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and courts too, what do we else here? And, though they have a great liberty of language within their own walls, I never heard that they might speak what they list in other places. In my time, when there was any occasion to use the city, as often there was, the lord mayor, or aldermen, or some trusted by them, were sent for to attend either house but, for members of either, or both houses, to come hither, and be present at our councils, and govern here by privilege of parliament, was never heard of till of late: You will say, it is a great honour to us, that those worthies take the pains to come to us, when they might send for us; it may be an honour too great for us to bear, and truly, I believe it hath been so chargeable to us, that we ought not to be ambitious of such honour. Mr. Pym (who hath been a very costly orator to us) told us (and his speech is since printed for our honour too, to shew how tamea people we are) that there were many things in that answer, of great aspersion upon the proceedings of parliament, and so forth. Truly I know no such thing; if we petitioned for peace, we were to expect his Majesty would tell us by what means that peace came to be disturbed, and then prescribe us a means for our reparation. If any man's guilt hath made him think himself concerned in it, though he be not named, he is his own accuser.

He told us, that there was no occasion given by any tumults, which might justly cause his Majesty's departure, and this, he said, was the opinion of both houses; and his proof was, because his Majesty came into the city without a guard, and dined at the sheriff's, next day after his coming to the house of commons, and returned back again to Whitehall, where he staid some days. I am willing to believe both houses as far as I am able, and, if they had declared that it had been lawful to beat the King out of town, I must have sat still with wonder; but, when they declare to us matter of fact, which is equally within our own knowledge, and wherein we cannot be deceived, they must pardon me if I differ from them. If they should declare, that they have paid us all the money they owe us, or, that there is no cross standing in Cheapside, could we believe them? Why, gentlemen, neither of these is better known to us, than that there were such tumults at Westminster, as might very well make the King think himself in danger. We all well remember what excellent company flocked by Whitehall every day, for a week before the King went to the house of commons, and for his coming to the Guildhall the next day, when he did us so much honour, to vouchsafe us so particular satisfaction, and came without a guard, to shew how much he trusted in our duty and affection (I pray God the deceiving that trust may never rise in judgment against this city) we too well remember the rude carriage of many people to him as he went to the sheriff's to dinner, which was not so much as reprehended by any officer; and we all know what passed the night following, when an alarum was given, that there was an attempt from Whitehall upon the city, and so all men put into sudden arms; and if, by the great industry and dexterity of our good lord mayor, that hubbub had not been appeased, God knows what might have followed; if you will believe some men, they will tell you, the design of those, who gave that alarum, was no less than to pull down Whitehall. There is no question

amples before my eyes, to the end, that I might imitate them in all my actions; for, in truth, they have often exposed their estates and lives for the exaltation of the holy chair; and the courage, with which they have assaulted the enemies of the cross of Jesus Christ, hath not been less, than the care and thought which I have, to the end, that the peace and intelligence, which hath hitherto been wanting in Christendom, might be bound with a true and strong concord; for, as the common enemy of the peace watcheth always to put hatred and dissension amongst christian princes; so I believe that the glory of God requires that we should endeavour to unite them: And I do not esteem it a greater honour to be descended from so great princes, than to imitate them, in the zeal of their piety, in which it helps me very much to have known the mind and will of our thrice honoured lord and father, and the holy intentions of his catholick Majesty, to give a happy concurrence to so laudable a design; for it grieves him extremely to see the great evils, that grow from the division of christian princes, which the wisdom of your holiness foresaw, when it judged the marriage which you pleased to design, between the Infanta of Spain and myself, to be necessary to procure so great a good; for it is very certain, that I shall never be so extremely affectionate to any thing in the world, as to en deavour alliance with a prince, that hath the same apprehension of the true religion with myself: Therefore, I intreat your holiness to believe, that I have been always very far from encouraging novelties, or to be a part of any faction against the catholick, apostolick Roman religion: But, on the contrary, I have sought all occasions, to take away the suspicion, that might rest upon me, and that I will employ myself for the time to come, to have but one religion, and one faith, seeing that we all believe in one Jesus Christ. Having resolved in myself, to spare nothing that I have in the world, and to suffer all manner of discommodities, even to the hazarding of my estate and life, for a thing so pleasing unto God: It rests only, that I thank your holiness, that you have been pleased to afford me the leave; and I pray God to give you a blessed health, and his glory, after so much pains, which your holiness takes in his church. Signed,

CHARLES STUART.

N. B. These are translations of the two Letters contained in the
French History of England, &c. which was twice printed in
Paris, cum privilegio.

THE

PETITION

OF THE

GENTLEMEN AND STUDENTS

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

Offered to both Houses, upon Wednesday, being the fifth day of January, 1642; upon the arrival of that news to them, of the bishops late imprisonment. With their appeal to his most excellent majesty.

Printed at London, for John Greensmith, 1642. Quarto, containing
eight pages.

Humbly and plainly sheweth,

THAT, if the very front of our requests be assaulted with a refusal, before we further declare, we, in all humility and observancy, desire not to be admitted; so may we happily ease ourselves of a danger to be bold where we ought, although not where we may; Yet, if we may be heard to those (we mean yourselves) whose ears cannot and (we dare say) must not, to any whatsoever just requests, we again, as in our former prostration, thus desire you, and, if the expression be more humble, beg of you:

First, not to believe this in itself fictitious, humoursome, affronting, and, if not presumptuous, uno cætera diximus, those epithets which we know, but, if not know, wish, from yourselves, are not undeservedly, nor unjustly, nor illegally sent forth against those, who, according to your loss, your too much abused patience (heaven grant a speedier execution to your commands) daily, hourly, abuse,

Et Regem et Regnum.

Secondly, although we are not vox ipsa academic, nor all regentmasters in the cause, yet we hope the liberal sciences may be as prevalent as the mechanical, intruding, not with swords, but knees, which had not yet been bended, but in this alone our impetration.

Now, our, most honoured senates, may we now, with what a too tedious preamble lulled you, now again awake you.

We, the gentlemen and students of the university of Cambridge, do utterly, from our hearts, shoot back those arrows of aspersion newly cast npon us to be seducers.

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To be seducers is an easy matter, you'll say, if sophistry, with her · fallacies, may intitle us.

But we have sucked better milk from the tears of our mother; our mother, who never yet was more dejected, yet, from the dust, may ride upon the clouds, and in her due time shine, nay outshine the female conquest in the Revelation. The pillars of the mother is the church, you know it all, who Christians are, are those Incarcerati, those who, like Joseph in the pit, or St. Peter with the jailor; those who, with St. Paul, may pray to be let down by a basket (pardon our interruption) may the whole and holy assembly be pleased too, our meaning was good, although the fault of that omission was pardoned

before the reiteration.

Again, your supplicants, who, if without guns or feathers, or those, whose reasons are far lighter than their feathers.

(Give us leave, yet without musquet-shot, we beseech you, to jog you by the elbow, a term-phrase or adagy, meanly given, if you are given to cavil.)

Meanly, that is indifferently; but what need we fear a verbal answer, where too many real are so near at hand?

Pro aris et focis was the Romans empress, pro focis for a King, pro aris for a temple, so on their very hearths they did adore a Majesty; so knew a King which way to go to St. Paul's Cathedral, which way to the Exchange.

Again, we are ready with our lives and bloods to present all colle giate chapels, if that they lay in our power, as well in interioribus quam exterioribus, not acknowledging more or less divine service, than with what, as in former times our more primitive Christians did, with erected bodies, and drawn weapons, stand to the doxology creed, and responsals to the church.

All this we protest, and have hitherto really professed in these too much to be lamented times, although our warrant, so far as we can read, was allowed of by Edward the Sixth, Separata Maria continuatum usque ad annum et tempus vicesimum septimum Caroli Regis. To whose Majesty, whose person, whose religion we appeal to. To his Majesty as God's vicegerent, to his person as God's representative image, to his religion as God himself alone.

By this only consequence,

Ubi Religio

Ibi Templum,
Ubi Templum,
Ibi Deus.

Templum Deme,

Demus Deum,

Deme Templum,

Demas Deum.

face of one papist there. When he first raised his army, did he not, by proclamation, forbid any to come to him? But hark you, gentlemen, where would you have these papists be? Can they live in the air, or in the water? Beyond sea you will not suffer them to pass; if they stay at their houses, they are plundered, it is a good justification for plundering, that they are papists. Are they not the King's subjects, and should they not fly to him for protection? Is there any law, that says the papists must not assist the King with men, arms, or money, when he is in distress, and when he conceives himself to be in danger of his life? Let us look about us, if this world hold, not only all the papists, but all the gentlemen of England will find it necessary to carry all they have to the King, and venture it in that bottom.

But both houses have declared, that there hath been no plundering by the direction of parliament. Here, I think, they would be willing to admit the King to be part of the parliament, to save their honour; otherwise, if plundering signifies the coming with violence into one's house, and taking away his goods against his consent, sure there hath been much plundering, even by the direction of the houses; but have they ever punished plundering of the worst sort, if they have not directed it? Will a declaration of both houses repair the fine wainscot and the goodly leads of honest George Binyon's house? Let me tell you, the time hath been, the loss of such a citizen would have been talked of in another way. I wonder what kind of government is preparing for us, when they will not allow that the imprisonment of our persons is the taking away our liberty, or, the taking away the twentieth part of our estates is the destruction of our property; and did you mark what a notable reason was given us for this? The same law, that doth enable them to raise forces, doth likewise enable them to require contributions. It doth indeed, yet one might be without the other; but I would these gentlemen had chose another auditory to have convinced with this argument; the country people will be no more couzened by the city, when they hear what kind of oratory prevails over us; we shall be shortly told, when they have a mind to our houses, that the same law, which gave them authority to take away our money, gave them likewise power to do the other too.

The King tells us, if we shall hereafter contribute any thing for the maintenance of the army, which, he says, is in rebellion against him (he pardons what is past, mark that) he will deny us the benefit of his protection with foreign princes, which he will signify to his foreign. ministers; what remedy have the lords and commons found for this now? Sufficient to do the business, they declare, that this is an excess of rigour, and injustice beyond example, and therefore they hope his Majesty will be induced, by better counsel, to forbear the execution. A very sovereign declaration; but it is ten to one, if we do not obey his Majesty in the injunction he hath laid upon us, he will use this excess of rigour. I know not how little you, that trade only within the kingdom, may think yourselves concerned in this; but I say, whoever understands the trade abroad, and the benefit of being a subject to the King of England, will not run this hazard; for, let him be assured, in

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