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enemy, is rashly to join battle, without any foresight of the inconvenience thereof: A thing so generally received of all our nation, for the best way, as who should seem to impugn the same is in danger to be made ridiculous, and his reasons to be holden for heresy, and not fit to be heard or read; and yet, how rude, ignorant, and untowardly we should and would present ourselves thereunto, make but some models of convenient numbers assembled, and you shall see the same.

In private quarrels for trifling causes, every man desireth to be exercised and skilful in that weapon, wherewith he would encounter his enemy; but, in this general conflict, wherein we fight for the safety of our country, religion, goods, wives, and children, we should hazard all in that order and form, wherein we are altogether ignorant and unexperimented.

But, because I have found it, by experience and reason, a very desperate and dangerous kind of trial, I would not wish any prince to venture his kingdom that way, unless he be weary of the same, it being the only thing for an invader to seek, and a defender to shun; for the one doth hazard but his people, and hath a lot to win a kingdom ; the other, in losing of the battle, hath lost his crown.

A battle is the last refuge, and not to be yielded unto by the defendant, until such time as he and his people are made desperate.

In which kind of trial, seldom or never shall you see the invader to quail; no, though his numbers have been much less than the other.

There is a kind of heat and fury in the encounter and joining of battles; the which whose side can longest retain, on that part goeth victory; contrariwise, which side conceiveth the first fear, whether it be upon just cause, or not, that side goeth to wreck; yea, and oftentimes it falleth so out, before the pikes be touched.

Thus much to the uncertainty of battle; wherein albeit I would wish our nation to be well exercised and trained, it being a thing of great moment, yet to be used in our own country, as the sheet-anchor and last refuge of all.

A Caveat for the avoiding of that dangerous course in running down to

the Sea-side, at the firing of the Beacons. THAT there be in every shire places appointed, whereunto the country may resort upon the firing of the beacons; which places of assembly should not be less distant, than five or six miles from the sea. side at the least, for the footmen to gather themselves together, to the intent you may the better sort your men, put them in some order, and consult what is meetest to be done; which you shall hardly be able to do, if your place of assembly be within the view, or near unto the enemy, who will by all means seek to attempt you in your disorderly assemblies. Moreover, if fear once take your men, or they be amazed, if you had as skilful leaders as the earth doth bear, they would not be able to dispose or reduce them into such order and form as they would; nei

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the King of kings did choose her for his inheritance, and so affectionately, that we believe the Roman eagles have hardly outpassed the banner of the cross.

Besides that, many of her kings, instructed in the knowledge of the true salvation, have preferred the cross before the royal scepter, and the discipline of religion before covetousness, leaving examples of piety to other nations, and to the ages yet to come. So that, having merited the principalities, and first place of blessedness in heaven, they have obtained, on earth, the triumphant ornaments of true holiness. And although, now the state of the English church is altered, we see, nevertheless, the court of Great Britain adorned and furnished with moral virtues, which might serve to support the charity that we bear unto her, and be an ornament to the name of Christianity, if, withal, she could have, for her defence and protection, the orthodox and catholick truth. Therefore, by how much the more, the glory of your most noble father, and the apprehension of your royal inclination, delights us, with so much more zeal, we desire that the gates of the kingdom of heaven might be opened unto you, and that you might purchase to your self the love of the universal church. Moreover, it being certain that Gregory the Great, of most blessed memory, hath introduced to the English people, and taught to their kings the law of the gospel, and the respect of apostolical authority: We, as inferior to him in holiness and virtue, but equal in name and degree of dignity, it is very reasonable, that we, following his blessed footsteps, should endeavour the salvation of those provinces, especially at this time, when your design, most noble prince, elevates us to the hope of an extraordinary advantage: Therefore, as you have directed your journey to Spain, towards the catholick king, with desire to ally yourself to the house of Austria, we do much commend your design, and, indeed, do testify openly, in this present business, that you are he that takes the principal care of our prelacy. For, seeing that you desire to take in marriage a daughter of Spain, from thence we may easily conjecture, that the ancient seeds of Christian piety, which have so happily Aourished in the hearts of the kings of Great Britain, may, God prospering them, revive again in your soul : And, indeed, it is not to be believed, that the same man should love such an alliance, that hates the catholick religion, and should take delight to oppress the holy chair. To that purpose, we have commanded, to make continually most humble prayers to the Father of lights, that he would be pleased to put you as a fair flower of the christianism, and the only hope of Great Britain, in possession of that most noble heritage, that your ancestors have purchased for you, to defend the authority of the sovereign high priest; and, to fight against the monsters of heresy. Remember the days of old, inquire of your fathers, and they will tell you the way that leads to heaven; and, what way the temporal princes have taken to attain to the everlasting kingdom. Behold the gates of heaven opened, the most holy Kings of England, who came from England to Rome accompanied with angels, did come to honour, and do homage to the Lord of lords, and to the Prince of the apostles in the apostolical chair: their actions and their examples being 'as so many voices of God, speaking and exhorting you to follow the course of the lives of those to whose empire you shall one day attain.

Is it possible that you can suffer, that the hereticks should hold them for impious, and condemn those that the faith of the church testifies to reign in the heavens with Jesus Christ, and have command and authority upon all principalities and empires of the earth? Behold how they tender you the hand of this truly happy inheritance, to conduct you safe and sound at the court of the catholic king; and that desire to bring you back again into the lap of the Roman church; beseeching, with unspeakable sighs and groans, the God of all mercy for your sal. vation, and do tender you the arms of the apostolical charity, to embrace you with all christian affection; you that are her desired son, in shewing you the happy hope of the kingdom of heaven. And indeed you cannot give a greater consolation to all the people of the Christian Estates, than to put the Prince of the apostles in possesion of your most noble island, whose authority hath been held so long in the kingdom of Great Britain, for the defence of kingdoms, and for a divine oracle, which will easily arrive, and that without difficulty, if you open your heart to the Lord that knocks, upon which depends all the happiness of that kingdom.

It is of our great charity that we cherish the praises of the royal name'; and that which makes us desire that you and your royal father might be stiled with the names of deliverers, and restorers of the ancient and paternal religion of Great Britain, which we hope for, trusting in the providence of God, in whose hands are the hearts of kings, and who causeth the people of the earth to receive healing, to whom we will always labour, with all our power, to render you gracious and favourable: In the interim, take notice, by these letters, of the care of our charity, which is none other than to procure your happiness; and it will never grieve us to have written them, if the reading of them stir but the least spark of the catholick faith, in the heart of so great prince, who we wish to be filled with long continuance of joy, and flourishing in the glory of all virtues. Given at Rome, in the Palace of St. Peter, the 20th of April, 1623,

in the third Year of our Popedom. Pope Gregory the Fifteenth having wrote the foregoing letter to the Prince of Wales, it was presented to him by the Nuncio of his holiness in Spain, he being accompanied with the Italian Lords that then were in the court. The Prince of Wales, having received this letter, made the following an

swer, which was after published. Most Holy Father, I RECEIVED the dispatch from your holiness, with great content; and with that respect, which the piety and care, wherewith your

holiness writes, doth require: It was an unspeakable pleasure to me, to read the generous exploits of the kings, my predecessors; in whose memory, posterity hath not given those praises and elogies of honour, as were due to them: I do believe, that your holiness hath set their ex. amples before my eyes, to the end, that I might imitate them in all my actions; for, in truth, they have often exposed their estates and lives for the exaltation of the holy chair; and the courage, with which they have assaulted the enemies of the cross of Jesus Christ, hath not been less, than the care and thought which I have, to the end, that the peace and intelligence, which hath hitherto been wanting in Christendom, might be bound with a true and strong concord; for, as the common enemy of the peace watcheth always to put hatred and dissension amongst christian princes; so I believe that the glory of God requires that we should endeavour to unite them : And I do not esteem it a greater honour to be descended from so great princes, than to imitate them, in the zeal of their piety, in which it helps me very much to have known the mind and will of our thrice honoured lord and father, and the holy intentions of his catholick Majesty, to give a happy concurrence to so laudable a design; for it grieves him extremely to see the great evils, that grow from the division of christian princes, which the wisdom of your holiness foresaw, when it judged the marriage which you pleased to design, between the Infanta of Spain and myself, to be necessary to procure so great a good; for it is very certain, that I shall never be so extremely affectionate to any thing in the world, as to en, deavour alliance with a prince, that hath the same apprehension of the true religion with myself: Therefore, I intreat your holiness to believe, that I have been always very far from encouraging novelties, or to be a part of any faction against the catholick, apostolick Roman religion : But, on the contrary, I have sought all occasions, to take away the suspicion, that might rest upon me, and that I will employ myself for the time to come, to have but one religion, and one faith, seeing that we all believe in one Jesus Christ. Having resolved in myself, to spare nothing that I have in the world, and to suffer all manner of discommodities, even to the hazarding of my estate and life, for a thing so pleasing unto God: It rests only, that I thank your holiness, that you have been pleased to afford me the leave; and I pray God to give you a blessed health, and his glory, after so much pains, which your holiness takes in his ehurch. Signed,


N. B. These are translations of the two Letters contained in the

French History of England, &c, which was twice printed in
Paris, cum privilegio.







Offered to both Houses, upon Wednesday, being the fifth day of January,

1642; upon the arrival of that news to them, of the bishops late imprisonment. With their appeal to his most excellent majesty.

Printed at London, for John Greensmith, 1642. Quarto, containing

eight pages.

Humbly and plainly sheweth, THAT, if the very front of our requests be assaulted with a refusal,

before we further declare, we, in all humility and observancy, desire not to be admitted; so may we happily ease ourselves of a danger to be bold where we ought, although not where we may; Yet, if we may be heard to those (we mean yourselves) whose ears cannot and (we dare say) must not, to any whatsoever just requests, we again, as in our former prostration, thus desire you, and, if the expression be more humble, beg of you:

First, not to believe this in itself fictitious, humoursome, affronting, and, if not presumptuous, uno cætera diximus, those epithets which we know, but, if not know, wish, from yourselves, are not undeservedly, nor unjustly, nór illegally sent forth against those, who, according to your loss, your too much abused patience (heaven grant a speedier execution to your commands) daily, hourly, abuse,

Et Regem et Regnum. Secondly, although we are not vox ipsa academiæ, nor all regentmasters in the cause, yet we hope the liberal sciences may be as prevalent as the mechanical, intruding, not with swords, but knees, which had not yet been bended, but in this alone our impetration.

Now, our, most honoured senates, may we now, with what a too tedious preamble lulled you, now again awake you.

We, the gentlemen and students of the university of Cambridge, do utterly, from our hearts, shoot back those arrows of aspersion newly cast npon us to be seducers.

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