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bility of making any address unto your highness, until this opportunity, which hath made me live under no small affliction, lest my actions should have been misrepresented to your 'highness, and lessen me in that good opinion of yours, which I value as the greatest blessing of my life. I shall not presume to trouble your highness with so tedious a narrative, as the reasons of my coming from the King, and the relation of my adventures since must needs be; but I have done it at large to Sir Edward Hyde, and I most humbly beseech your highness to give him leave to entertain you with them, at sứch leisure times, when he shall find that you can admit of it with least trouble; which that you may the more easily grant me, I shall not importune you myself with any thing more at this time, than this sincere protestation, that, while I have the honour to live in your highness's thoughts, in this favour I shall think myself above all misfortunes, how miserable soever otherwise; and I doubt not but your goodness will, by preserving me so happy in your memory, encourage me in that which you cannot binder

me,

from being

Your highness's most humble

and most faithful servant,

GEORGE DIGBY.

To Sir Edward Hyde, Chancellor of the Exchequer.

My Dear Chancellor, I SEIZE with much joy this occasion, that flatters me with the hopes of conveying safe unto you, and by you unto the rest of my friends there, an account of my adventures since you heard from me; these inclosed papers will give you a very particular relation of all matters of fact. I make no question, but my unsuccessfulness in that employment will give occasion to my enemies to accuse me of a great disservice to the King, in having been the loss of so many of his horse, not in the conduct of them (for I apprehend not malice itself in that point) but in putting them upon so desperate a design. This point I desire you to clear, by letting all, with whom you shall find the objection, know, that, altho I was of opinion, that the King himself ought to have ventured, when he was at Welbeck, the passage into Scotland, in case there had been a certainty of my Lord of Montrose's being on this side Forth, yet, when that was once diverted, upon both my intelligence and advice, I had afterwards the least share of any man in the council in adventuring any part of the King's horse upon so hopeless a design, as that of Scotland was, while we were doubtful of my Lord of Montrose's condition; but the northern horse, being disgusted with Gerrard, refused absolutely to march back southward to Welbeck, and so, rather than they should disband, it was thought fit to try, whether they would be engaged to adventure to Montrose, who in all his letters had seemed much to resent

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the neglect of him, in not sending him a supply of horse, assuring, that, with the help but of one-thousand, he could carry through his work. The proposition being made to Sir Marmaduke Langdale, he at first point-blank refused it, as an undertaking which had, by Gerrard and all the rest, been declared desperate, even with all the King's horse; but, upon second thoughts, finding that all his horse would disband, if they were drawn southward, he and all the northern gentlemen came to the King, and told him, that, if he would lay his commands upon me to take the charge, and to go along with them, they would adventure it, otherwise not: whereupon, I having declared my obedience to whatsoever the King should impose upón me, his Majesty commanded me positively to that charge, using, besides his pleasure, this argument to me, that, if I succeeded in it, I should reap much honour; if not, I could incur no prejudice by failing in that which was at first given for desperate: and so, at half an hour's warning, having (I protest to God) not dreamed of the matter before, I marched off from the rendezvous with an addition only to the northern horse of such as would voluntarily chuse to go with me, which proved to be a matter of three-hundred, with which I made that progress, which you will find related in the inclosed papers. But here I am sure you will wonder, how I, holding that place I did near the King, and having the honour of so great a part in his trusts, especially at a time when he had scarce either counsellor or penman about him, should be put upon so extravagant and desperate an employment. To this I must let you know, and such only as you shall think fit, that, though I had no thought of the present action, yet the King and I had long before (that is, ever since his affairs were made so desperate hy the loss of Bristol) concluded it most for his service, that I should absent myself from him for some time, in case I could find a fair and honourable pretence for it. I believe, the accidents since befallen at Newark, with Prince Rupert and Gerrard, will have given you a light of some reasons of my remove. The truth [Here follow many lines of characters.)

Over and above these urging reasons, as to the time, upon the main of the King's condition and mine, I found the King likely to suffer much by my stay near him, the weariness of the war being so universal, and the despair of any approvement in his condition being so great in all about him, I found it almost every man's opinion [Here come in more linss of characters.]

I thought it then high time to watch an opportunity of freeing his Majesty from an attendant so pernicious to his honour and interest; and this, my dearest friend, is as much as I think necessary to say unto you upon this subject, hoping, that, by your dexterous conveyance of it to his highness the prince of Wales, it will have the same impression with him, which I cannot doubt of with you.

Since my coming out of England, I staid a month, for a wind, at the Isle of Man; which time I cannot think mispent, having there received great civilities from my Lord of Derby, and had the means of a particular acquaintance with his noble lady, whom I think one of the wisest and generousest persons that I have known of her sex. From thence, I and my company were very securely conveyed hither in a light frigate of his lordship's, where I found all things in a great forwardness, the conclusion of which was expected within few days, and great forces, as was pretended, already in a readiness for England, under the command of the Earl of Glamorgan, the confederates great general and favourite; but his lordship being sent for by my lord lieutenant and myself, to confer about the ways of disposing those aids most to the advantage of his Majesty's service, the businesses contained in the inclosed papers broke forth in such a manner as you will find there set down, and obliged me to that part in the King's vindication, which was thought could not so properly be performed by any as myself; you will find the whole business so fully stated in the transactions themselves which I send you, and in my letter to my brother secretary, that I shall need to say no more upon the subject, only let me ask you, whether, according to the rules of policy, I have not. carried my body swimmingly, who, being before so irreconcileably hated by the puritan party, have thus seasonably made myself as odious with the papists? Well, my comfort is, that the very few honest men that are in the world will love me the better; and, whilst I do the part of a man of integrity and honour, I am willing to trust God with the rest. I must not conclude without telling you, that, if I had been brought hither by far greater misfortnnes, I could not have repined at any thing that had given me the happiness of so particular a knowledge of, and friendship with, the Marquis of Ormond, who, if I can judge at all of men, is not only the wisest young man, but the most steady, generous, and virtuous person that I have ever known. I conjure you, as you love virtue, and as you love me, who have so little a share of it, build carefully by a diligent application upon those grounds which I have laid for a friendship between you ; for, indeed, I love him so much, as I cannot be at rest till we make up the triangle equal on all sides, to that perfection wherewith I am

Dublin, Jan 4,

1645.

Yours,

GEORGE DIGBY.

Pray fail not to let my father partake of what I write to you, and General Goring also, as far forth as you shall judge necessary.

To Secretary Nicholas. My good Brother, YOU will receive by this dispatch a particular account from my lord lieutenant of the state of the treaty here, and of those conditions upon which he was hopeful suddenly to have concluded such a peace, as would have afforded his Majesty powerful and timely aids from this king. dom, had not the unfortunate madness (for I can give it no other name) of my Lord of Glamorgan, and the necessary proceeding thereupon,

my

cast all things back into a posture as uncertain and more dangerous than ever. You will receive from my lord lieutenant, and the council here, a punctual relation of the matter of fact; and it is referred to me to convey unto you, and by you to his Majesty, the circumstances and reasons of the whole proceeding against his Lordship.

About ten days since, matters of the treaty growing near to a conclusion, and, in confidence thereof, preparations being made by my Lord of Glamorgan, and the Irish, as they assured us, for the speedy sending over of three-thousand men for the relief of Chester, which were to be made up ten thousand before the beginning of March: it was thought necessary that we should confer with the said Earl of Glamorgan, and some of the Irish commissioners, to the end that, before lord lieutenant's final consent to the articles of the treaty, the business of the King's supply might be reduced from discourse to a certainty, and directed, in the most advantageous way for his service; to which end (we little suspecting then what was since discovered) the said Earl of Glamorgan, and some of the Irish commissioners then at Kilkenny, were earnestly invited hither, both by my lord lieutenant and myself.

Upon Monday last, the day before the said Earl of Glamorgan was expected in town, my lord lieutenant received out of the north, from an honest and well-affected person, the copy which is sent you of

my Lord of Glamorgan's articles and oath, with the confederate Catholicks, assured to have been found in the titulary archbishop of Tuam's pocket, killed in October last at Sligo. At last, the thing appeared so impossible, as that we were apt to think it a forgery and plot against the King of the parliamentary rebels, till, considering the circumstances, formalities, and punctualities thereof, we grew to apprehend somewhat more in the matter; and, soon after, a second and third copy of the same coming to other persons, all with letters to the effect of this inclosed, it was then thought high time to take the business into most serious consideration ; which being done by my lord lieutenant and myself, assisted by some of the wisest and best affected persons here, we soon concluded, that, if these things were once published, and that they could be believed to be done by his Majesty's authority, they could have no less fatal an effect than to make all men so believing conclude, all the former scandals cast upon his Majesty, of the inciting this Irish rebellion, true; that he was a papist, and designed to introduce popery even by ways the most unkingly and perfidious; and, consequently, that there would be a general revolt from him of all good protestants, with whom this opinion could take place.

Now, when we considered the circumstances convincing the truth of this transaction on my Lord of Glamorgan's part, and how impossible alınost it was for any man to be so mad, as to enter into such an agreement without powers from his Majesty, and there being some kind of a formal authority vouched in the articles themselves, we did also conclude, that, probably, the greatest part of the world, who had no other knowledge of his Majesty than by outward appearances, would believe this true, and do according to that belief, unless his Majesty was suddenly and eminently vindicated by those who might justly pretend to know him best. Upon this ground it was also concluded by us, that less than an arrest of the Earl of Glamorgan, upon suspicion of high treason, could not be a vindication of his Majesty eminent or loud enough; and that this part could not properly nor effectually be performed by any other person than myself, both in regard of my place and trusts near his Majesty: that the business of Ireland had passed, for the most part, through my hands: that I attended his Majesty about the time of the date of his Majesty's pretended commission: that, since that time I had, by his Majesty's command, written to the Irish commissioners a letter, whereof I send you a copy, so diametrically opposite to the said earl's transactions : and, lastly, in regard that my lord lieutenant, to whom, otherwise, his Majesty's vindication in this kind might properly have belonged, was generally thought to be unworthily cousened and abused in the matter, in case there was any such secret authority given by his Majesty to the Earl of Glamorgan.

This being our unanimous judgment of what was fit to be done, and by whom, the only question, then remaining, was to the point of time; in which we were also of opinion, that, if it was deferred till the busi ness, growing publick otherways, should begin to work its mischief, his Majesty's vindication would lose much of its force, and be thought rather applied to the notorieting, than to the impiety of the thing, and rather to the pernicious effects, than to the detestable cause itself; notwithstanding I must confess unto you, that the consideration of frustrating the supplies of three thousand men, which were so confidently affirmed to be in readiness for the relief of Chester, in case the condition of that place could not hear the delay which this might occasion, wrought in us a very great suspension of judgment, whether the proceeding against my Lord of Glamorgan should not be forborne till that so necessary supply was sent away: but, the case being more strictly examined, we found, first, That, by the Lord of Glamorgan's oath, the forces were not to be hazarded till his Majesty's performance of the said earl's conditions. And, secondly, That the said supply was never intended by my Lord of Glamorgan and the Irish, till the articles of peace were consented to, which the lord lieutenant durst no wise do without a preceding vindication of the King's honour, since this transaction of my Lord of Glamorgan's was known unto him, and known to be known unto him by those who wanted neither art nor malice to make use of it; so that, the necessary forbearance to conclude the treaty frustrating as much the relief of Chester, as the sudden and vigorous proceeding against my Lord of Glamorgan could do, our resolutions did, in the end, determine upon that course, when, at the instant, to remove all objections, information was brought us, that the thing was already publick throughout the town, and began to work such dangerous effects, as, in truth, I do not believe that my lord lieutenant, or any of the King's faithful servants, could have been many hours safe in the delay of this his Majesty's and their vindication; which hath now been so seasonably applied, as that it hath wrought here not only a general satisfaction in all moderate men, but even such a conversion in many less well-inclined, that whereas before a peace with the Irish, even upon those unavoidable conditions, upon which my lord lieutenant must needs, within a few days, have concluded it, would hardly have

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