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ally, and for a short space of the air, for them is a phrase of sufficient dignity.
The sum of all is, the stork, in its absence, is said to be in the heaven,' therefore it is not in any other parts of the earth; and since, in the heaven,' signifies to be in the air, or in some one of the heavenly bodies, and that it cannot abide six months in the air, no more than Noah's dove, which was as good a flier, yet wanted a resting place for the sole of her foot, it remains therefore, that the stork, and the like may be said of the rest of season-observing birds, till some other more fit place can be with reason assigned them, does go unto, and remain in some one of the celestial bodies; and that must be the moon, which is most likely, because nearest, and bearing most relation to this our earth, as appears in the Copernican scheme, yet is the distance great enough to denominate the passage thither an itineration or journey.
Object. Great enough, indeed, for it is said to be fifty-two semidiameters of the earth, which being accounted twenty-one thousand, sevenbundred, and twenty-three miles, and three sevenths about, its diameter is six-thousand, nine-hundred, and twelve miles; then its semidiameter is three-thousand, four-hundred, and fifty-six; this, multiplied by fiftytwo, gives one-hundred and seventy-nine thousand, seven hundred, and twelve miles, for the distance of the moon from the earth; now at one. thousand per day in one-hundred and eighty days, which is but two and a half short vf half a year, he could go but one-hundred and eighty thousand, which is not so much more than the number of miles mentioned; so that the whole year must be spent in going and coming at one-thousand miles per day; in two-thousand of one half, the year; in four-thousand, a quarter; and this is as much as can be allowed them, namely, six weeks coming, and six weeks going, to tarry five months there, and five months here. Now, how can it be conceived, that any bird should move four-thousand miles a day, that is one hun. dred and sixty miles, and two thirds, per hour,
Answ. This is, I confess, a difficult objection, and I know not how better to answer it, than by giving them a little more time for their journey, that is, by dividing the year into three parts; allow one third for staying here, another one-third there, and the remaining one third for their going and coming, that will be sixty days, or two months for each, then will their motion be about one-hundred and twenty-five miles in an hour; now, I have heard that race horses have moved at the rate of five miles in a-minute; this comes to three-hundred miles in an hour, if they could continue it: but if this may seem too much to be believed, let us abate; say four miles is two-thousand four-hundred per hour, eight is one-hundred and eighty per hour, still this is more than our account one-hundred and twenty-five, but two is one-hundred and twenty, that is somewhat less; now, if any of these be possible by a horse, that hath two or three impediments, then it is much more easy for a bird, that hath none; the horse is hindered by its own weight, the bird hath none beyond the attraction; the horse hath resistance from the air, the bird in the air meets with no obstruction; and perhaps this may
be added, that, if there were the resistance of the air, yet the bird could better make its way, not only by the shape of its body, fitted for the purpose, but, because of the smallness of its dimension, proportionable to its strength; for it is noted by an ingenious person, that generally smaller animals are stronger, proportionable to their bulk, than stronger, by the quadruple proportion.
2. Object. Oh, but as these have no resistance, so they have no furtherance; for the very fluid æther makes no resistance to the stork of the wing (as is before noted,) whereas the horse hath the solid earth to beat his heels against?
Ans. We will suppose (according to our hypothesis) that, as the bird ascends out of the attraction, it accelerates its motion by the same force that, in the beginning, did serve to raise it but slowly; and, perhaps, this acceleration may be much as the descent of heavy bodies, by vertuc of attraction, namely, by odd numbers (1, 3, 5, 7, 9,) for, though there be still some gravity remaining in the body, while it is ascending out of the attraction, yet the force continues either the same, or, if it be diminished any thing by weariness, this may be balanced by the thickness of the middle region, affording better stroke for the wing: now, if (I say) there be such acceleration even to the æther, where there is neither help nor resistance, yet there it shall continue in its full vigour and velocity, that was acquired in the ascent, and may, for any thing that appears, hold on to the moon's attraction; but this increasing swiftness may, at its height, be well supposed to transcend the swiftness of any horse; and, by consequence, may well accomplish this long journey in the time allowed:
3. Object. But shall not the animal eat or sleep, all this long time of two months ?
Ans. As for eating, it may possibly be without, in that temper of the æther, where it passeth, which may not be apt to prey upon the spirits, as our lower nitrous air; and yet, even here, bears are said to live upon their summer fat all the winter long, in Greenland, without any new supply of food.
Now we noted before, that some of those birds (and perhaps it may be true of the rest) are very succulent and sanguine, and so may have their provisions laid up in their very bodies for the voyage.
As to sleep, it is very probable, that they are in a sleep, or sweeven, if not all the way, between the attraction of the earth and that of the moon; to which sleep the swift acquired motions may very much contribute; for we see the like in a chicken, which if you swing in your hand, with its head under its wing, you will presently lay it asleep. Now it is likely, these birds, being there, where they have no objects to divert them, may shut their eyes, and so swing on fast asleep, till they come where some change of air (as a middle region about the moon or earth) may, by its cold, awake them. Add to this, that this sleep spares their provisions ; for, if, as some would have it, cuckows, or swallows, can lie asleep half the year without eating, why cannot these, in as deep a sleep, as well for two months forbear it?
4. Object. “But the moon goes near round the earth every day, or the earth round itself; and if, from any part of the earth, they should steer their course to the moon, they must make many great circles round the earth, to keep the moon in view; nay, it is impossible they should so do, if they should attempt it; fur, near the earth, their course must be twenty-one thousand miles a day, which can no way be conceived. Besides, this spiral ascending would abundantly augment their way, which is long enough besides.'
Ans. It cannot be supposed, that they at first direct their course to the moon, but rather, offended by the steams of the earth, do tend directly from it; and that straight line, it is probable, they pursue, till they come so near the moon, that she is the fairest object to draw their iviclination. For, if the moon hath a motion in a month about the earth, then at the two months end they will find it in the same line of direction, where it was when they begun their journey; for, suppose it full moon at the place where they began, just at two months end it will be full moon again to the same place which they left; therefore, if they proceed in the same straight line, they will be sure to meet the moon in their way, it being the end of their second period, while they were in their journey.
5. Object. “But all this discourse is grounded upon the Copernican scheme, and the new motions of philosophy, which are yet under debate; but, if all this be mistaken, then so are all your conjectures.'
Ans. I take for granted my grounds, and so need not dispute them : If
any doubt what I suppose, I must refer him to the authors that on purpose have handled these matters, whose works when he hath well considered, perhaps, he may allow my supposition: In the mean time, he may leave alone these papers, as what he is not yet prepared to examine,
I know not what else may be objected, and this is all, at present, I can say of this matter : If, from what hath been said, may be an illustration of the wonderful works of God, any light afforded to the letter of any abstruse text, or if but any incitement to better abilities to make a further enquiry; it shall compensate the small pains of him, who professes himself not to affect novelties, but only desirous to understand the truth, and is
IF, notwithstanding what has been said in answer to the first objection, concerning the great distance between the moon and the earth, any one shall still remain unsatisfied, I have only this to offer to his
consideration : Whether there may not be some concrete bodies, at a much less distance than the moon, which may be the recess of these creatures, and may serve for little else but their entertainment.' Thus we see many rocky islands in the sea, that are of no other manifest use, than for sea-fowls to rest and breed upon, and these are therefore commonly called Gurl-rocks. Now, if there be such globules (or æthereal islands) they must be supposed of such magnitude only, and set off at such distance, as their reflexive light may not reach home to our earth (though, perhaps, they may serve to illuminate our atmosphere) else they would before now have been discovered ; and yet no farther off, than these birds may conveniently arrive unto them in such time, as may be most convenient to allow them. This I do suggest, because it is as hard for me to persuade myself, that they come from any other part of this. earth, as it is to persuade another, that they come from the moon; and therefore, if the moon will 110t be allowed, some other place inust be found out for them.
RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF LOUDEN,
LORD CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND,
To a grand Committee of both Houses of Parliament, upon the Twelfth
of September, 1645. Published by authority.
Printed at London, by E. P. for Hugh Perry, and are to be sold at his shop in the
Strand. 1645. Quarto, containing eight pages.
My Lords and Gentlemen, "HE occasion of this meeting, is to represent, to the honourable
houses of the parliament of this kingdom, the condition of the affairs of Scotland, which at this time is very sad, in respect that the bloody rebels who came from Ireland, whom this kingdom by the large treaty are obliged to repress, and their treacherous confederates and malignants, who have conspired against the covenant and league betwixt the two kingdoms, have so much prevailed in mischiet, especially in that unhappy late rencounter with our forces at Kilsyth; where the rebels being upon their march southward, and, according to our best intelligence, to join with the King, whom they did expect in Scotland, or to break through our borders into England, and to come with their army into this kingdom; and our army, being then very weak by reason of their former losses and conflicts, wherein most part of our forces were cut off, did raise some country forces, and brought them along with them, and, out of their zeal to the good and safety of both king, doms, did pursue them with more forwardness and haste, than good speed or success; for the enemy having placed themselves in a ground of advantage, betwixt steep mountains on the one hand, and woods and bogs on the other, possessing the best ground, where in a latent place they were all drawn up in battle ; our forces advanced up to them, and the ground being very streight, and the enemy lurking in a place where they were not perceived till our forces were close at them, and none of ours being drawn up, nor put in order, but only the regiment that marched in the van, the enemy did fall upon them with their whole horse and foot, and, after fighting with that first regiment, who did fight very valiantly till oppressed with the multitude of the enemies whole forces, they were most part cut off, and the rest broken : The few horse we had retreated disorderly, breaking through their own foot, and, all being in disorder, the enemy prevailed, and routed our forces with great execution, giving quarter to none.
After this sad blow, we having no other army, nor reserve of forces in the fields, some towns near the enemy, wherein there be many malignants ready to welcome them, and others out of fear were glad to capite ulate with the enemy, and submit themselves to their mercy, upon such conditions as they could obtain.
The deportment of the enemy, since, is by all craft and cruelty to strengthen and recruit their army, wherein they leave no means unessayed that policy of violence can effect; they offer peace and protection, immunity from all excise, assessments, raised for the entertainment of our armies in Scotland, England, and Ireland, and the ratifying of the former covenant of Scotland, to all that shall join with them or lie neutral; and, as they term it, return to their loyalty and obedience to the King, and shall renounce the mutual league and covenant with England ; and such, as will not, are threatened with fire and sword, which in divers places they put to execution most cruelly: And Montruse, as the King's Lieutenant-General, issues forth commissions to popish and malignant lords, and others, to array the country for the
Papists and divers malignants, who before were with them in their hearts, but durst not appear, are now avowedly joined with them; others, out of fear to preserve themselves, their wives and children, from destruction of the sword and fire, are fled, and some take protections from them: The enemy is roaring and triumphing in the heart of the Kingdom, and is now possessed of the houses, lands, and estates of many noblemen, gentlemen, and others of the best affected in the kingdom, to whom nothing is left but families without maintenance, honour with out means to support it, and who are under all the grievous calamities of war, and under the mercy of a most cruel and bloody enemy, not having, when I came from that kingdom, any army in the fields to ope pose them. And in the mean time the angel of God is striking our