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they unfold not the matter sufficiently, as it requires. And certainly the devil herein conceals some monstrous mystery, for his own ends, in"timating unto us, and that too not obscurely, that the seed or flesh of Mary cannot deliver and save us. But he loses his labour : For the scripture tells us, that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, which word, in all languages, is understood of the child, which, being conceived and fashioned of the Aesh of the mother, is brought forth into the world. Again, whereas they condemn former baptism, as profane and unholy, therein also they shew their little skill. For they conceive and think of it, not as a thing of God's appointment, but only as the work of man. Wherefore, if whatsoever the wicked confer, or receive, ought thus to be slighted and rejected; I wonder indeed, why they also refuse not, and fing away, gold and silver, and other treasures, plundered from the ungodly; and devise not, and coin for themselves, some new invented materials; for baptism is the work and creature of God, as well as all these. When an ungodly man swears, he does wrong to the name of God; but, if the name of God be not a true name to him, he offends not. He that robs or steals, or commits rapine, breaks the law of God; but, if the law be not a true law to him, he trespasses not. So also, if the former baptism be nothing, neither do they sin any thing, that are baptised therewith. Why, therefore, do they detest this baptism, as an ungodly thing, when, according to their own confession, it is nothing? If the marriages of former times are, as they say, to be accounted for fornication and adultery, seeing they were contracted, as they will have it, by those that wanted faith ; Do not they, I pray you, confess themselves to be the children of harlots ? Now, if they be illegitimate, and bastards, I would fain know, by what right, they come to inherit, and enjoy the privilege of those places they live in? Truly it would be but reason, secing they are such, that they should be made incapable of inheriting; and that, in this their new way of marriage, they should find themselves, also, some new means and possessions, which, at least, may have a fairer and honester title. . For it is not seemly, methinks, that such good and godly men, forsooth, should maintain themselves upon such whorish and unlawfully gotten goods; or else be forced, poor souls! by plain violence and robbery, to pillage and plunder from others. As for that ridiculous kingdom of theirs, which they dream of, there are so many, and so manifestsimpieties in this one business alone, that I need not make any more words of it, and indeed, perhaps, what I have already said concerning it may be thought unnecessary, and too much; especially, seeing the whole subject thereof hath abundantly enough been discussed, and laid open, by the labours of other men.

At the dyet, which, at the request of the princes of the empire, Ferdinand, King of the Romans, held by his deputies at Worms in. April, the cities, which hitherto had contributed no monies to the war, in the first place, made their protestation, that they appeared not here, out of any consideration of the decree passed at Coblentz; but out of obedi ence to the emperor, and King Ferdinand. Whereupon there happen ed a great debate between them and the princes, about the contribution At length, supplies were appointed for five months, and twenty thou

sand crowns ordered to be paid in monthly. Likewise it was decreed, that; upon storming or taking in of the city, the innocent people should be spared; and that honest men, who were either kept in by the siege, or had formerly quitted the place, should have their goods restored them. Upon the publishing of this decree, the Bishop of Munster delivers over his army to the command of Oberstein. But, these publick sums being negligently collected, and indeed, not before it was too late, the general was not able to perform any extraordinary service. Besides, the commanders, in a general mutiny of the soldiers, for want of pay, were many times brought in hazard of their lives. But, when things were brought to that wretched and lamentable

pass, within the city, that very many died daily of the famine; and many also stole away, and escaped from thence, but so starved and spent with hunger, that they were pitied by their very enemies, into whose hands they fell: The commanders persuaded, and promised the townsmen, that if they would deliver up their King, and some few more besides, they should be excused from all particular, as well damage and danger. The citizens, although they were wonderous willing so to do, yet deterred by the cruelty and watchfulness of their King, they durst not attempt any thing: For he, for his part, was so resolute and obstinate, that so long as any thing was left, whereupon himself and some few others might be kept alive, he never intended to yield up the town: The commanders therefore, in the army, send to them the second time, and forewarn them, that they send out no more, no not so much as women, or children. This was the first of June.

Next day, they of the town return an answer ; complaining, that they could not be admitted to a lawful hearing; adding withal, how hardly and grievously they were dealt with, and that without any deserving on their parts at all: That, if any body would take upon him to demonstrate their error, they would be ready in all dutiful manner to acknowledge it. Then they expound a place in Daniel, Dan. vii. 7, concerning the fourth beast, which was far the fiercest of all the rest. But their letters ended with this close, That, by the help and assistance of God, they would continue in the confession of that truth, which hitherto they had maintained. Now all this was penned according as the King had appointed and directed it.

Things in the city being brought to this extremity, and, as it were, to the last cast, there were two men, who had made an escape thence, who falling into the soldiers hands, one of them, passing his own word for his faithfulness, was suffered to go to the bishop; and both of them set down a way how to gain the city. Oberstein and the bishop, having heard what these fugitives could say, entered into counsel thereupon, and, June the twenty-second, demanding a treaty with the townsmen, they exhort and persuade them to yield themselves, and save alive the multitude, which by this time was ready to perish with famine. They, their King being present, made answer by Rotman; but so, as that they meaned not to forego their former resolution.

Two days after, about eleven of the clock at night, Oberstein, without any noise, draws up some of his forces close to the city, and, by means of one of the fugitives, some soldiers chosen of purpose, creeping along the trench, at length got into their works, killing the Corps du guard; others followed close at their heels, and, finding a small gate open, some five-hundred of them, with some officers and colours, got into the city. But the townsmen gathering into a body stopped the passage, that the rest could not break in; and yet with much ado it was that they kept them out. So making good the gate again, they straightway assaulted them that first made the breach and entry, and slew

many of them. Thus, for an hour or two, there continued an eager skirmish on both sides. But they that were shut in, finding by chance another gate, with no strong guard at it, forced it open, and so made an enterance for their fellows, who presently broke in like a sea : Howsoever, at first the townsmen made head against them, fortifying themselves in the market-place: But at length despairing, having lost many of their men at the first encounter, they all cried out for quarter, which was readily granted them. At this very bout the King and Knipperdoling were taken; Rotman, forsaking all hopes of life, and running desperately into the thickest of the enemies, was slain, utterly refusing to trust himself alive into their hands.

The city thus taken, the bishop seized upon half the booty, and the ammunition belonging to it: And so dismissing the army, he only reserved two companies, as a guard for his own person.

There was this year, in July, another Dyet also of the empire held at Worms, wherein King Ferdinand, by his deputies, made a motion, that, now the city was taken, the anabaptists, through the whole empire, should every where be destroyed and made away: Also, that the princes would move the Pope of Rome for a general-council. They made reply, That order had been taken by former edicts, what was thought fit to be done with the anabaptists; And as for a general council, that the emperor himself had divers times sollicited the pope

there. in; and that therefore, for their parts, they could say no more to it. At the same meeting, the Bishop of Munster demanded reparation of damages, and the costs he had been at during the war, complaining withal, that the monies agreed upon had not as yet been paid in to him.

When nothing could certainly be determined of, there being but few of the princes and states there present, another Dyet was appointed there, to begin the next November following, where then should be a full hearing, both concerning the account and expences of the war; and also it should be determined, what form of government should be established in the city for the time to come. When the appointed day was come, King Ferdinand's ambassador first relates, and makes known the causes of this present assembly, and moves, among other things, that they would conclude upon an agreement, that the city now lately rcgained might continue, and enjoy its former religion. The bishop's agent lays open and declares, how great charges and expences he had been at for the whole time of the war; how great a debt he had contracted thereby; how having regained the city, to prevent more stir and danger, he was constrained to raise two fortresses within it, and to put

garisons in them; of all which he desired that a speedy consideration might be had. Hereto answer was made, That the bishop had taken into his hands, as well the greater part of the booty, and all the ammunition, as the citizens goods; all which belonged to the common right of the empire; that it was fitting an even estimate being made, that all this should be considered in the bill, and account of his expences; and what else was desired should have a reasonable and fair consideration had of it. Next it was determined, that the Bishoprick of Munster should be at the disposing of the empire, according to the ancient custom: That all the nobility, gentry, and citizens, except such as were anabaptists, should be suffered to return, and freely to enjoy their own: That the bishop should order matters of religion, according to the decrees of the empire: That at the spring next ensuing, the agents of the several states and princes should meet at Munster, and there, taking examination of the citizens behaviour, should acquit the innocent; and level all such forts and works, as the anabaptists had raised : That the bishop likewise should raze those fortresses he had built, and should with all convenient speed deliver out of custody, and punish according to their demerits, the King, Knipperdoling, and Crechting, who were his prisoners.

As for the decree about the exercise of religion, the Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave, the Princes of Wittenberg, and Anhalt, openly declared, and protested, against any assent thereto: Some cities likewise did the same; neither would they agree to the laying level of the old works about the city; as for demolishing those lately raised, they made no great matter of that. The King and his two fellow prisoners were led up and down the town in sight of the princes; and that more for sport, and pastime, than for any thing else. Upon this occasion, and opportunity, the ministers that came along with the Landgrave, entered into discourse with the King, and disputed with him, concerning some of his opinions ; as about the kingdom of Christ, and the civil magistrate, concerning justification, and baptism; of the Supper of the Lord, the incarnation of Christ, and of marriage; and by the testimonies of holy scriptures they did so much good upon him, that though they could not wholly alter him, he, with some reluctancy, still defending his own; yet they so weakened him, and turned him, that at length he in a manner generally yielded unto them, which some thought, he did more out of a hope to save his life, than that he was thoroughly convinced by their arguments: For the second time they came to visit him, he made them promise, that so he might receive his pardon, he would bring the business so about, that all the anabaptists who were in Holland, Brabant, England, and Friesland, in great numbers, should be hushed and silenced, and in all respects yield obedience to the magistrate. Then they disputed with his companions, both face to face, and by writing, concerning mortification, the baptism of infants, the communion of goods, and of the kingdom of Christ.

When they were brought to Telget, the King being demanded by the bishop, By what authority he had arrogated and assumed to himself such power and licence over his city and peopleThe king demanded likewise of him again, How he came by any such command, or right of possession? The bishop replying, That he had it conferred upon him, by the consent of the prince and people; Why and I, answered the King, was called thereto by God himself. The eighteenth of January, they were brought back again to Munster, and every one committed a-part to several custody. The same day also came the bishop thither, together with the Archbishop of Cologne, and the ambassadors of the Duke of Cleves. The two days following were wholly spent in wholsome and godly admonitions used uuto them, to reduce them from their idle conceits. And the King indeed acknowledged his offences, and sought to Christ, by prayers, for the forgiveness of his sins. But the other two would by no means confess any fault, but continued with a great deal of obstinacy maintaining their errors. The next day the King was brought forth unto an high place, raised from the ground, and there tied to a stake. Here two executioners tore his flesh with red-hot pincers. For the three first plucks he was silent, and made no great expression of what torment he felt; but afterwards incessantly, with a great deal of vehemency, he besought God for mercy and pardon. Having been tortured and torn in this manner, for a whole hour and more, he was at length run through the breast with a sword, and so died.

His two companions were put to the same torment and execution. Their dead bodies were trussed up in iron hoops, and hung out for the publick view, from the highest tower in all the city, the King indeed in the middle; but so, as that he hung the full heighth of a man above the other two.

And thus Knipperdoling found his own prophecy made good again; and that too in regard of the second part of it.

Και λίην κεϊνός γε έoικότι κείται ολέθρω·
Ως άπόλοιτο και άλλΘ- όλίς τοιαύτά γε ρέζοι. .

od.a.

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