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professes, elevate the Indian. It must and will dishearten, depress, and crush him. If he has within him a spark of that pride, without which there can be no rational improve. ment, this gloomy policy would subdue it. have labored hard to take an opposite view of the subject; but there is no bright side to it. It is all unmingled, unmitigated evil. There is evil on the other side, but none commensurate with that of this compulsory removal.

There, sir, I set my foot; it is compulsory. If you will treat the Indians as free agents ; if you will withdraw your legal duress; if they are willing, after exploring the coun. try, to go, I am willing they should, and will join in making the appropriation. But while the laws exist beneath which they cannot live, it is in vain to tell me they are willing to go. How do you know it? Do you tell me, a man, locked up in prison, does not wish to come out ? How do you

know it? Unlock the prison doors, and then you can tell.

I have heard it said, these laws are passed in terrorem .; that it is not intended to enforce them. In terrorem, sir, and the removal still voluntary? Are gentlemen serious ? Re. peal the laws; put the Indians in a condition to act volunta. rily, and then, if they choose to go, I will not withhold my vote from any reasonable appropriation, scarcely from an unreasonable one, to pay the cost of the removal.

I adjure you, sir, to recede ; there is no disgrace in it. Other States, more powerful than Georgia, have receded on points where their honor and interests were equally invol. ved. Sir, if Georgia will recede, she will do more for the Union, and more for herself, than if she could add to her domain the lands of all the Indians, though they were paved with gold.

The evil, sir, is enormous ; the violence is extreme; the breach of public faith deplorable; the inevitable suffering incalculable. Do not stain the fair fame of the country ; it has been justly said, it is in the keeping of Congress, on this subject. It is more wrapped up in this policy, in the estimation of the civilized world, than in all your other doings. Its ele. ments are plain, and tangible, and few. Nations of depend. ent Indians, against their will, under color of law, are dri.

ven from their homes into the wilderness. You cannot ex.. plain it, you cannot reason it away. The subtleties, which satisfy you, will not satisfy the severe judgment of enlightened Europe. Our friends there will view this measure with sorrow, and our enemies alone with joy. And we ourselves, sir, when the interests and passions of the day are past, will look back upon it, I fear, with self-reproach, and a regret as bitter as unavailing.


Shakspeare.- Julius Caesar-Act 4–Scene 3.

That every

Cassius. That you have wronged me, doth appear in this: You have condemned and noted Lucius Pella, For taking bribes here of the Sardians; Wherein, my letters (praying on his side, Because I knew the man) were slighted of.

Brutus. You wronged yourself, to write in such a case.
Cas. At such a time as this, it is not meet

nice* offence should bear its comment.
Bru. Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself
Are much condemned to have an itching palm ;
To sell and mart your offices for gold,
To undeservers.

Cas. I an itching palm?
You know that you are Brutus that speak this,
Or, by the gods, this speech were else your

last. Bru. The name of Cassius honors this corruption, And chastisement doth therefore hide its head.

Cas. Chastisement !

Bru. Remember March, the ides of March remember! Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake? What villain touched his body, that did stab, And not for justice? What, shall one of us, That struck the foremost man of all this world, But for supporting robbers :shall we now Contaminate our fingers with base bribes ? And sell the mighty space of our large honors,

• Trifling.

For so much trash as may be grasped thus ?-
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon,
Than such a Roman.

Cas. Brutus, bay not me:
I'll not endure it. You forget yourself, ,
To hedge me in: I am a soldier, I,
Older in practice, abler than yourself
To make conditions.

Bru. Go to ! you're not, Cassius.
Cas. I am.
Bru. I say you are not.

Cas. Urge me no more, I shall forget myself;
Have mind upon your health ; tempt me no further.

Bru. Away, slight man!
Cas. Is't possible !

Bru. Hear me, for I will speak.
Must I give way and room to your rash choler ?
Shall I be frighted when a madman stares ?

Cas. Oye gods! ye gods! must I endure all this !
Bru. All this? ay more.

Fret till your proud heart break :
Go, show your slaves how choleric you are,
And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge?
Must I observe you? Must I stand and crouch
Under your testy humor? By the gods,
You shall digest the venom of

your spleen, Though it do split you; for, from this day forth, I'll use you for my mirth; yea, for my laughter, When you are waspish.

Cas. Is it come to this ?

Bru. You say you are a better soldier;
Let it appear so ; make your vaynting true,
And it shall please me well. For mine own part,
I shall be glad to learn of noble men.
Cas. You wrong me every way; you wrong me,

Brutus ;
I said an elder soldier, not a better,
Did I say better?

Bru. If you did, I care not.
Cas. When Cæsar lived, he durst not thus have moved me,
Bru. Peace, peace; you durst not so have tempted him.
Cas. I durst not!

Bru. No.
Cas. What! durst not tempt him ?
Bru. For your life you durst not.

Cas. Do not presume too much upon my love.
I may do that I shall be sorry for.
Bru. You have done that


should be sorry for.
There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats ;
For I am armed so strong in honesty,
That they pass by me as the idle wind,
• Which I respect not.

I did send to you
For certain sums of gold, which you denied me:--
I had rather coin


And drop my blood for drachms, than to wring
From the hard hands of peasants, their vile trash,
By any indirection. I did send
To you for gold to pay my legions;

denied me.

Was that done like Cassius ?
Should I have answered Caius Cassius so?
When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous,
To lock such rascal counters from his friends,
Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts,
Dash him to pieces.

Cas. I denied you not.
Bru. You did.

Cas. I did not: he was but a fool
That brought my answer back. Brutus hath rived*

my heart. A friend should bear a friend's infirmities; But Brutus makes mine greater than they are.

Bru. I do not, till you practise them on me.
Cas. You love me not.
But. I do not like


Cas. A friendly eye could never see such faults.

Bru. A flatterer's would not, though they do appear
As huge as high Olympus.

Cas. Come, Antony! and young Octavius, come!
Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius :
For Cassius is a-weary of the world :-
Hated by one he loves ; braved by his brother:
Checked like a bondman ; all his faults observed,


Set in a note book, learned and conned, by rote,
To cast into my teeth. O, I could weep
My spirit from mine eyes !--There is my dagger,
And here my naked breast—within, a heart
Dearer than Plutus' mine, richer than gold;
If that thou be'st a Roman, take it forth ;
I, that denied thee gold, will give my heart.
Strike as thou didst at Cæsar; for I know,
When thou didst hate him worst, thou lovedst him better
Than ever thou lovedst Cassius.

Bru. Sheath your dagger:
Be angry when you will, it shall have scope:
Do what you will, dishonor shall be humor.
0, Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb,
That carries anger as the flint bears fire ;
Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark,
And straight is cold again.

Cas. Hath Cassius lived
To be but mirth and laughter to his Brutus,
When grief and blood ill-tempered vexeth him ?

Bru. When I spoke that, I was ill-tempered too.
Cas. Do you confess so much? Give me your hand.
Brú. And


heart too. Cas. O Brutus ! Bru. What's the matter?

Cas. Have you not love enough to bear with me,
When that rash humor which my mother gave me,
Makes me forgetful?

Bru. Yes, Cassius; and henceforth,
When you are over-earnest with your Brutus,
He'll think your mother chides, and leave you so.


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