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the European wars have resulted in successful reckless and ruinous adventure, she will have the best men of Europe, who, for long, long revolution, or the advancement of the cause of such an enormous accumulation of the material

years, have escaped martyrdom in exile, and in freedom. That European revolutions have always of war on hand, that, thinking it a pity that it that exile have been learning, until they have beoccurred in times of peace!" Grant it, and it is also should go to waste, and remembering her post- come competent teachers of the true doctrines and true, that all these revolutions have consequently poned menaces, to check, on this side of the water, || principles of constitutional liberty, will hasten resulted in abortion. The separate and isolated what she is pleased to term the insolence of our back, each man to his appropriate post of duty in nationalities, whose struggles for independence aggressive democracy, and having some old the deliverance of his country, in obedience to her and freedom have checkered the otherwise uniform grudges against us yet ungratified, we shall find call. Then Hungary will have work for her history of European despotism, have, consequent

that our intervention will prove but an invitation Kossuths; Italy for her Mazzinis; Ireland for her ly, been crushed in detail, for want of concert of to her and her allies to interfere in our affairs.

Mitchels and O'Briens; France for her Rollins and action on their part, and by comparative prepara- Though it is true that we should be more than

her Hugos; Poland for her living Kosciuskos. tion and vigor on the part of their oppressors, abundantly able to pay her off, in kind, for all the And all these resuscitating nationalities will, this resulting from a reason of peace.

many valuable lessons she may have taught us, time, act in concert, and in that concert of action, “ Order reigns in Warsaw," has therefore be- yet I hold that our duty is very clear, to stand find the guarantee of their triumph thrice guarcome the proverbial language in which the disas- áloof and let this war work out its own legitimate | antied. They will no more be cut off and perish trous termination of these revolutions has been laends.

in detail. Their wandering exiles returned, now announced.

This much, sir, we owe to ourselves. But, the apostles as well as the champions of liberty, Yes; quiet has been restored to Ireland; but it Mr. Chairman, there is another duty we owe to having all learned their duty at the same school, is the quiet of exile, of starvation, and the grave, the world. Let despotism exhaust itself. This

will concentrate the mighly energies of the uniYes; the storm of revolution has swept by, and is but another blasphemous war waged in the versal spirit of freedom in Europe, and guide it repose is given to Hungary; but it is the repose name of religion. And who are the belligerents ? to the same end, as with one head and one heart. given by Austrian bayonets, presenting the altern- There, upon the one hand, stands old Nick, Then their trembling tyrants will learn ior what ative of obedience or death.

boasting himself to be God's vicegerent in the holy end Providence has made their own acts of abomYes; peace reigns in the Eternal City, and work of human butchery, that he may bring addi- ination in driving these men into exile, instru. Rome once more is quiet; but it is peace given tional empires at his feet, in abject and blasphe- mental in hastening the consummation of their her by the Imperial armies of Republican France. mous idolatry. And there, upon the other hand,

own doom. Yes; “Order reigns in Warsaw;" but it is order stands old John Bull, in sleek, yet burly hypoc- Shudder as we may at the carnage with which dictated by the despoiler of Poland,

at the point frisy, still mocking the forbearance of Heaven, the fields of Europe are now being crimsoned by of three hundred thousand Russian bayonets. seeking to countervail the designs of his enemy,

this war of tyrants, “ the end is not by-and-by." Sir, does the gentleman hope to gain strength that he may prostitute these same coveted em- No, sir; this is but “the beginning of the end." to his cause by calling up to our recollection | pires to his own vile uses.

The blood now poured out as a libation to the reminiscences like these? Is this the fruit of the And then his Allies! “A kite in an eagle's || blind fury of belligerent despots, will then-when boasted peace which he holds out to awaken, for nest,” a bastard adventurer, all reeking in the the end does come-rise as frankincense from the our kind offices, the gratitude and “great con- blood of his victims, crushed out at the very altars altars of liberty. The dead bodies of the slainsideration of the masses of Europe?” if so, then, of civil and religious liberty, in his overthrow of of those now driven in hosts, like cattle to the sir, in full answer to him, I would also recall to the only two Republics which have sprung up in shambles, not knowing the end for which they his recollection the counterpart to that blushing modern Europe; one of them his own fair France; are butchering cach other, will then be seen and page of history, thus passed into a proverb, and the other springing, Phænix-like, from the ashes

canonized as so many martyrs to her cause. ask him to remember, that

of old republican Rome. And he, as if to tempt | Then another kind of shout shall go up from “ Hope, for a season, bid the world farewell, the vengeance of Heaven, and test to its utmost

Ireland than the groans of murdered men, and the And freedom shrieked when Kosciusko feil.” the forbearance of an insulted world, proclaims feeble, hopeless wail from women and childrenMr. CLINGMAN. I understand the honor- || himself "the protector of the Holy Places.” of starvation and despair. Then the announceable gentleman from Indiana to assume the posi- And Turkey! poor Turkey! waning remnant ment, when—" bloodiest picture in the book of tion that the people of Europe suffer greatly from of the empire of the false prophet! Yet more crime"--Poland was blotted from the list of nathese military despotisms, because they are forced magnanimous and Christian than them all! Alas! | tions, that “ Order reigns in Warsaw,” shall be to support vast armies in the field. Then, let me "alas! whoever wins, she must perish!

chaunted to the notes of quite another requiem. ask, how, by getting these Governments at war Vile, perfidious Austria! she has not yet won Then other voices will startle the echoes of the with each other, and having more men called out her place in this roll of infamy.

plains of Hungary than the shrieks of patriot and killed, and a heavier taxation, the masses are These are the belligerents in this blasphemous women, “scourged naked” through the land. benefited?

war. And shall we interpose here? Shall we Then other thunders shall resound from the Mr. CHAMBERLAIN. I am just coming to become partakers in their abomination, by inter- Vatican than the fulmination of anathemas for that point, and the gentleman will perceive that fering in this war of demons, in the name of political offenses. Another anthem will rise from almost the entire residue of my remarks will be civilization and Christianity? Shall we, too, tempt the temples of Rome than Te Deum, for the in direct response to his inquiry. And I will Heaven, by our presumptuous intervention, in triumph of brazen villany and cruel outrage, now pass to the more practical consideration the puny effort to thwarı ils just retributions?

intensified by the three-fold abomination of perof this question. Great Britain has never al- For, if there be such delight in the infernal regions jury, treason, and despotism. And, as Paris is lowed any opportunity to pass unimproved to as that of devils in tormenting each other, who France, so shall France once more, in the streets strike us at every vulnerable point, as if to remind can doubt the source from whence this war had

of Paris, proclaim her deliverance, in vivas to us of her great supposed superiority, both in its origin? Let them alone! Hands off! Stand | liberty, and not to the libertine; and her bastiles wisdom and prowess. Well, sir, let us now back! Give them scope and margin enough to shall once more fall before the avenging fury of quietly take her at her word, and admit to this i play out this diabolical game.

in a word, I

her_barricaders; and then, when Paris ceases to extent-both that we need teaching and are teach- repeat it, let despotism exhaust itself, and then be France, France will cease to be despotic. able. As mere spectators, if not pupils, appar- there will be hope for the world; and not till then. Sir, this day is coming, and the assurance of its ently indifferent, yet very far from being so in Sir, we have nothing to do with dynasties. fulfillment makes no demand upon prophetic ken. fact, let us quietly look on, and avail ourselves of Destiny is our field of operations. Yes, sir, we The womb of human destiny, big with these the benefit of her present valuable experience. have a destiny, not a dynasty, to subservera

events, is already pained for deliverance. For She is, even herself, learning some salutary les- mission to fulfill; and this round world, blasted one, sir, I have only to say, God speed that day. sons of experience, and we are taking the same with the curse of despotism throughout its whole And, now, having suggested our present duty, lessons at her cost.

expanse, is the field of our missionary labors; I come to the main point: the true policy and Every gun that is fired upon Sebastopol, either and while moral and not physical force is our duty of our own Government when this crisis of ordnance or small-arms; every shot that strikes, instrument for its accomplishment, it will be made

And I conclude as I commenced. As I and every shell that explodes, is, in the present available only by its application in altogether an- now insist that she shall let the despotic belligeradvanced state of the arts and sciences, demon- other direction than that proposed by this resolu- ent sovereigns of Europe alone, so I demand that strating either the effect or necessity of some new tion.

she shall let the independent sovereigns of this and more efficient principle, both of projectiles Mr. Chairman, I have pointed you to the means; Union alone. and explosion. And with her experience and our and now for the end. Once more I repeat, let I deny the right of this Government to anticiobservation, coupled with our remarkable aptness despotism exhaust itself, and then the people, pate my motives, and its power, under the Con. both for imitation and invention, she will find us " the masses of Europe,” crushed prostrate to stitution, to restrain my movements. I demand in advance of both herself and the world, at the the earth beneath its iron heel, will spring to by what right it presumes to question an Ameriend of this conflict, in all that appertains to per their feet again; and once more upon their feet can citizen as to where he is going, what he is fection in the science of war, and with this addi-then comes the final struggle. “ Thrice armed is going for, or what he intends to take with himtional and marked difference: she will come out he who has his quarrel just.” Thrice sure is whether his Bible, his hoe, or his musket, or all of the war in a state of exhaustion, while we shall rendered their assurance of final triumph. Thrice three, and whatever else he pleases, if it is but his be in the very prime of vigor. This, sir, will guarantied their guarantee of freedom. England own? It is high time, sir, that we had an Amerifurnish us the very best guarantee of our own will have her Ireland, Russia her Poland, Austria can interpretation of the law

of nations. safety from her encroachments, and the preserva- her Hungary, and France her modern Rome, The whole policy of our Government, with few tion of the subsequent peace of the world. She and all these blood-cemented despotisms, their notable exceptions, which have been winked at, will be content with her laurels, at the price they || swarming millions rallying, with the war-cry of || in restraint of this unquestionable, and inalienable, will cost her, and find abundant useful employ- | vengeance, to the standard of freedom.

and constitutional right of the citizen, has been ment in repairing her own shattered fortunes. And then, sir, when this seventh vial of wrath || just so much flagrant usurpation; and every But if, by our obtrusive intermeddling, we furnish is poured out, another book will be opened. The treaty we have made, and every law we have her with a pretext to back out of her present II thousands of patriots, the champions of liberty, Il enacted, in contravention of this right, ought to

comes.

330 CONG....20 Sess.

Temporal Power of the Pope-Mr. Chandler,

Ho. OF Reps.

be abrogated and repealed as soon as may be. of its truth and its triumph. And again let me acquit me of the charge of any attempt to obtrude Yes, sir, the blood of the murdered Crittenden ask, how have some of our citizens, without those opinions upon others, or to press upon my and his men is upon our hands. And it is the giving umbrage to the Allies, and “ deep concern” associates, publicly or privately, any defense of duty, not of this generation merely, but of this to our own Government, embarked in the service the creed of my church, or the peculiarity of its House, and now, to wash away its stain. In the of Russia ? But, sir, we have a recent case di- forms and ceremonies. Believing, sir, that relilanguage of another, " let us perform a lustration, il rectly in point, one in which the present Admin- gion is a personal matter, I have avoided public let us purify this House and this country from istration has and I presume-noi unwittingly exhibition of my pretensions; and, knowing the this sin." by its official acts sanctioned the doctrine and unpopularity of '

my creed, I have been careful not Mr. Chairman, I repeat it, the blood of the mur- | adopted the policy. For I do not ask the Gov. to jeopard my means of usefulness, in their legitidered Crittenden and his compatriots in the cause ernment to "avow any intention of justifying mate channel, by any untimely presentation of of freedom is upon our hands. There is no point those citizens who nay contemplate a willful viola: irrelevant and unacceptable dogmas. on which the policy of our Government has been, 1 tion of the rights and laws of a friendly nation." But now, sir, I think I cannot be deceived in and still is, so pointless as on this. One of two I only ask the Government to simply let them supposing that a well tempered reply would not things is certain: either the Government, in as. alone.

only be patiently received in this House, but that suming the power to restrain and control the of the event referred to Colonel Kinney's ex- an attempt at such a reply as the charge of the migratory right of American citizens, renders her- pedition-Mr. Marcy, in his official letter to the gentleman from Massachusetts would suggest to self responsible for their ultimate protection, or Minister of Costa Rica, says:

a Catholic, is expected from me, as the aldest of else, if she would absolve herself from this respon- "In the absence of any information that the alleged the few, the very few, (I know but one besides sibility, she must leave them free and untrammeled company contemplate occupying any lands which are

myself in this House,) who are obnoxious to any to migrate and expatriate themselves at will. In

claimed, or have ever been claimed, by Costa Rica, the

warning contained in Mr. Molina's note would seem to be censures justly made against professors of the the one instance, as in the case of Crittenden and

premature. From the tenor of that note, bowever, the Catholic religion, and who may be directly interhis men, by cutting off the resources and means undersigned does not infer that the Government of Costa ested in a defense from imputations of a want of on which they rely for protection she assumes Rica apprehends any hostile intention on the part of the or

fealty to the Government of the country, in conthe responsibility of that protection herself; and

ganization in question, but that it simply declines to recog-
nize the validity of any title which this company may have

sequence of the nature of their obligations to the the difficulty, and, indeed, dilemma in which-in obtained from other sources than from the Government itself. Catholic Church. the effort to discharge the duty—she at once finds “ In this view of the case, Mr. Molina will permit the If, Mr. Chairman, I had not long been a memherself involved, demonstrates the fact that the undersigned tu observe that he does not perceive upon

ber of this House, and thus become able to form what grounds the Government of the United States can inpolicy, in the first instance, is wrong. But, upon terfere with the proposed expedition, which appears to be

an opinion of the honorable gentlemen who comthe other hand, by disclaiming, in the first in- a peaceful enterprise, involving, possibly, agricultural, pose it, I might startle at the risk of presenting stance, all right to interfere with their motives and mining, and commercial speculations, but contemplating myself as the professor of a creed "everywhere movements, she absolves herself from all responno measure which will render them amenable to the neu

evil spoken of," and standing almost alone in the Lrality laws of the United States. sibility to other Governments for their acts, as

"When the parties to this expedition shall have with

assertion of a fact which seems to be everywhere well as for their protection, further than as a duty drawn from their allegiance to their own country, and doubted. I stand, too, sir, without the sympato humanity demands a right to a fair trial under volontarily placed themselves within the jurisdiction of thies of a host of partisans to sustain me in my the laws of the country which they may have

another Power, their conduct must be in conformity to
the new relations they have assumed, and they are re-

weakness, and to pardon me the infirmities of my violated. But she has done neither. On the con

sponsible to the laws of the land in which they bave sought defense in consequence of their attachment to the trary, she has degraded our chivalric Navy to the domicile. The question of validity of title to lands is, then, principles I advocate. base uses of police service to the Queen of Spain,

between them and other claimants, to be adjudged, not by I stand alone, indeed; the generous defense in blockading our harbors and rivers to keep back

the Government of the United States, but by the tribunals
of the State within which the dispute shall arise.

offered by the gentleman from South Carolina, (Mr. our own citizens from rushing to the rescue of their

" Mr. Molina will understand, from the foregoing re- Keitt,) and the gentleman from Mississippi, (Mr. patriot comrades, and then looked on in cold in- marks, that, while this Government does not feel called BARRY,) was the magnanimous effort of men who difference while Spanish cruelty satiated its thirst upon to interfere with the projected peaceful expeditions

would defend the professors of a creed which they for their blood.

of its citizens to other countries, it promptly disavows any
intention of justifying those citizens who may contemplate

do not hold. I, sir, speak for a creed which I do Sir, if I shoulder my musket and march to a willful violation of the rights and laws of a friendly

hold. I stand alone, sir; but I stand in the ConCanada, and shoot down the first man I meet, I nation."

gress of the nation. I stand among gentlemen. I ask you, to the laws of which country am I amen- Now, sir, the Government has but one more stand for truth; and how feeble soever may be able for the crime? Why, sir, who would pre- || step to take, and the end I aim at is accomplished. || my effort, I feel that I may continue to depend, at sume lo controvert the conclusion, that my own Let it now but be consistent in the interpretation | least, upon the forbearance of a body that has Government, upon the one hand, incurs no respon- of its duties. Let this doctrine be made universal always entitled itself to my gratitude by its unsibility for my act, and has no business with me; in its application, and the policy uniform, and failing courtesy to my humble exertions. or that, upon the other hand, I have no right to that end is consummated. Then the American Mr. Chairman, I understand the honorable look to her for protection against the legal conse- eagle, from the lofty eyrie in which she has so gentleman from Massachusetts, (Mr. Banks,] in quences of my crime. I think she would conclude, long perched in unmoved contemplation of her his defense of the secret combination to put down that, whether the British Crown was or was not mission, her eye still steadfast on the star of em- the Catholic religion in this country, by denying competent to the vindication of its own violated pire in its westward course, spreads her wings in to its members the full rights of citizenship, to laws, it would be no concern of hers, and would ihat sublime career which seeks no resting place, assert that he does not bring into discussion the leave me to the consequences. Well, sir, how until the earth is encompassed.

general creed of the Catholics, but only that porcould it so affect this principle as to charge the

tion which, it is asserted, makes the professor nature of her liability, if there were ten, or a hun

dependent upon the Bishop of Rome, not merely dred, or a thousand, or ten thousand, guilty of

TEMPORAL POWER OF THE POPE.

for what he shall hold of faith towards God, but identically the same offense? You would, in this

what he shall maintain of fealty towards his own case, ape the gratuitous interference of the despots SPEECH OF HON.J. R. CHANDLER, political Government. of Europe, would you? for the preservation of the

Let me read a paragraph from the published balance of power! But with this difference, that

OF PENNSYLVANIA.

rema,ks of the honorable gentleman: you would interpose to protect another Power IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

“Mr. Banke. I have no objection to any man of the against your own citizens.

Catholic Church, or faith. Here is our friend from Penn

January 10, 1855. Sir, there is a " higher law" above and beyond

sylvania, (Mr. CHANDLER,) an amiable, learned, and eloall human law-the law of destiny-or, more prop

The House being in Committee of the Whole

quent man; I might be willing to vote for him, Catholic as erly speaking, the law of Providence, by which on the state of the Union

he is, in preference, perhaps, to others nearer my political

faith than he is. What he ibinks of ihe Seven Sacraments, the world's progress is controlled. This law you Mr. CHANDLER said: I rise to express my or how many he accepts, is no concern of mine. To me can neither repeal nor modify. And, in His own opinions on a subject which ought never to have

it is no objection that he receives the interpretations of tbe

Council of Trent as to the doctrines of original sin and good time, the Maker of this law will, in spite of been introduced into the Congress of the United justification. It cannot concern me, and it can concern no you, be both judge and executioner.

States; but, having been brought hither and dis- man, that, as a matter of faith, any person cherishes the Mr. Chairman, “ the world does move," all the cussed, the suggestions of many friends lead me to

doctrine of transubstantiation, accords the full measure of conventionalities of despotism and priestcraft to believe that it is my duty to present, not merely my

Catholic veneration to sacred relics or images, and accepts

every article of the Nicene creed. Each man is accountthe contrary, notwithstanding. And the resistless | opinions, but certain facts, in relation thereto.

able for his own faith, as I for mine. And even though my spirit of freedom implanted in the human heart I purpose making some reply to the remarks of name were appended to the declaration, read 10 us by the is but the manifestation and outbirth of that law the honorable gentleman from Massachusetts,

gentleman from Mississippi, from tbe Pennsylvanian, I by which •ll progress is governed. This spirit || [Mr. Banks,] who recently addressed this House,

might still vote for such a map, if otherwise it lay in my

way to do so." you cannot, you must not, attempt to control. in committee, on some of the prevailing topics of

I thank God, and the honorable gentleman, for Your interposition, or attempted intervention for the day, and made special and inculpatory allusion this purpose, will be found as futile as it is im- to the creed of the Roman Catholic Church; in- || spiritual. But the gentleman proceeds:

that. I may think as I please on matters purely pertineni and presumptuous. Let us, therefore, volving a charge of latent treason against its mem

“ But there is another branch of this subject. It is a so shape our deeds by our manifest duty, as that, bers, or at least imputing to them an article of current belief that the Pope, the head of the Roman Church, when the approaching crisis comes, America and religious faith that overrides all fealty, to the who stands as the Vicar of God, and is invested with his Americans may be felt and found wherever destiny | Government of the country, and would render

attributes of infallibility, is not only supreme in matters of may direct, or duty demand. them unworthy of public trust-suspected citizens,

faith, but has also a temporal power that can not only con

trol Governments, but, in fitting exigencies, may absolvo Mr. Chairman, í hail with joy every indication and dangerous officers.

bis disciples from their allegiance. I am aware, sir, that I see of an approximation, even, to the adoption Before I commence my direct reference to the this is disputed ground. But it is a well attested historical of this policy, which has long been a cherished subject of my remarks, let me say that, whatever

fact, that otten, in time past, the claim to secular power lias sentiment of my heart. The whole history of may be my religious belief and connections, !

been made; and I am yet to learn, that by the Pope, or any

general council speaking with his acquiescence --the only Texas stands out as an enduring monument, both II trust that all who know me in this House will authorized exponents of the true faith-that this claim ban 33D Cong....20 Sess.

Temporal Power of the PopeMr. Chandler.

Ho. OF REPs.

our lives.

ever yet been disavowed. ST HAS NOT BEEN DONE IN censure, and feel that I sland charged, a national not give it to the President; we do not give it to the GorENGLAND. *** I will say that, if it be true that the Pope is Representative, with holding opinions and owing

ernor; we do not give it to the Congress ; we do not give it held to be supreme in secular, as in sacred affairs, that he

to the Legislature of the State-neither do you; nor do they fealty that may demand from me a sacrifice of can absolve men from their relations with others not of the

claim it--nor would we give it, if they did, tor the claim true faith, it is not strange that men should hesitate in sup- patriotism to a higher obligation; pointed at, sir, would be unfounded. We give to them everything which port of his followers. I would not vote for any man hold- as a man who, while he swears to maintain the the Constitution requires ; you give no more-you ougbt ing to that doctrine, and, I doubt not, other gentlemen here Constitution of the country, and professes to

not to give more. Let the Pope and cardinals, and all the would concur with me in that feeling." make the fulfillment of his obligation io that coun

powers of the Catholic world united, make the least en

croachment on that Constitution, we will protect it with The charge, then, against the Roman Catholics try his paramount political duiy, yet cherishes in

Summon a general council-let that council of this country is, that their views of the supremacy his heart the principles of latent treason. I may be

intertere in the mode of our elecuing but an assistant 10 a of the Pope renders them unsafe citizens, because allowed, without the imputation of vanity, to make

turnkey of a prison-we deny its right; we reject its usurp

ation. Let that council lay a tax of one cent oply upon it renders them liable to be withdrawn from their one more direct allusion to myself and my creed.

any of our churches; we will not pay it. Yet we are most allegiance to their own civil Government by the | And, sir, clearly and distinctly do I deny that the obedient Papists-we believe the Pope is Christ's Vicar on decrees or ordinances of their spiritual superior. power of the Pope extends one grain beyond his earth, supreme visible head of the church throughout the Of the cruelty of disturbing the public mind with spiritual relations with the members of his church,

world, and lawful successor to St. Peter, Prince of the

Apostles. We believe all this power is in Pope Leo XII., such questions, and disfranchising well-disposed or impinges, in the least degree, upon the political and we believe that a general council is infallible in doccitizens, I shall not now speak. I shall leave to allegiance which any Roman Catholic of this urinal decisions. Yet we deny to Pope and council united other tirnes, and other persons, and in other places, country may owe to ihe Government and Consti- any power to interfere with ove little of our political rights, too, the task of impeaching and of developing the tution of the United States.

as firmly as we deny the power of interfering with one little

of our spiritual rights 10 ihe President and Congress. We motives upon which such discreditable and un- And, sir, that this disavowal of a divided fealty will obey each in its proper place, we will resist any en. righteous proceedings rest. I shall leave to those may not be regarded as a mere generality, 1 give croachment by one upon the rights of the other. Will you who bave more bitterness of temper than I possess, it explicitness by declaring that if, by any provi.

permit Congress to do the duties of your convention ?" to show that, though newly revived, the charge is dence, the Bishop of Rome should become pos- Here is another extract from the writings of as old as the hostility of Paganism to Christianity; | sessed of armies and a fleet, and, in a spirit of the same Roman Catholic prelate: and that those who are vitiating public sentiment conquest, or any other spirit, should invade the “ Kings and Emperors of the Roman Catholic Church in thus ministering to the appetite which they territory of the United States, or assail the rights have frequently been at war with the Pope. Yet they did have made morbid, have their prototype in the of our country, he would find no more earnest

not cease to be members of the church, and subject to his

spiritual jurisdiction, although they resisted bis warlıke malignants who would crucify the Saviour “lest antagonists than the Roman Catholics. And for

attacks. Any person in the least degree acquainted with the Romans come and take our city from us," or myself, if not here in this Hall to vote supplies the history of Europe, can easily refer to several instances. in the Ticus Oats of later times, who disturbed the for a defending army, or if 100 old to take part in The distinction drawn by our blessed Saviour, when he public mind of England by discoveries of plots that the active detense, I should, if alive, be at least in

stood in the presence of Pilate, was the principle of those

rulers. They were faithful to the head of the church, whose existed only in his infamous invention, and who, | my chamber, or at the foot of the altar, imploring kingdom is not of this world, but they repelled the attack by his perjuries, sent men to the scaffold whose God for the safety of my country and the defeat of an enemy to their rights. You, sirs, acknowledge the innocence is now as generally admitted as is the of the invaders. [Applause.]

authority of bisliops. Suppose a bishop under whom you corruption of the court in which such fantastic The CHAIRMAN (Mr. ORR) reminded gentle

were placed, proceeded to take away your property; could

you not defend your rights at law without infringing upoa tricks were played, and as the infamy of the men that applause was not becoming in a deliber. bis spiritual authority? Are you reduced to the dilemma wretch who could destroy the peace of an excellent alive body:

of being plundered, or of denying an article of your reliportion of the community, and send to the scaffold Mr. CHANDLER. Or, if the spirit of con- gion? Can you not keep your property and deny the right and block men of immaculate purity, merely to quest and cruelty should seize upon ihe wearer of

of the bishop to take it away, and resist his aggression, at

the same time that you are canonically obedient? Can give himself a temporary notoriety, and a sort the liara, and he should seek to subjugate Italy by you not be faithful to him as bishop, and to yourself as a of political aggrandizement. That branch of the improper assumptions, and, by crime, provoke man? Thus suppose the Bishop of the Protestant Episdiscussion I turn from, with loathing and disgust | the arms of other nations against his own city, I

copal Church of Maryland claimed same right which he

neither had by your church law nor by the law of the at the offensive details, and with horror at its inti- || could look on the chances of the defeat of his army

State. You may, and ought to, resist the aggression. Yet male association with the men, the.motives, and as coolly and as complacently as on the misfor- you would not be unfaithful to bim. Let the Pope be the means of modern times. I leave such consid. tunes and punishment of any other ambitious placed in the same predicament; I can be faithful to the erations to others, and proceed to take notice of monarch, and, safe in my love of right, and in the

Pope and to the Government under which I live. I care

noi whether that government be administered by a Papist, that part of the subject which concerns the political | enjoyment of my religious creed, and the comforts

by a Protestant, by a Jew, by a Mohammedan, or by a relations of American Catholics with the head of of my home, I could say, “Let the Volscians Pagan. It is, then, untrue to assert, as you have done, the Roman Catholic Church-the character of | plow Italy and harrow Rome.”

that a consistent Papist, and a dutiful subject of a Protesta the fealty which I, and all of the Catholic creed Mr. Chairman, I do not wish to attract atten

ant adininistration, must be incompatible: in this country, owe to the Bishop of Rome. tion by declamation; I wish to state simply and Dr. Kenrick, Archbishop of Baltimore, one of

The question raised by the gentleman from distinctly, but very emphatically, what are the the most learned of the Roman Catholic Church, Massachusetts is one of political power, and that, I opinions of a Roman Catholic as to the influence asserts, positively, that the temporal power of imagine, is the leading objection to Catholics and of the dogma of Papal supremacy on political alle- which we speak was never claimed by the Church, to Catholicity with gentlemen who venture on the giance, and my own opinion I have given. But || and he challenges the production of a single decree dangerous movement of dragging religion into the since some exception was made in my behalf-an or definition in which this power was propounded political arena. Mr. Chairman, I deny that the exception which I cannot admit, though I thank as an article of faith.

Such," says the learned Bishop of Rome has, or that he claims for him- the honorable gentleman for the courtesy with Bishop, “ does not exist." self, the right to interfere with the political relations which it was expressed—and since it may be Dr. Troy, Archbishop of Dublin, in his Supof any other country than that of which he is him- | asserted that, as a Republican and layman, I plement to the Pastoral Instruction, says,

“ The self the sovereign! I mean—and I have no desire to could not be supposed to understand all ihe rela- deposing power of Popes never was an article of conceal any point-I mean that I deny to the Bishop lions and influences of the dogma of the suprem- | faith, or a doctrine of the Catholic Church, nor of Rome the right resulting from his divine office, | acy of the Pope, let me add, that what I assert was it ever proposed as such by any council, or to interfere in the relations between subjects and as my belief of the entire political independence of by any Popes themselves who exercised it." their sovereigns, between citizens and their Gov. | every Roman Catholic out of the Papal States- Archbishop Hughes, of New York, is equally ernments. And while I make this denial, I ac- | political independence, I mean, of the Chief Magis- || explicit on this point. And I might fill volumes knowledge all my obligations to the church of irate of that State-is fully held, and openly as- with citations to prove my position. which I am an humble member, and I recognize | serted and approved by every Catholic bishop and A council of the Catholic Church in Baltimore all the rights of the venerable head of that church archbishop of the United States.

has expressed the same idea in the most emphatic to the spiritual deference of its children; and I I have not time here to quote from the writings desire that no part of what I may say, or what I of all those who have published their opinions Mr. Chairman, since I began to speak here I may concede, in my remarks, may be considered upon the subject, nor shall I have space to copy have received a treatise, by Bishop Spaulding, of as yielding a single dogma of the Catholic Church, them in my published remarks, but I may say Kentucky, on this very subject, sustaining my or manifesting, on my part, a desire to explain that such are ihe views which I have learned from 1 view. It is a timely and acceptable offering, by a away, to suit the spirit of the times, or the preju- | them in conversation, and such is the view of the lady in the gallery, to the spirit of truth, and her dices of my hearers, any doctrine of the Catholic || late Dr. England, a Roman Catholic Bishop of || influence will assist to promote and reward at. Church. I believe all that that church believes and Charleston, a divine whose erudition and whose | tention throughout the House, as the woman's teaches as religious dogmas, but I am not bound by well established fame gave consequence to all he offering of ointment from the alabaster box was the imputations of its opponents. I am not bound asserted, and whose zeal for the church of which scattered over the head of the Author of truth, by the assertions of those who would make political | he was a distinguished prelate, and whose lofty | while its fragrance was diffused throughout the capital out of denunciations of her children, or position in the estimation of the sovereign Pontify chamber in which the offering was made. misrepresentations of her creed. Nay, more, sir; rendered it unlikely that he would underrate the But I shall, of course, be asked, whence the and I ask the attention of gentlemen to my dis- Papal power.

boldness of the assertion against Catholics, and avowal. I am not bound by any action which the Extract from a letter of Bishop England to an whence the readiness to believe the charges, if Pope takes as a temporal sovereign, or which he || Episcopal clergyman, vol. 2, pages 250–51: they are altogether unfounded? Has not the performs as Bishop of Rome, or Pope, when he is io This charge which you make upon the Papists is ex- Pope exercised the power of deposing monarchs, only carrying out a contract with Kings and Em- | actly the same charge which the Jews were in the habit of

and thus of releasing subjects from their alleperors to secure to them the integrity of their making against the Apostles. From that day to the present we have met it as we meet it now. We have a kingdom,

giance? Has he not interfered with the temporalipossessions, and the perpetuity of their power. it is true, in wbich we pay no obedience to Cæsar; but our ties of a sovereign, and thus exercised a power suf

As I cannot accepi the honorable gentleman's kingdom is not of this world-and whilst we render unto ficient to justify the apprehensions of the timid, discrimination between me, as a Catholic, and other | things that are Cæsaris.

God the things that are God's, we render unto Cæsar the members of the Church as Roman Catholics, I

To the successors of the Apos

and to give some appearance of probability to the tles we render that obedience which is due to the authority

assertions of the bold, reckless, and unprincipled must regard myself as involved in the general II left by Jesus Christ, who alone could bestow it. We do ll party politician of the present and recent time?

terms.

330 Cong....20 Sess.

Temporal Power of the PopeMr. Chandler.

Ho. of Reps.

Mr. Chairman, as a Christian man and an to decide betwixt them in their various disputes; || pline of many other denominations. But in the American legislator, I have nothing but truth to and to keep alive the faith upon which the power Catholic Church those individual opinions have utter; and I scorn to ulter less than the whole of | of the Princes evidently rested. No one then been discountenanced by the bishops, and in other the truth. ,

pretended that the right to depose a King was a churches they have grown much out of practice; Undoubtedly, the Pope has proceeded to de divine right in the Pope. He claimed the power | by all they are considered as rendering unto God throne Kings, and thus to release subjects. His- to cut off from the sacraments of the church, all the things which are Cæsar's. The assertion by tory declares that more than one monarch has who did not conform to the rules of that church, | individuals, or the practice by a few Popes, of any been made to descend from his throne by the edict a right claimed and exercised by all churches, 1 power, does not make that power right. That of the Pope, and that the allegiance of his subjects suppose; as every church surely must be a judge | only is of faith which is so declared, and which is has been transferred, by that edict, to a succeeding of the qualifications of its members, and must, so for all times and all circumstances. monarch, who, however he may have obtained his far as iis influence extends, exercise the power to The most distinguished instance of the exercise crown, might have been compelled to lay it down bind and loose. That is a question purely theo- of the Papal power of deposing a monarch, is at the bidding of the same authority that deposed logical, and cannot be discussed here.

that by the Pope Gregory _VII., who excomhis predecessor.

I certainly do no injustice to any one in say- municated and deposed the Emperor Henry IV. If, then, the Pope has exercised such a right, | ing that such was the disorderly state of Europe, The peculiar character of these times I have almay he not, should he ever have the power, renew that, if dependance had not been placed by sover- ready noticed. The peculiar character of Henry that exercise?

eigns in the influence of the Pope's spiritual may be learned from history. He was corrupt, That, I suppose, Mr. Chairman, depends en- power, no King could have maintained his posses- venal, turbulent, cruel, blasphemous, hypocritical. tirely upon the foundation of the righi, and the sions without an acknowledged physical superi- He had violated his coronation oath, and was demand which may be made for its exercise. ority; and no people could have retained a show engaged in enormities that drew, from every part

The question which concerns us here, and which of freedom, could have counted on life itself, if of Germany and the north of Italy, appeals to the arises out of the charges made by the honorable the avarice and bloody cruelty of the Barons Pope for the exercise of those powers which the gentleman from Massachusetts, is not whether the could have found any advantage or even moment- Pontiff held from the Emperor; and when the right has been claimed; but on what grounds this ary, gratification by sacrificing either. And this Pope was exercising his admitted legal powers right was asserted. If it was a divine right-a right was not all. It was admitted that every crown against the Emperor, Henry called a council, and inherent in the spiritual office of the Bishop of should be held by the tenure of Christianity in its caused to be passed and promulgated a sentence Rome as the successor of St. Peter-then, sir, I con- wearer; and yet Paganism and infidelity were of deposition against Gregory, the Pope. Of fess it may never, it can never lapse; and its exer- continually grasping at the scepter.* Kingdoms course, this drew from Rome a sentence of excomcise may be renewed with the reception of addi- were constantly changing. Monarchs were driven munication, and excommunication, unless removed tional power. But, sir, if it was a right conferred from their thrones by violence; and their succes- within a year, was to assist in working out depofor special occasions, by those interested in its sors rarely thought of any other object than the sitions. The Princes of Germany, even, assemaexercise, conferred by monarchs for their own

permanency of their own power. Meantime the bled to elect a successor to Henry; but the excomsafety, and approved by the people for their own Papacy was permanent; and, in proportion to the municated Emperor, in full acknowledgment of benefit, who were ready, willing, and able, to con- troubles, disorders, and disasters of the times, the the power of the Pope, hastened to Italy, made tribute means for giving its exhibition power, then | Papacy acquired strength; strength in the constant submission, saved himself from dethronement, it would, of course, cease with the change of cir- | appeals to its arbitration; strength in its unchange- | returned to his German home, fourfold more a cumstances in which it was conferred; and those | able qualities, and strength, it will be admitted, by a child of the devil than he had been, was deposed, who invested the Pope with the right, because they reception and exercise of duties devolved upon it and died a miserable outcast. Though those could assist him with power, and because genera! || by those who saw in the Papal power the only events took place at a time and under circumsafety required the exercise of that power, retained means of saving Europe from chaos.

stances when little regard was paid to the niceties in their own hands the right to withdraw or inval- Having asserted that the political power of the of temporal distinctions, yet the Pope (Gregory) idate their former bestowal, and leave in the hands | Popes, dehors their special and proper dominion, did not claim that his action in deposing the of the Roman Pontiff only his spiritual rights over was conferred by the Christian Princes, and that Emperor was by divine right, because he knew, Kings or people, dehors the limits of his own tem- it was exercised by the demands and appeals of and all knew, that, by a law of the Empire, Henry poral dominion.

those who were interested in its object, viz: order, had forfeited the Imperial throne, and that the Pope To understand how the Pope ever possessed religion, and princely right, and sometimes popular | was as much authorized to depose him for violating any power over Emperors and Kings, and by rights, I have only to say that, of course no a law of the Empire as he was to excommunicate such power, influencing their subjects, we must Pope thus receiving and thus exercising his power him for open violation of the commands of God fare distant age in which it was conferred and ing it, he could not hope to have watching but he Lords, he, the Pope, expressly declares that he did enter more minutely into the circumstances of the could, with truth, assert a divine right; or, assert- and the Church.

In a letter from Gregory VII. to the German exercised, than the time here allowed for a speech, manently admitted. It hence follows that such a or the space necessary for an essay, would justify right never was an article of Roman Catholic faith. not pretend to ground himself' merely on the divine W& must enter into the spirit of the middle ages, It cannot be denied that the spiritual power of power of binding and loosing, but on the laws of and see how naturally Christian monarchs (then the Pope, the admitted jure divino, was a motivemen-that is, the constitution or laws of the Emall of one creed) formed combinations, and how among others for conferring the political power, pire, as well as the laws of God; and, according much human rights and Christian principles owe and, perhaps, also a motive for exercising that to the last named code, as well as the requirement to combinations; and jealousies which, while they power; and the reverence in which the character of the former, Henry deserved, not only to be distinguished, and really illustrated that period, of the Pope was held by Princes and nobles, as excommunicated, but also to be deposed of his would now be regarded, if they could exist, as the well as the people, gave great consequence to

Imperial dignity. resort of men of bad principles, to perpetuate tyran- | the decisions of the Pontiff, right or wrong, and The most distinguished writer of the time of nical power. But such was the state of the times, || insured prompt obedience, when otherwise there | Gregory VII., Peter Damier, shows that Gregory and such the unestablished condition of religion | might have been hesitancy and even calcitration. did not depend alone upon his spiritual power, but and civil government, that it became a matter of No doubt, the temporal power conferred by tem- acted upon the authority of the constitution of the the deepest moment to Christian Princes, that the poral consent and by a constitution, was mistaken | Empire. If Gregory had claimed, and others had latter should combine to support the former. And for, and admitted by, certain weak persons at that

admitted a divine right alone to depose an Emperor, in combining, the Christian (Catholic) Princes time as the spiritual power conferred by Christ, his apologist would scarcely, at such a time, have formed a league, by which, peace, order, and re- and sustained by the Scriptures. But nowhere is presented the smaller right of human authority. ligion were, as far as possible, to be maintained the right to such power claimed, as of divine right, The following, from a work on the temporal among them by a reference to the influences

by the Catholic Church.

power of the Pope, by Mr. Gosselin, is directly to which the Pope, as a spiritual sovereign, would In the Catholic Church, as in all other churches, | the point, and will illustrate this partof my remarks: naturally have to enforce temporal and temporary there have been found a few individuals of less power with Kings and people, and with Kings | discretion than zeal, who have, from a mistaken

“From these observations it follows, in fact, first, that

Gregory VII., the first that ever pronounced a sentence of through their people; and this influence was aug. view of the Christian duties, thought it a merit on deposition against a sovereign, did not pretend to ground mented by the submission on the part of indi- themselves to impute to religion a direct secular

his proceeding solely on the divine right, but on laws both vidual sovereigns to the decrees of the Pope, found. | power which it was never intended by God, nor

human and divine. Secondly, that in the opinion of

Gregory VII., and of his successors, as well as of all their ed on the power which the united sovereigns had

understood by good, prudent men, to exercise. contemporaries, the deposition of an excommunicated conferred on the Pontiff, and founded on that alone.

We see it in the careless writings of certain Catholic Prince was not a necessary consequence of excommunicaChristianity, at that period, had not wrought out scholars, as we find it in the preaching and disci

tion, and did not follow from the divine power of binding its work of social good; vice and disorder were

and loosing alone, but from a special provision of a human

law, and principally from the laws of the Empire, which rampant, and the passions of men seemed to be

*The Foreign Quarterly for January, 1836, says: “ In the declared deposed of his throne any Prince remaining obstiallowed indulgences little realized in these times. eleventh century the papacy fought the battle of freedom.nately under excommunication during a whole year. To secure something like order, religion, and Ancellon, unfriendly to the Pope, says: “ In the middle “These important facts once proved, there is no diffi

ages there was no social order; it was the influence and catholicity, among the Christian nations, and to

culty in understanding how the Popes could naturally cite, power of the Popes that, perhaps, alone saved Europe in support of their sentences of excommunication and desecure the ultimate social effects of the true' prin- from a state of barbarism. It was their power that pre- position against Princes, the divine power of binding and ciples of religion, the Christian Princes conferred vented and stayed the despotism of the Emperors, ihat loosing, though not considering it as the sole title of that upon the Pope a power, which previously he had replaced the want of equilibrium and diminished the incon- deposing power which they claimed. It is, in fact, evident

veniences of the feudal system.” not attempted to exercise; never, indeed, claimed

that, at a time when constitutional law attached the penalty

Southey says: “ The papacy was morally and intellectu. of deposition to excommunication or heresy, the Pope's to possess. The spiritual power was always ad- ally the conservative power of Christendom. Politically, sentence against such excommunicated or heretical Prince mitted as of divine right, the gift of God. The too, it was the saving of Europe."

was grounded both on the divine right and on human law.

And a Protestant writer, in the American Encyclopædia, temporal power was conceded, was conferred, by

It was founded on the divine right, not merely in so far as in an article on Gregory VII., says: “The Papal power was the Emperor and Christian Princes, not to ag

it declared the Prince heretical or excommunicated, but for ages the great bulwark of order amid the turbulence of still more, in so far as it enlightened the conscience of his grandize the Bishop of Rome, but to enable him the semi-civilized people of Europe.”

subjects on the extent and limits of the obligation arising New SERIES.–No. 8.

330 CONG....20 Sess.

Temporal Power of the Pope-Mr. Chandler.

Ho. OF Reps.

her schools.

from the oath of allegiance which they had taken to him. House, it is said that, though I may be excepted

2. Can the Pope, or Cardinals, or any body of men, or It was founded on humuu law also, in so far as it declared

any individual of the Church of Rome, absolve or dispense from the general censure of harboring the seeds the Prince deprived of his rights, in punishment of his re

with his Majesty's subjects from their oath of allegiance, maining obstinarely in heresy or excommunication. It is and means of treason to this Government in my

upon any pretext whatsoever? obvious, also, why the Pope's sentence mentioned only the breast, and warming them into germination by 3. Is there any principle in the tenets of the Catholic divine power of binding and loosing ; for it was on that devotion, yet others are liable to the charge, and

faith by which Catholics are justified io not keeping faith divine power that the sentence was really grounded, conespecially the Church, the Roman Catholic Church

with heretics, or other persons differing from them in relisidered in its principal, direct, and immediate object : for

gious opinions, in any transaction, either of a public or a the deposition was effected by excommunication--its natu- itself.

private nature? ral result, according to the constitutional law then in force." But the Roman Catholic Church is represented

These propositions, honorable gentlemen will While I have asserted, and, with the little time by her Bishops, and therefore I turn to the stateallowed me, referred you to the authorities upon ments of those having the means of knowing, ground of dispute; and the answer of every Uni

perceive, are skillfully drawn, and cover the whole which my assertions rest, that the Popes of the

and the right to make known, the doctrines of versity addressed, is spread at large before the middle age did not declare that their interference that Church, and ask the attention of the commit- world. Solemn deliberation was had upon the with the temporal powers of Kings and Emperors tee to the following remarks of the Right Rev.

propositions, from so respectable a source as Mr. was authorized by their spiritual commissions, as Dr. England:

Piti, and all concur in declaring, that no man nor Bishops of Rome; and that their antagonistic and "God never gave to St. Peter any temporal power, any any body of men, of the Church of Rome, how. summary proceedings towards offending sover

authority to depose Kings, any authority to interfere with
political concerns. And any rights which his successors

ever assembled, has power to interfere with the eigns, with regard to the temporal powers of the might claim, for any of those purposes, must be derived

affairs of other kingdoms. I give the answers. latter, were authorized by a constitution formed from some other source. A Roman Catholic has no further After an introduction, according to the usual by these sovereigns or their predecessors, I do connection with the Pope than that he succeeds St. Peter. forms, the sacred faculty of Divinity of Paris, not pretend to assert that the power was always

Peter had none of these rights as a Roman Catholic, I
know nothing of them in the Pope. He is equally a Pope,

answer the first query by declaring:
righily used. I do not deny ambitious or venge-
with or without them.”

Neither the Pope, nor the Cardinals, nor any body of ful motives to the Popes. Nothing in my creed or theirs presents such a conclusion, and nothing in

In the early part of my remarks, I took occasion men, nor any other person of the Church of Rome, hath their conduct renders such a conclusion unreasonto say what would be my course, if, by any remark

any civil authority, civil power, civil jurisdiction, or civil

preeminence whatsover in any kingdom; and, consequentable. I only say that the spiritual power here is able (but really impossible) concurrence of circum- iy, none in the kingdom of England, by reason or vinue of not in question, and there, and at that time, the invade the counıry. Hear, now, how the Bishop of belonging to the Pope or the Church of Rome. This doc

any authority, power, jurisdiction, or preeminence by Divine stances, the army and navy of the Pope should

institution inherent in, or granted, or by any other means power to depose-power humanly conferredwas never called in question by the deposed monCharleston sustains my declaration:

trine the sacred faculty of divinity of Paris has always archs. They admitted the constitutional right and

"The American Constitution leaves its citizens in per

held, and upon every occasion maintained, and upon every fect freedom to have whom they please to regulate their

occasion has rigidly proscribed the contrary docuines from power, though they may have called in question

spiritual concerns. But if the Pope were to declare war ihe justice of the act. With the justice of the pro- against America, and any Roman Catholic, under the pre

Answer to the second query.-Neither the Pope, nor ceeding I have nothing to do here, though I may be text of spiritual obedience, was to refuse to oppose this

the Cardinals, nor any body of men, nor any person of tbe allowed to say that, however the Pope may have

temporal aggressor, he would deserve to be punished for Church of Rome, can, by virtue of the keys, absolve or

his refusal, because he owes to this country to maintain its release the subjects of the King of England from their oath transgressed the rules of justice as between him rights; and spiritual power does not, and cannot, destroy

of allegiance. and the deposed monarch, it is probable that, as be- the claim whicb the Government has upon him. Suppose

This and the first query are so intimately connected, tween the monarch and the people, there was little a clergyman of England were convicted for some crime

that the answer of the first immediately and naturally apoccasion to suppose that any injustice had been for instance, Dr. Dodd-and he was ordered for execution ;

plied to the second, &c. done to the Prince, or much likelihood of hearing | gyman? Think you that no one could be found in a Roman must the law be inoperative because the criminal is a cler

Answer to the third query.—There is no tenet in the

Catholic Church by which Catholics are justified in not complaints from the latter. The Pope has strug- Catholic country to sentence, or to execute a sentence, upon

keeping faith with heretics, or those who differ from them gled sometimes with sovereigns, but never with a clergyman who was a criininal ? All history testifies to

in matters of religion. The tenet, that it is lawful to break the sovereignty: He has exercised a power volthe contrary. So, too, does all history show that, upon the

faith with heretics, is so repugnant to common honesty and same principle, Catholic Kings, and Princes, and peers, and

the opinions of Catholics, that there is nothing of which untarily placed in his hands by Kings, and invoked

people, have disobeyed improper mandates of the Sée of those who have defended the Catholic faith against Protby the people; and he has dethroned the monarch, Rome, and have levied and carried on war against Popes,

estants have complained more heavily, than the malice but not anathematized the subject. The Popes, and still continued members of the Church."

and calumny of their adversaries in imputing this tenet to

them, &c., &c., &c. in the fulfillment of what the consent of Kings and Mr. Chairman, I have thus shown that the Given al Paris, in the general assembly of the Sorboune, the confidence of the people have made a duty, || Church, in the middle ages, did not claim for the held on Thursday, the eleventh day betore the calends of have released subjects from the oath of allegiance || Popes the authority to exercise temporal power

March, 1789. to the sovereign, but never have they released the

Signed in due form. over other sovereigns, by Divine right, even when sovereign from his coronation oath to respect, the exercise of that authority seemed to be so great UNIVERSITY OF Douay, January 5, 1789. guard, and rightly govern the people.

a blessing to the people that it would scarcely seem At a meeting of the faculty of Divinity of the University Because I have neither time nor space for such wonderful if the people should have hailed it as of of Douay, &c., &c. an inquiry, I do not pursue the subject in detail. Divine origin. And I have shown that the best To the first and second queries the sacred faculty an. I have taken the strongest case of the exercise of writers of the Catholic Church, of later days, and

swers :-. That no power whatsoever, in civil or temporal

concerns, was given by the Almighty, either to the Pope, the power of deposing monarchs—which is now

of the present century, have, in like manner, denied the Cardinals, or the Church herself, and, consequently, called the power of releasing subjects—and I have that it was part of a Catholic's belief that the Pope that Kings and sovereigns are not, in temporal concerns, shown that the Pope did not rely upon the general possesses any power to depose Kings, or release

subject, by the ordination of God, to any ecclesiastical power spiritual power as head of the Christian church | subjects, or to violate faith with those who are or

whatsoever; neither can their subjects, by any authority

granted, to the Pope or the Church, from above, be freed for authority to depose Ithe Emperor, but that he are not of the Catholic Church. I now offer other from their obedience, or absolved from their oath of alleTested on, and was sustained by, the constitution || proof that the Church sets up no claim to such giance. which authorized the eection of an Emperor, and power. And, before I do it, I may be permitted

This is the doctrine which the Doctors and Professors of made orthodoxy one condition of holding the

Divinity hold and teach in our schools, and this all the canto say that, in the pursuit of information with Crown. And it would have been equally easy,

didates for degrees in Divinity maintain in their public regard to the Catholic Church, it has been my theses, &c., &c. generally less difficult, to have shown that every chance to converse with every rank and degree of

To the third question, the sacred faculty answers :-That instance of such exercise of power by the Pope | her hierarchy-Pope, Cardinal, Nuncio, Arch

there is no principle of the Catholic faith, by which Cathwas authorized by the admitted constitution or

olics are justified in not keeping faith with heretics, who bishop, Bishop, and Priest, and I never heard one

differ from them in religious opinions. On the contrary, it acknowledged compact, provided that the offenses of them claim any such power, and never heard is the unanimous doctrine of Catholica, that the respect due of the Prince had brought him within the opera- one of them speak upon the subject who did not

10 the naine of God so called to witness, requires that tion of the laws, which all admitted to exist, and disavow any belief of its existence.

the oath be inviolably kept, to whomsoever it is pledged, for the execution of which all turned to the Pope.

whether catholic, heretic or infidels, &c., &c. The vexed question of governing Ireland, and

Signed and sealed in due forin. Now, as this kind of secular power had its ori- | of granting to the people of that kingdom a part gin in the consent of the sovereigns, at a particular of the rights enjoyed by the subjects of Great time, and long after the apostolic age, it follows Britain, has often lead the British Parliament to The faculty of Divinity at Louvain, having been requested that not only could it not have carried with it the || inquire into the charges made against Roman

to give her opinion upon the questions above stated, does

it with readiness--but struck with astonishment that such jure divino, which belongs to the spiritual power Catholics, with reference to the asserted right of

questions should, at the end of this eighteenth century, be of the Bishop of Rome, but that the proof of the the Roman Pontiff to interfere with the internal proposed to any learned body, by inhabitants of a kingdoin existence of the real spiritual power would have affairs of other Governments.

thai glories in the talents and discernment of its natives, been weakened by attempts to prove the right of Three propositions were prepared and sent to

The faculty being assembled for the above purpose, it is deposing to be divine. At that time, then-at a

agreed, with the unanimous assent of all voices, to answer the faculties of the principal Catholic Universities the first and second queries absolutely in the negative. time when men were the most willing to yield in France and Spain; those of the University of The faculty does not think it incumbent upon her in this assent to such species of usurpation, as released Paris, of Douay, of Louvain, of Acala, of Sala- || place to enter upon the proofs of her opinion, or to show Kings from a bad Emperor, and relieved subjects manca, and of Valadolid. I give the proposition

how it is supported by passages in the Holy Scriptures, or from bad Kings—at that time the divine right and abstracts of the several answers,

the writings of antiquity. That has already been done by

Bossuet, De Marca, the two Barclays, Goldastus, the Pithwas not claimed, and the whole power of deposing Extracts from the declarations and testimonies aeuses, Argentre Widrington, and his Majesty, King James rested upon the consent, not merely of the Kings, I of six of the principal Universities of Europe, on the First, in his dissertation against Bellarmine and Du but of the deposed Princes themselves. the three following propositions, submitted to

Perron, and by many others, &c. But it is charged that Roman Catholics even

The faculty then proceeds to declare that the sovereign them at the request of Mr. Pitt, by the Catholics power of the State is in no wise (not even indirectly, as it now admit the right of the Pope to interfere be- of London, in 1789:

is termed) subject to, or dependent upon, any other power, tween subjects and their allegiance, and between citizens and their duties to the Republic, in some

THE PROPOSITIONS.

though it be a spiritual power, or even though it be insti

tuted for eternal salvation, &c. other form, since the power to depose Kings is no

1. Tas the Pope, or Cardinals, or any body of men, or That no man, nor any assembly of men, however emilonger possible. I deny it; I have denied it for

any individual of the Church of Rome, any civil authority, nent in dignity and power, not even the wbole body of the

power, jurisdiction, or preöminence whatsoever, within Catholic Church, though assembled in general council, can, myself plainly, clearly, specifically. But, in this ihe realm of England?

upon any ground or prelense whatsoever, weaken the bond

UNIVERSITY OF LOUVAIN.

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