king appointed a collection to be made through all the countries, in this manner, viz. 1. For
every Pound in moveable goods being so valued for the first
2. Fur four years after for every pound so valued, id.
3. For arable lands, and for vines, the charge and cost of them not reckoned for every pound thereof after the same manner also.
4. He, that hath an house: valued to be worth one pound, to pay one penny
5. He, that hath some office agent, one penny.
After the payment whereof, the king caused his son Henry to be crowned, by the persuasions of Robert, Archbishop of York, thinking it would prove to the great quietness of himself and his realm, but it proved otherwise; for the young king received the fealties of the earls and barons.
Henry, the younger, rebelled against his father, and many earls and barons fled over to him, and many great and bloody battles were fought between them; but, at the last, the old King subdued this rebellion, and, finding that the Scots bad joined against him, gave to many of the young nobility, whom he had found to be loyal unto him, the most part of the land in Scotland, and imprisoned and fined many of the English, for this rebellion.
In the twenty-first year of his reign, a brother of the Earl of Ferrers was slain in the city of London; whereat the King was much displeased, and vowed revenge against the city; and there were great troubles between the court and the city, insomuch that the city was distracted and disquieted within itself; for, in the end, there were many unruly citizens, who did give themselves to the pillaging and robbing of rich men's houses, of whom one Andrew Buckequint and John Ould were chief; but the grave wisdom of the King soon suppressed them; and there was peace between the young King and the old, and the father and the son did eat and drink at one table, and all was ended in peace; and, shortly after, the disobedient son was cut off, and the old King reigned quietly alone.
Then the King called a convocation of the clergy at London, and the pope's legate sat in the chair, and, next to him, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on his right hand, as primate of England; but, when the Archbishop of York saw, that he must sit on the left hand of the pope's legate, he disdained the place, and did strive to croud his arse between them; but, because the legate was not to remove, and the archbishop would not remove, therefore he most unmannerly swopped him down on the Archbishop of Canterbury's lap, for which he was thrown down to the ground; and, after his complaint made to the King, of whom he thought to have found relief, but was deceived, he was well laughed et for his remedy.
In the twenty-fifth year of his reign there was again a rebellion, after great taxes laid upon the subjects for the voyage to Jerusalem ; whereat the king's majesty was so perplexed and troubled, that he cursed the day wherein he was born, and none about him, neither clergy nor nobles, could comfort him; through the extremity whereof he was brought to a grievous sickness : After he had reigned thirty-four years, being above sixty years of age, and leaving in his treasury above an hundred thousand marks, he died.
When this royal king was carried forth to be buried, he was first apparelled in his princely robes, and his crown upon his head, and rich gloves on his hands, and boots on his legs, wrought with gold spurs on his heels, a ring of gold on his finger, a scepter in his hand, and a sword by his side; and, lying thus, like a prince in state, though a dead corpse, he was uncovered, and, looking upon him under his robes, he looked with a most sweet and pleasant countenance, as if he had only slept; who was again covered, and, as he deserved, most honourably buried,
BEHOLD! TWO LETTERS,
WRITTEN BY THE POPE TO THE THEN PRINCE OF WALES,
NOW KING OF ENGLAND:
The other, an Answer to the said Letter, by the said Prince, now his
Majesty of England.
Printed in the Year of Discoveries, 1642. Quarto, containing four pages.
Most Noble Prince, Salvation and Light of the Divine Grace. FORASMUCH, as Great-Britain hath always been fruitful in virtues,
and in men of great worth, having filled the one, and the other world, with the glory of her renown; she doth also very often draw the thoughts of the holy apostolical chair, to the consideration of her praises. And, indeed, the church was but then in her'infancy, when the King of kings did choose her for his inheritance, and so affectionate ly, that we believe the Roman eagles have hardly outpassed the banner of the cross. Besides that, many of her kings, instructed in the knowledge of the true salvation, have preferred the cross before the royal scepter, and the discipline of religion before covetousness, leaving ex. amples of piety to other nations, and to the ages yet to come.
So that, having merited the principalities, and first place of blessedness in heaven, they have obtained, on earth, the triumphant ornaments of true holiness. And although, now the state of the English church is altered, we see, nevertheless, the court of Great Britain adorned and furnished with moral virtues, which might serve to support the charity that we bear unto her, and be an ornament to the name of Christianity, if, withal, she could have, for her defence and protection, the orthodox and catholick truth. Therefore, by how much the more, the glory of your most noble father, and the apprehension of your royal inclination, delights us, with so much more zeal, we desire that the gates of the kingdom of heaven might be opened unto you, and that you might purchase to yourself the love of the universal church. Moreover, it being certain that Gregory the Great, of most blessed memory, hath introduced to the English people, and taught to their kings the law of the gospel, and the respect of apostolical authority: We, as inferior to him in holiness and virtue, but equal in name and degree of dignity, it is very reasonable, that we, following his blessed footsteps, should endeavour the salvation of those provinces, especially at this time, when your design, most noble prince, elevates us to the hope of an extraordinary advantage: Therefore, as you have directed your journey to Spain, towards the catholick king, with desire to ally yourself to the house of Austria, we do much commend your design, and, indeed, do testify openly, in this present business, that you are he that takes the principal care of our prelacy. For, seeing that you desire to take in marriage a daughter of Spain, from thence we may easily conjecture, that the ancient seeds of Christian piety, which have so happily Aourished in the hearts of the kings of Great Britain, may, God prospering them, revive again in your soul : And, indeed, it is not to be believed, that the same man should love such an alliance, that hates the catholick religion, and should take delight to oppress the holy chair. To that purpose, we have commanded, to make continually most humble prayers to the Father of lights, that he would be pleased to put you as a fair flower of the christianism, and the only hope of Great Britain, in possession of that most noble heritage, that your ancestors have purchased for you, to defend the authority of the sovereign high priest; and, to fight against the monsters of heresy. Remember the days of old, inquire of your fathers, and they will tell you the way that leads to heaven; and, what way the temporal princes have taken to attain to the everlasting kingdom. Behold the gates of heaven opened, the most holy Kings of England, who came from England to Rome accompanied with angels, did come to honour, and do homage to the Lord of lords, and to the Prince of the apostles in the apostolical chair: their actions and their examples being as so many voices of God, speaking and exhorting you to follow the course of the lives of those to whose empire you shall one day attain.