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330 CONG.... 20 Sess.
Collins Steamers-Mr. Olds.
Ho. OF Reps.
the then President of the United States, to say For the year ending June 30, 1851 :
ing revenue from this line. In addition to the that the extra compensation should never have Postages by Cunard line...... $537,037 61 8111,674 50
above, it should be borne in mind that every arti
« Collins line...... 205,841,71 180,111 49 been given.
« Bremen line......
93,959,17 82,214 27 fice, every stratagem has heretofore been employed Taking it, as admitted then, that in 1852 it was
« Havre line....
37,321 39 32,656 05 by the British Government to induce, nay, almost right and proper that Collins & Co. should be al- Closed mails, Collins line.....
to compel, the transmission, not only of the Brit* Bremen line.....
91 64 lowed extra compensation, the inquiry, most
ish, but of the continental correspondence through « Havre line....
1,149 26 naturally arises, what circumstance has arisen to
Newspapers, Collins line....
the mails carried by the Cunard steamerş. So make the extra compensation then allowed, im
143 60 manifest has been this practice that it has been a politic or improper at this time?
frequent cause of complaint upon the part of our Certainly the expense of navigating these vessels
Total to United States.....
Government. The following extract from a letter has not diminished; upon thecontrary, the fuel con
addressed by Postmaster General Hubbard to sumed as well as seamen's wages,'have' largely For the year ending June 30, 1852 :
Viscount Canning, dated February 24, 1853, will increased since 1852. The average' expense of Postages by Cunard line...... $565,572 97 $117,827 70
give some conception of the extent to which this tbe round trip of one of the Collins steamers,
* Collins line...... 228,867 61 200,259 15
77,219 87 67,567 40 practice affects the amount of letters, carried by up to the time of the extra allowance given under
“ Havre line.......
the Collins line. It is as follows: the act of June, 1852, was $63,000. The average Closed mails, Collins line.....
“I have now before me a report, from the New York since that time has been increased to $75,000.
" Bremen line.....
office, of the number of letters received at that office froin it Ilavre line.......
6,542 10 This increase is made up by the rise of fifty per
Great Britain and Ireland, by twelve successive arrivals Newspapers, Collins line.....
lately, (six on the Cunard, and six on the Collins line,) cent, on the price of coal in England, and seven
* Bremen line.....
showing the following result: ty-five per cent, increase on the same article in
« Havre line.....
By the Cunard line, six mails.. ....131,827 letters, this country; thirty-three per cent. increase in
By the Collins line, six mails..............
81,538 letters. seamen's wages; twenty-five per cent. increase in
Difference in favor of the Cunard line...... 50,289 letters. provisions; and thirty per ceni: increase in repairs For the year ending June 30, 1853 : in machinery, consequent upon the increase in the Postages by Cunard line $578,033 39 $120,423 60
The British post office not only holds letters speed in these steamers.' The whole extra com
6 Collins line...... 233,273 09 204,13 96 over for the Cunard line, but it has heretofore so
< Bremen line..... pensation amounts to $13,750 per voyage, out
57,051 97 49,920 48 « Ilavre line.... 53,423 62 46,745 67
ters from the schedule of time, as to bring all let. and in-$12,000 of which is used up in the in
continent to that office just in time Closed mails, Collins line....
30,679 58 creased expense of each voyage, consequent upon
5,305 46 to meet the sailing of Cunard steamers. But the circumstances just detailed, and over' which
vessels have been with. neither Mr. Collins nor the Government have any
Newspapers, Collins line...
drawn, and sent to aid in the blockade of SebasBremen line.....
189 26 control.
topol, the weekly service of the Cunard line has Havre line
112 54 It cannot be claimed that this extra compensa
been reduced to a semi-monthly service, and made tion should cease in consequence of the loss of the Total to United States......
to alternate with the Collins line. In consequence noble Arctic, so afflictive io Mr. Collins himself;
of this réduction of service, the game of withhold80 detrimental to the pecuniary interests of the
For the year ending June 30, 1854:
ing letters for the Cunard steamers cannot any Postages by Cunard line i.....$589,160 65 $122,741 80 company; so much deplored and mourned over
longer be practiced to the extent complained of by 1. Collins line.......
265,407 75 232,231 78 by the whole American people, and which the
Postmaster General Hubbard. Under our new
« Bremen line.... 61.770 07 54,048 81 amendment I propose requires to be replaced
“ Havre line..
mail arrangement, by which the Collins steamers within a period of two years.
Closed mails, Collins line.....
33,699 80 | alternate with the Canarders, our revenues will Bremen line....
5,909 32 "And here, sir, allow me to say, that from my
be increased to an amount nearly equal to what is Havre line....
10,610 74 personal knowledge of Mr. Collins, his enterprise, Newspapers, Collins line
paid to the Collins line, including the extra comhis experience, his patriotism, and his pride of
2,027 16 pensation. character, if my amendment prevails, I predict
2,227 98 I have a statement, furnished by the Post Office that the Adriatic will not be excelled by any
Department, showing the amount of mailable Total to United States.....
.$527,703 07 steamer that floats upon the ocean.
matter transmitted through the Collins steamers It cannot be that the discontingance of this extra
each voyage, which has been made under our new compensation is demanded in consequence of any
Total Postages Revenue to arrangement with the British post office. It is as default upon the part of Mr. Collins and his asso
British U.S. inclu- follows:
Mails, ciates, in the faithful performance of this contract;
Received by steamer Pacific, 13th December, 1854: for the Postmaster General, in his late report, By the several lines for 1849...$221,901 51
British Mail-Letter $82,443 40
..$10,177 69 1850... 663,098 44
Paper 175, 186 43
28,242... makes special mention of the faithful, prompt, and
578 52 1851... 874,159 88
2,028 ounces Prussian closed mails at 40 c... efficient manner in which this line has performed
811 20 1852... 952,464 53 480.921 88
at 2 c...
2 53 its service. And in addition to this, it will be
1853... 921.782 07 469,019 79
at 40 c... 1,383 40 borne in mind that a special committee of this
1854... 979,648 30 527,703 07
at 2 c... 325 68 181 ounces California
at 40 c... 72 40 House, with power to send for persons and papers,
$4,613,054 73 $2,151,813 54
at 2 c...
9 90 through their chairman, the honorable Mr. Mace,
69 ounces Havana
al 40 c...
27 60 at the last session of Congress, made a report By the Collins line for 1850...
at 2 c...
$10,391 41 $9,092 48 highly creditable to the Collins line.
at 40 c... 1851.....203,841 71
188,531 25 Neither can it be claimed, Mr. Chairman, that
at 2 c...
217,809 81 the extra compensation should be withheld on ac
1853......233,273 09 240,912 44 Total revenue...
274,741 16 count of any falling off in the postage accruing from this liné. For, sir, the postal revenue derived Total..
Sent by Pacific, 27th December,
1851: $943,781 57 $931,087 14
British Mail-Letter postage... from it, has constantly and steadily increased.
$13,028 32 Paper
.53,217... Note.-The postal treaty with Great Britain was ratified
1,081 76 That I might be able to speak intelligently and
6,2944 ounces Prussian closed mails, at 40 c...
2,517 0 at Washington on the 15th of February, 1849; and the understandingly, I addressed a letter to the Post
at 2 c...
15 24 Niagara-Cunard line-left Boston with a mail, under the 1,000 ounces east of Canada at 40 c...
400 (0 master General, asking information upon this treaty, on the 21st of the same month. The first steamer 5,000 papers
at 2 c... 200 00 point. The following is the response of ihe Audi- of the Collins line left New York on the 27th of April, 1850. 200 ounces east of Call’nia"
at 40 c...
E0 00 ior of the Post Office Department, sent me through, That the committee may fully understand the
at 2 c... the Postmaster General: statement furnished by General Phillips, it may be Total revenue.....
$17.227 12 Auditor's OFFICE, Post OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
as well that I should inform the House that, under January 9, 1855.
our postal treaty with Great Britain, we pay that Received by Atlantic, 1st January, 1855: SIR : I have the honor to furnish herewith the state. Government a percentage on all letters carried by
British Mail-Letter Postage..
$10,272 8! ments called for by your note of the 5th instant. the Collins steamers, and England pays us the
.22,561.. 453 18 Iam, very respectfully, yours, &c.
2,620 ounces Prussian closed mails, at 40 c... 1,048 00 same percentage on all letters carried by the 170
at 2 c... 3 40 WM. F. PHILLIPS, Auditor. Cunard line. This treaty is consequent upon the
3204 ounces Canada
128 10 Hon. James CamPBELL, Postmaster General, establishment of the Collins line; and, of course,
at 2 c...
21 16 221 ouncee California
at 40 c..
83 40 would be abrogated, upon the withdrawal of the
98 Revenue received by the United States under the Postal line, unless a new mail service should be estab- 72 ounces Havana
at 40 c...
29 00 Treaty with Great Britain of the 15 h of December, 1848. lished. In consequence of this treaty, in estimat
at 2 c...
93 For the year ending June 30, 1849 :
16 ounces Mexican
at 40 c... ing the revenues derived from the Collins line I
6 40 Am't of Postage. U. S. portion.
at 2 c...
25 deduct the percentage paid by our Government Postages by Cunard line...... $167,580 63 $34.912 63
to Great Britain on the letters carried by the Cola Total revenue..... « Bremen line...... 54,320 88 47,530 77
$12,064 57 lins steamers, and I add the percentage paid us Total to United States.........
$82,443 40 by England upon the letters iransmitted by the Sent by Atlantic, 10th January, 1855:
British Mail-Létter postage..
$11,845 03 Paper
1,133 94 For the year ending June 30, 1850 : down the total credits of the Collins line as follows:
6,422 ounces Prussian closed mails, at 40 c... 2,368 8 Postages by Cunard line...... $607,437 04 $126,570 20 For the year ending June 30, 1850... $135,662 68
at 2 c... 15 18 10,391 41
For the year ending June 30, 1851..
400 00 « « Bremen line...... 45,169 99 39,523 75 For the year ending June 30, 1852. 3.15.037 51
at 40 c...
10. CO For the year ending June 30, 1853. ..... 361,336 04
227 ounces California
at 40 c... 90 0 Total to United States... $175, 186 43 For the year ending June 30, 1854......... 397,481 96
at 2 c... 3 72 The foregoing exhibits show a steadily increas. Total revenue...
« Collins Jine......
33p Cong....20 Sess.
Collins Steamers-Mr. Olds.
Ho. OF Reps.
Received by Baltic, 11th January, 1855:
Question. Ilow long have you been employed as engiBritish Mail-Letter postage.. $9,145 52 Average time of Collins steamers....
35 neer al sea ?
13 15 40 Answer. Since January, 1842, when I entered the Navy. 1,880 ounces Prussian closed mails, at 40 c... 752 00 Average lime of Bremen steamers, (10 South
Question. How many years in the Government service? 139 papers
at 2 c..
15 11 45 Answer. Tbirteen years, but not constantly employed at 329 ouuces Canada at 40 c... 131 20
sea, but liave been in some way connected with sea going 1,353 papers
• Rt 2 c...
vessels, it having been my only business. 173 ounces California
at 40 c...
1 13 5 Question, How long in the merchant service?
Answer. I was in the Collins mail steamers two years by 531 ounces Havana
at 40 c... 21 40
3 9 10 Government permission. 43 papers
at 2 c...
Question. What vessels in the Government service,
, and 3 ounces Mexican
at 40 c... 1 20
how long on each? 8 papers
at 2 c...
Answer. Mississippi, at various times about three and a
half years; Saranac, in constiuetion,erecuing, and running, Total revenue....... $10,679 22 three and a half days over the Bremen line.
two years and four months ; General Taylor, one year
The time table, which I here exhibit, shows Polk two months; Michigan four months. By the foregoing statement it will be seen that nearly two days gained upon the Cunard steamers
Question. What vessels in the merchant service, and
how long on each? the postage on the mailable matter carried by the
on the round trip. I will not stop to demonstrate Answer. Pacific one year, and Arctic one year. Pacific her last voyage in and out, amounted to how much is gained to our commercial commu. Question. What quantity of
coal per day will it require to $30,613 13; that by the Atlantic her last voyage, nity in the way of interest consequent upon this
propel the Collins steamers nine knots per hour? amounted to $28,121 34; that by the Baltic's saving in time. The amount, however, is very
Answer. With calm winds and smooth sea, they will
average about thirty-two tons. large. passage one way was $10,679 22. Supposing her
Question. How much coal will the Collins steamers conpassage out to be the same as the Atlantic's, and
Now, then, let it be remembered, Mr. Chair- sume in making the voyage between Liverpool and New
that the Postmaster General does not hesi- York in the following time: in ten days, eleven days, in the round trip would be $27,906 34. The average
twelve days, in thirteen days, and in fourteen days? of these voyages would be only $4,119 73 less tate to tell us, that he considers it of great im
Answer. With calın winds and smooth sea, taking the disthan the full amount paid by the Government per portance to the mail service that the time made
tance at 3,060 miles, ten days 850 tons, eléven days 704, voyage, including the extra compensation.
by the Collins steamers should be continued. But twelve days 588, thirteen days 501, and fourteen days 443 does this committee understand that this extra
tons. From this exhibit I hazard nothing in saying
Question. What difference per voyage do you suppose that for our present fiscal year, ending on the 30th time costs Mr. Collins more than all the extra pay
would take place in keeping the engines in repair on the of June néxi, the revenue from postoges on mail, we give him ? Such, sir, is the fact. And if I can
Collins steamers in making ten days' passage, or one in able matter carried by the Collins line will exceed
have the attention of the committee, I will satisfy fourteen days? $500,000 and should the same arrangement be every one that I am not mistaken.
Answer. The expense would not exceed one fourth or
twenty-five per cent, at fourteen, what it is for ten days' continued, the next fiscal year they will amount
In reply to a note of mine upon this point, Mr.
passages, with the same circumstances of weather. to more than $700,000. Collins has furnished me his estimate of the extra Question. What gain is it to the Cunard steainers going to
Boston from Liverpool by the way of Halifax instead of I repeat, then, Mr. Chairman, that it cannot be expense consequent upon this extra speed. Inas
coming direct to New York ? claimed that this extra compensation should be much as his communication furnishes valuable
Answer. The Asia, Africa, and Arabia, would burn withheld on account of any supposed falling off information touching other points, I will read the
on an average from one hundred and eighty to two hun.
dred tons of coal between Halifax and New York, and in the revenues derived from this line. It has, in whole of it. It it as follows: this respect, more than realized the expectations
WASHINGTON, January 19, 1855. as they take in a supply of coal at Halifax, they would of its warmest friends.
DEAR SIR: In answer to your interrogatories of yester
leave Liverpool with that much less weight of coal on day, I have to reply as follows:
board, consequently could take that much more freight, It cannot be said, Mr. Chairman, that this extra First. The additional cost of the Collins steamers, in
which, with measurement goods, which they always carry compensation should be withheld in consequence making the passages in so much less time than the Cu
from Liverpool, would be at least two hundred tons : "the narders
freight per ton, when I was on the ships, was £6 sterling of any failure on the part of these steamers to
400 tons of coal, at $7... make their contract time: for we have not only
$2,800 00 per ton, making a difference in the freight of £1,200 sterling; 200 tons of freight from Liverpool, at $30.... 6,000 00
ihe difference in coal between going to New York or Bosthe testimony of the Postmaster General that Col. 200 tons of freight to Liverpool, at $15... 3,000 00
ton would be about sixty tons, which was worth in Liver. lins & Co. have faithfully performed their service, Additional repairs to engines, without estimating
pool last summer, whilst I was there, 26 shillings sterling but I have the evidence to satisfy this committee
wear and tear of ship and machinery........ 5,000 00 per ton, making a difference on the cost of coals for the
voyage, of £78 sterling, supposing the coals at Halifax to that they have, at a large expense, more than per
$16,800 00 be of the same price as at Liverpool, making a difference formed their every engagement. By their contract
in freight and coals of £1,278 sterling. these steamers are not bound to make any speci
Saving tothe Cunard vessels of the power of the Collins
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, fied time. They are only required “ to be vessels of steamers, going to Boston via Halifax, instead of New
DANIEL B. MARTIN, Engineer-in-Chief. York
Hon. J. C. DOBBIN, great speed.". Now, sir, at the time this contract
200 tons freight from Liverpool, at $30.....
$6,000 00 Secretary United States Navy, Washington, D. C. was made, thirteen or fourteen days in making 200 tons freight to Liverpool, al $15..
3,003 00 the voyage from New York to Liverpool was con
160 tons coal, at $7. sidered
the voyage from Liverpool to New York. Since great speed.” This time, then, would
$10,000 00 receiving it, I have had placed in my possession fully answer the requirements of the contract. I
another communication from him, which gives admit, sir, that it would not answer the wishes In admitting that the British Government pay the Ou and expectations of the American people. But, narders only (General Rusk will tell you otherwise) as fol
the extra expense upon the voyage out-the two nevertheless, it would be filling the stipulations
.$16,666 00 together, making the round trip. His second letSaving going to Boston.............
ter “of the bond.” Now, sir, Mr. Collins, as I shall soon demonstrate, can make the time in fourteen
OFFICE OF ENGINEER-IN-CHIEF, days, even with his present large steamers, and Add additional cost, and make the Collins time, 16,800 00
January 20, 1855. save money without the extra compensation. But,
Sir: In reply to your question, I would state that my $43,586 00
report to the Secretary of the 12th instant, is for the differ sir, the American people are a fast people. To Deduct from that the pay to the Collins line.... 33,090 00
ence of one voyage from Liverpool to the ports then named, use a backwoods phrase, they can “dive deeper,
and not for the return voyage, and as you inform me that stay under longer, and come up dryer," than any
$10,120 00 the price of freight from this side is $15 per ton, and coal other people on the face of the globe. Sir, we are Showing conclusively that the Collins line, by making two hundred tong at $15-$3,000 ; and sixty tons of coal at
$7 per ton, therefore the difference in return freight will be like the Kentuckian, who said that " if he was the time they do, (which the Cunard steamers in all their 87-9420; making $3,420 on the return voyage, to be added riding a streak of lightning, he should want to endeavors cannot make,) that the Collins line should be to my estimate in the letter above referred to for a voyage whip up.” We have “the fastest horses, the
paid $10,000 more, to be paid equal to the English steamers,
to Liverpool and back. prettiest women, and the best shooting guns
I am, very respectfully, yours,
I am respectfully, your obedient servant,
DANIEL B. MARTIN, the world, and we must, also, have the fastest Hon. Edson B. OLDS, Chairman of the Comunittee on the
Engineer-in-Chief United States Navy. steamers. Nothing short of this will answer the Post Office and Post Roads.
E. K. COLLINS, Esq., Washington, D. C. expectations of the American people. The Collins Mr. Chairman, previous to receiving the statesteamers must beat the British steamers. Our ment of Mr. Collins, I had addressed, through the
By these two letters it will be seen that Mr. people expected this of Mr. Collins, and he has Secretary of the Navy, a letter to Mr. Martin, the
Martin sustains Mr. Collins fully as to the exnot
the speed, and The following schedule of time shows that the // engineer-in-chief of the United States Navy, ask: l varies but slightly as to the increased expense
from him information relative to the Collins steamers beat the Cunarders nearly two expense of navigation by steam, consequent upon
consequent upon making New York the end of days on the voyage in and out: increase in speed. His reply fully sustains the
the voyage, instead of making the trip to Boston I will not trouble the committee by giving the statement given me by Mr. Collins, and must
by the way of Ilalifax. time of each voyage for the entire year of 1854. I
Mr. Collins estimates the latter expense at remove all doubt upon this point. have it before me; and any gentleman who desires The following is Mr. Martin's reply:
$10.120 the round trip, and Mr. Martin makes to do so, may examine it for himself. I will con
$9,810 the round trip. The difference in the two
OFFICE OF ENGINEER-IN CHIEF, tent myself by giving the recapitulation:
estimates being only $310.
WASHINGTON, D. C., January 12, 1855.
By the statement of Mr. Collins, fully confirmed
man of the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads, Average time of Cunard steamers.... 11
seen that the superior speed of the Collins over 56
I have the honor to answer the questions propounded as Average time of Bremen steamers, (to South
the Cunard line costs $16,800—the voyage in and follows: ampton)
13 19 17
out—and the difference in making New York, in Answer. Engineer-in chief of the United States Navy. stead of Boston, the end of the voyage, costs the In favor of the Colling over the Cunard
Question. How old are you?
Collins line $9,810,che round trip, the two together steainers..
0 8 50
Answer. Forty-one. In favor of the Collins over the Bremen
Question. How long have you been an engineer?
amounting to $26,610 the voyage. This much, steamers.st.
then, Mr. Collins could save by making the voychief engineer.
age the same'as made by the Cunard line.
330 Cong....20 Sess.
Collins Steamers—Mr. Olds.
Ho, OF REPS.
After this demonstration, I trust, Mr. Chair
cumstances. The following is an extract from a Perry, Mr. Collins has placed in my hands a letter man, that we shall no more be told that, because letter of Commander W.F. Lynch, United States received by him from Commodore Stewart. This Cunard transports the British mail at $16,686 the Navy, explorer of the Dead Sea, &c.-a passenger letter from “Old Ironsides,” so completely retrip, Collins should be denied his extra pay. I per steamer Arctic, from New York to Liverpool, futes the prejudiced opinions of the old fogies at think I cannot have failed in satisfying every one November 13, 1852—dated in London, November the head of the naval bureaus, that I must have that, under the attending circumstances, Collins, || 29, '1852:
it read by the Clerk. with his extra pay, is $10,000 per voyage worse off “Our passage was retarded by prevalent head winds and The Clerk read as follows: than is Mr. Cunard, with the compensation allowed a heavy head sea; but, while disappointed by the delay of him by the British Government, even admitting weatherly qualities of the ship. Whether the wind and
PHILADELPHIA, January 18, 1855.
DEAR SIR: In reply to your letter of the 16th instant, that Mr. Cunard gets nothing extra from the secrei. sea were ahead, abeam, on the quarter, or astern, she
asking iny opinion “as regards the importance of great service money of the British admiralty. neither Jurched nor plunged, but cleaved through the waves
speed for vessels of war," I beg to state that, in my judg. As a still further evidence, sir, that the Collins and sped along, swaying from side to side with a graceful,
ment, there is no point more essential to vessels designed line cannot be sustained if you withhold this extra easy motion. I examined her closely, and do, as far as I for war purposes, and intended for cruises on the high seas. am capable of judging, consider that in strength and beauty
In my opinion, it is the most important quality a cruiser can "compensation, I may here be permitted to state a
of construction, in stability, combined with buoyancy, in possess--a point so essential to her security from a superior fact. It is this: The Collins line, with all its extra dryness and in speed, she surpasses any other vessel,
force, or forces, of an enemy, that it cannot be 100 highly compensation, has never yet been able to make a national or mercantile, I have ever known; and I have
estimated. On the other hand, where a vessel of war posthree times before crossed the Atlantic by steam, and twice
sesses this advantage, it accords to her the ability of overdividend upon its capital stock, and that, within a commanded steamers."
taking her enemies, and subduing those of such force as very few weeks, that stock has been sold in the
her speed and armament would warrant her in encountermarket for sixty cents upon the dollar. With Commodore Perry, in a letter to the Secretary ing: these facts before us, is not a vote to withhold the of the Navy, dated February 18, 1852, in speak- The war of 1812, declared by the United States against
Great Britain, exhibited examples of these characteristics extra pay equivalent to a vote to strike down this ing of the Collins line of steamers, says:
not to be underrated, or how could it be possible for us to service, and yield the palm of victory to Great “According to my calculations, the cost of the conver- look back at that period of our history with the national Britain? Wé may, perhaps, be told, sir, that the sion of either the before-mentioned vessels, exclusive of sausfaction which we now feel, at the recollection of the striking down of this line is of no consequence;
armaments, repair of machinery, &c., would not, or cer- hair breadth escapes of our vessels of war from superior
tainly ought not to cost for each steamer over $20,000; and forces, owing entirely to the possession of this superiority, and that the building of an additional steamer is it could readily be done for this at any of our navy-yards. so skillfuliy seconded by the seamanship of those who CoQof no importance, inasmuch as these steamers can With respect to the description and weight of their respect- trolled and conducted them, and who subsequently were never be converted into war vessels. And in sup
ive armaments, I am clearly of the opinion that the first crowned with victories over the vessels of their enemies
class steamers already nained could easily carry four tenport of this denunciation, we shall be told that
through this advantageous quality in their ships, supported inch Paixhan guns on pivots-iwo forward and two aft-of by their batteries, and the bravery of their officers and men. experienced naval officers have passed their judg; the weight of ihose in the Mississippi, and ten eight-inch If a property so essential for enabling vessels, dependment upon these vessels, and have pronounced Paixhan guns on the sides; and this armament would not ing upon the elements for their powers of locomotion, and them useless for war purposes.
incommode the vessels, and the weight less than the ice, also io be successful in retreat from and victory over an
which is usually forty tons, and stowed away in one mass." enemy, does not constitute a consideration of the greatest I am aware, sir, that, on the 10th of March last,
importance, I ould feel myself at a loss to imagine what the Secretary of the Navy, in compliance with a
“In the general operations of a maritime war, they other point could compensate for its absence, or render it resolution of this House, addressed us a letter could render good service, and especially would they be one of secondary importance! Under this view of the subgiving his views as to the adaptability to war pur- useful from their great speed as dispatch vessels, and for ject, with regard to sailing vessels of war, its application to
the transportation of troops, always capable of attack and steamers seems quite as necesscry to render them available poses, of the steamships employed in the ocean defense, and of overhauling or escaping from an enemy.
and effective for similar purposes. Indeed it is of infinitely mail service of the United States. I am also
“The Atlantic, Pacific, Baltic, and Arctic have all been more importance that they should possess it, as they are aware that, in that communication, the honorable built, inspected, and received by the Navy Department.” wholly independent of the winds as a motive power, and Secretary says that " it is impracticable to convert
through the possession of this quality, would become so
Commodore Perry, on his return from the Japan much more nearly on a par with one another. them into vessels of war, to be relied upon for
expedition, crossed the Atlantic ocean in the Bal- Your second question asks my views in “i regard to the efficient service as regular men of war.
tic, one of the Collins steamers. From on board steamers constituting the Collins line, so far as knowledge This opinion of the Secretary of the Navy is the Baltic he addressed a communication, on the
will warrant an expression with regard to their build and based upon the judgment of various heads of subject of safety to steamers and passengers at
sufficiency for carrying an armament for war purposes."
On this score I cannot but admit that they are co; and bureaus in the Navy Department. Indeed, the
sea, to Thomas B. Curtis, Esq., of Boston; I think that their performance in so frequently crossing the Secretary of the Navy accompanies his communifrom that communication permit me to read two
Atlantic without any complaining, or the occurrence of cation with the various letters addressed to him by or three extracts:
any accident which could have been foreseen, or anticithe naval officers in the different bureaus.
U. 8. M. STEAMSHIP BALTIC,
paied, and guarded against in their construction, will fully
justify this admission. Mr. Chairman, inasmuch as the whole objection
AT SEA, January 8, 1845.
With regard to your third and last question, relative to to this appropriation for the Collins line must rest MY DEAR SIR: A copy of your printed circular bearing alterations, I will observe that, under my inexperienced upon the unfitness of these steamers for war pur- date the 1st ultimo, has been placed in my hands, and as views of war steamers, I should think not much ought to poses, I must be pardoned for introducing such it is possible that my acquaintance with the construction be required; the principal alterations deemed necessary by
and equipment of ocean steamers, and more particularly of others wiich has been suggested, refers to the removal of testimony as will utterly upset the opinion thus
those of the Navy, may enable me to offer soine useful sug- the upper deck by razeing. As regards this alteration, it expressed by the honorable Secretary: I do this, ge-tions upon the points referred to in that communication, would, with me, depend entirely on the fact whether she sir, in all kindness to the Secretary, believing that and being now a passenger in a sister ship of the unfortunate was to be a light armed vessel, with a few heavy guns judihis opinion has been based upon the judgment of Arctic, I may venture the more confidently to express my ciously mounted, or a beavily armed battering ship, with an
opinions upon the subject, basing my remarks upon the open waist; this would much diminish her strength and the "Old Fugies" in the various bureaus around
character and qualities of this ship, and assuming ihat the accommodations, as well as to some risk to ber safety, dryhim, rather than upon the judgment of scientific Atlantic and Pacific are in all respects her equal.
ness, and speed. This will be an important point for conengineers and experienced naval officers.
I may premise,then, by saying ibat, with respect to per- sideration of those who may make the decision. Sir, it is notoriously the fact, that in no Depart
section of vessel and engines, and the attention and skill The qualities which these steamers now possess, are so
with which both are inanaged, the excellence of the arrange- clearly aud ably set forth in Captain McKennon's letter, ment of this Government is such unmixed and
ments for the convenience and comfort of the passengers, who speaks so confidently to the point, as to leave no room unmitigated“old fogyism" to be found, as in the nothing more could reasonably be desired, and it only for canil or contradiction. All that he said has been convarious bureaus connected with the Navy Deparl
remains to inquire whether any further precautionary firmed by others who are competent judges, and who, like
measures may be adopted to give greater security to the him, speak from actual observation made during passages ment. This is so unquestionably the fact, that it lives of the passengers and crews.
to or from Europe, in one or the other of the sleamers comis generally understood that any and all improvements in the models and construction of vessels
The communication then contains the suggest
posing the Collins line.
In so far as I feel authorized to speak, from experience which involve a departure from the preconceived ions of the Commodore, as to the number and the afforded me by holding a commission in the Nary of the
United States for fifty-eight years, and from having comnotions of the heads of the various bureaus bemanning of life-boats, and other means of safety, longing to that Department, are sure to be conand concludes with the following notice of Col- | Navy, (steamers excepted,) ( ought not to hesitate in
manded in that time every species of vessels of war in onr demned upon foregone conclusions. lins himself:
saying, from this long intimacy with nautical affairs, that Mr. Chairman, could, did my time permit, From my knowledge of the character and enterprising
too much care cannot be observed under all or any circumpile up a volume of testimony, showing that every spirit of Mr. Collins and his associate directors, I fell well
stances, in the adaptation of maritime preparations to assured that everything will be cheerfully done to satisfy
maritime ends. vessel, no matter how perfect her model, how the reasonable wishes of the community ; indeed, there is
I would here also state that, from the acquired experisuperior her construction, how excellent her
no one more competent than Mr. Collins himself to decide ence in the adaptation of propellers to vessels of war, since Bailing qualities, if built in any other than a Goy- upon measures tending to the greater safety of the ships
you contracted with the Government of the United States ernment navy-yard, and under the superintendence under bis management; and I should not now put forth any
for the services of your line of steamers, for postal pursuggestions of my own, did I not suppose they would be
poses, that such motive power may be better calculated for of any other than some "Old Fogy" belonging to kindly received.
heavy armed battering steamers; they will, however, lose, the Bureau of Construction, it would, as a matter The foregoing remarks, will, in all respects apply, and in that case, some important advantages which the side of course, receive the condemnation of all belongwith greater force, to sail ships employed in carrying large
paddle wheels will accord to lighter armed vessels; these ing to that bureau. They condemn all private gard, your friend and obedient servant, 'M.'C. PERRY. numbers of passengers. I am, my dear, sir, with great re- latter will have greater speed, better accommodations, and
be safer and dryer vessels. enterprise, because they consider themselves entitled to all this kind of Government patronage.
Thomas B. CURTIS, Esq., Boston.
I remain respectfully, dear sir, your obedient servant,
CHARLES STEWART. Like the Ephesians of old, they make a "great Sir, in addition to the above, permit me to say,
E. K. COLLINS, Esq. uproar," believing " their craft in danger."
that a friend, in whose statement I have the fullest Such, Mr. Chairman, is the testimony of these Mr. Chairman, in order to show that those who | confidence, informs me that, in a conversation, a
old commodores, who have spent their lives in the have manufactured the opinion of the Secretary of few days since, with Commodore Perry, that naval service of their country. Truly may it be the Navy, relative to the Collins steamers, have gallant officer in speaking of the Collins steamer,
said of them, that theirs has beenbeen influenced by their prejudice, I must be per- the Baltic, remarked that, “ with such alterations
"A life upon the ocean's wave, mitted to produce the testimony of other naval as he could make in that steamer, in order to fit
A home upon the roling deep.” officers and engineers, far more competent to her for war purposes, he would rather have her for They speak from experience; and, to my mind, judge, and who have formed their opinions from his flag-ship than any other vessel that floats upon completely upset the opinions of men who for personal observation, and from having witnessed the ocean.
twenty years, perhaps, have not been upon the the performance of these steamers under all cir- In addition to this testimony of Commodore ocean, but at the head of naval bureaus, cooped
330 CONG.... 21 Sess.
Collins Steamers Mr. Olds.
Ho. OF Reps.
up in an office sixteen feet square, in Washington
“ They cannot be rivaled by any English vessel at pres.
ent. The whole thing is obvious to the meanest undercity.
standing, and may clearly be traced to the unequaled beauty Mr. Chairman, in connection with the letter of
of the model. The English engines are allowed by the “Old Ironsides," I must be permitted to call the Americans to be superior. Why, therefore, sbould we attention of the committee to the testimony of
allow Brother Jonathan to beat us on our own element?
The reason is plain enough, and patent to the whole world; Captain McKennon, of the British navy, of whom
and is summed up briefly in one sentence : The British the commodore makes such honorable mention.
model is far inferior to the American. I say this in sorrow The article referred to by Commodore Stewart and jealously; and investigate calmly and dispassionately is in an English work, written by Captain Mc
this inomentous question. When once inquiry is thoroughKennon, entitled “ The Resources and Settlement y aroused in England, I do not fear the result. If, how
ever, obstinacy and pride are allowed to blind our shipof America." Captain McKennon was a passen- builders, they will richly merit the fate that will inevitably ger on board the Baltic, on her passage from New befall them, namely, to be soundly beaten by American York to Liverpool, during the fall of 1852. In
naval architects." speaking of the Collins steamers, Captain Mc- Sir, the contest between the Collins line and the Kennon said:
Cunard line has been eminently a national con“I am only doing justice to these magnificent vessels in test, and this is the testimony of an Englishman, stating that they are, beyond any competition, the fuest,
the testimony of an experienced British naval offithe fastest, and the best sea boats in the world. I am sorry to be obliged to say this; but, as a naval officer, I feel bound
cer; and after reading it, what American would in candor to admit their great superiority. Their extraor- strike down these noble vessels ? What Ameridinary easiness in a sea cannot fail to excite the adıniration can legislator would refuse such an appropriaof a sailor; and I never beheld anything like it. There
tion as would enable Collins and his associates was none of that violent plunging, that sudden check usu
still to astonish “ Old England ” with the prowess ally attending a large ship in a heavy head sea. The elongated bow dipped gently in when a vast, wall-sided of “ Young America ?" I repeat, Mr. Chairman, and threatening swell appeared ovewhelmingly to rush upon this is the testimony of one of the most experienced her. The whole forelength of the vessel appeared to siuk
officers in the British navy-one worthy to re; gently down until almost level with the water, and as gradually to rise again after passing. Most wondrous of all, no
ceive the commendation of such a man as “ Old sea ever came on board, and the foaming and angry waters Ironsides;" the testimony of one speaking, not appeared to glide harınlessly
past her peak and narrow to Mr. Collins, not to Americans, but to his own bows. The extraordinary difference in this respect to the America was most marked, as a very ordinary head sea
countrymen, the people, the ship-builders, the would dash angrily, and with huge volumes, over her bows.
admiralty of England. It is, sir, an exhortation I attribute these admirable qualities 10 two reasons : first, to John Bull to discard his prejudices, to overthe long and gently graduated box ; and secondly, the
come his "Old Fogyism," and profit by the skill lightness and buoyancy of the fore part of the vessel, . when relieved from the bowsprit. This bowsprit, in the
manifested by “ Young America,” in the perCunard line, projects considerably from the bow, and its
son of E. K. Collins. This advice of Captain weight is greatly aggravated by the leverage caused by its McKennon, I feel well assured, Mr. Chairman, projection. I am not aware of its exact weight, but it
might be made serviceable to the “Old Fogies must be enormous, particularly at the extremity.
The most experienced sailor would be very much deceived in
in the naval department of our Government. I forming a judgment of the sea-going qualities of the Cunard commend it to their careful consideration, and Collins steainships from a mere, outside inspection; Such, Mr. Chairman, is the testimony of naval and I acknowledge that, at first, I could not conceive the
officers of great experience and a world-wide repCollins line to be so safe and easy in a sea as the Cunard line. From a considerable experience in all classes of steam ves.
utation. And I feel that I might here rest my sels, besides the Cunard America, I advisedly assert that argument. But I have, in addition, the testimony the Baltic is out and out, by long odds, the very best and of naval architects and engineers, corroborating, easiest steamship I ever sailed in. " I cannot refrain from calling the attention of steamship
upon scientific principles, the testimony of those builders of Engiand to the uselessness, and even absurdity
old commodores. of a heavy bowsprit upon a vessel that mainly depends Mr. Grice, a scientific and well know naval upon her steam. It would be considered an absolute ab
constructor, of Philadelphia, during the discussion surdity for either of these vessels to attempt to beat to windward. Before the wind, there is little doubt that the
upon this extra pay question, in 1852, in reply to Collins would run the Cunard out of sight in a dozen
a letter from an honorable Senator, says: hours. The vast and heavy bowsprit of the Cunard line is therefore an absolute excrescence; a bow.plunging, speed.
UNITED STATES NAVY-YARD, stopping, money spending, and absurd acquiescence in
PHILADELPHIA, April 14, 1852. old fashioned prejudices about appearance, and what the
Sır: In answer to yours of the 13th,.I have to state, as old school attempt to swamp all argument by condemning chief naval constructor, the specifications for building the as not ship-shape. Pshaw! what confounded stuff! This Collins line of steamers were submitted to me, and apis the sort of feeling that prevents improvements, and allows proved, as in accordance with the act of March 3, 1847. Brother Jonathan to build the finest sea-going steamers in They can be converted into war steamers to carry a batthe world, which the Collins liners undoubtedly are.” tery equal to our largest steam frigates, in a short time, and Captain McKennon thus describes, as witnessed
the necessary alterations to be made to receive such a bat
tery will not exceed a cost of $20,000 each. by himself, the admirable performance of the
I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, Baltic during a most violent storm which she en
FRANCIS GRICE. countered during her outward trip:
To the Hon. William M. Gwin, United States Senale. “ Let us ascend the bridge, between the paddle-boxes, and try to describe this sublime scene. A furious gale
Mr. Oliver Byrne, of Philadelphia, a civil, miliwas raging, and wind and waves combined were hurled tary, and mechanical engineer, of acknowledged with gigantic force against the poor Baltic. To avoid rush
ability, in a communication to the New York ing inadly against the fierce watery barriers, the engines Courier and Enquirer, most unfeignedly expresses were slacked to rine revolutions, and the brave vessel still held her course at the rate of eight knots. Although the
his astonishmeni at the report of the Secretary of beavy spoondritt in a moment drenched everything ex- the Navy. He rightly attributes the opinion of posed, still the ship held on with the most extraordinary the honorable Secretary to the "Old Fogies” at
Al intervals a mountain would appear approaching, the head of naval bureaus. He handles, without ease. giving the idea (often felt by the most experienced? of a gathering power in advance, ihat nothing could withstand. gloves, the letter of Mr. Lenthall to the Secretary Onward it rolls, so liigh that, from your elevated position, of the Navy. I very much regret that my time the horizon is conccaled; it is upon us with a crash-nothing can avoid the avalanche of water--the decks will be inun.
will not permit me to read at length the communidated fore and aft.
cation of Mr. Byrne. I must content myself with “Not at all, the noble ship rises gently, just sufficient to a few lengthy extracts: clear the crest of the surge; her bulwarks are even with Mr. Byrne says: the surlace of rolling water, but not a drop comes in Again and again did this happen ; and although we were drenched “What experience Mr. Lenthall has had in ship-buildto the skin by the spoondrift, we were fascinated by the ing, I know not, but take this opportunity to make known wonderful triumph of the ship's course over the madly
to the Government, that of all the improvements that are vexed waters, and remained in our exposed situation spell- being made, there is none more essential than to have our bound at her easy performance over such rough and form- naval vessels to keep pace with the great improvements idable obstacles. Place a Cunard liner, or any vessel, in
daily being made in naval architecture. And I here assert "this position with the present lines of English ocean steam- that war steamers without great speed are worse than useless ers, and they would xhip tons and tons of water. The lumber. heavy bows, bowsprit and all, would plunge into the sea
« But I will not indulge in further remarks, which may with a crash and bang that would shake and strain a ship be said to be mere opinions, but refer particularly to Mr. to her center. On raising her forefoot from her watery Lenthall's objections to the Collins steamers. bath, the bowsprit, enveloped with gear, would visibly bind “Although Mr. Lenthall does not name them, yet his with the jerk. This is the main difference between the description is so marked in his report, that I have no doubt ocean steamers of England and America, and we strongly that he means them. advise the builders in England to wake up from their leth- " It is true that the Collins are side-wheel steamers, and argy, half composed of prejudice. I tell them again plainly, up to this time side wheel steamers, far inferior to the Col. however unpleasant to myself, that there are no ocean lins steamers, bave proved themselves not only efficient steamers in England comparable with the Baltic."
vessels of war at sea, but have in many instances proved Captain McKennon, in speaking of the perform- performance, see the bombardment of Odessa.
themselves very efficient in bombardments. For their last ance of the Collins steamers, says:
“ As the Susquehanna and Arctic are the vessels hercin
alluded to, I shall endeavor to show the great superiority of the latter over the former.
" The United States mail steamship Arctic combines all the essential elements heretofore mentioned for an efficient war steamer, viz: great speed, great strength, great buoyancy and stability, and ample accommodations for officers and crew; in the latter of which every United States war steainer is sadly deficient.
“ First.-Great speed. By the logs published in Stuart's work, the relative speed of the Arctic to that of the Susquehanna is as three to two.
“ Second.-Great strength. Independently of a stouter frame, heavier planking and ceiling, heavy bilge streaks, (the Susquehanna has no bilge streaks, nor any ceiling below her lower deck clamps, except three streaks, six inches thick over her first and second suttock heads, and but half her square fastenings go through,) the Arctic is more than six hundred per centum stronger, taking into account the power of endurance and permanence of shape, by the form of hull and the peculiar arrangement of her iron diagonal braces and her arching.
“ Third.--Stability. The flat floors of the Collins steamers enable them to place their engines and boilers lower than those of the Susquehanna, counteracting more effectually the weight of top-hamper, (a superiority acknowledged by the late Lórd John Hay over steamers with great dead rise ;) the great sharpness at the ends adds also much to the stability, and at the same time gives great speed at moderate cost, (for were it possible for the Susquehanna to bear the power necessary to drive her at the bighest rate of the Arciic's speed, she would burn four times the fuel that she now does,) avoiding any stress of the ship going against a head sea, and being almost impregnable to direci shot,
" Fourth. ---Capacity. The Susquehanna can carry eight hundred tons of coal, enough for twenty-two days' steaming at her best speed, with a complement of two hundred and twenty-five men, and stores for four months. The Arctic carries ordinarily twelve hundred tons of coal enough for thirty-three days' steaming at the Susquehanna's best speed, ore hvus tons of cargo, and space enough allotted for passengers for the accommodation of a man of war's crew of five hundred men, and stores necessary for them for four months, drawing less water than the Susquehanna.
“ Fifth.-The sharpness of the decks forward-by a drawing in my possession, docs not interfere with the range of the bow gun, and in fact, the Collins steamers having no bowsprits, gives them an advantage not possessed by any other steamers, of training their bow guns to advantage, by bringing them in a direct line with the keel.
" Sixth.- The height of the shafts of the Coliins steamers does not interfere with the shifting of guns; as sidewheel steamers must be relied upon to attack single ships, and capture the eneiny's commerce, there will always be guns enough forward and abast the shaft that can be shifted from side to side, 10 supply the place of any gun that may be disabled. Line of baulle ships or frigates, in the present mode of warfare, (see Paixban's report,) except in fleet engagements, do not prove as efficient as fast steamers carrying heavier guns of greater range.
“ Seventh. The location of the shafts and boilers of the Collins steamers does not prevent the use of the usual deck beams; and in fact, these steamers have their boilers all below the main deck, and liave the advantage of all the deck beums of any war steamer.
“ Eighth.-The upper deck of the Collins steamers is not too slight for an armament, and the additional weight necessary to strengthen them to carry the heaviest pivot guns, would noi exceed ten tons, which is not as heavy as ihe erira ice-house that is necessary to be carried in the summer time; the usual quantity of ice on this deck alone weighing fifty tons, more iban double the weight of four of the largest guns now in use.
“Ninth.-The number of beams used in the Collins steamers is one entire set more than there is in the Susquehanna, and the mode of putting them in gives the sides additional strength, and gives the ship the ability to stand the continued action of the heaviest armament.
“The top sides are built as strong as any part of the hull; and steamers in England, (see Engledue's report,) with but ordinary bulwarks above the main deck, one thousand tons less than the Collins steamers, have heen strengthened sufficienily, at a cost not exceeding £500, ($2,500,) to carry the heaviest guns used in the English navy. As regards the arrangement of the gins on the main deck, the frames have bee) so arranged with the spirketings that in twenty-fouer hours the poris could be pierced to receive any armament that has yet been carried by any side wheel war steamer; from which it will be inferred that the Collins steamers were constructed for guns as well as passengers.
“Tenth.-With respect to masts and sails, if the Susque. hanna's mainmast is placed similar to the Mississippi's, her mainipasi, under steam, is of but little use, and as to the utility of sparring war steamers heavily, I call your attention particularly to the report (see Stuart's work) of Mr. Jesse Gay, chief engincer of the Mississippi, who condemns, uuquestionably, loading a side-wheel steamer with heavy spars, anchors, &c. All that he has said, was predicted before her sister ship, the Missouri, had her engines half in, and we see, on reference to Stuari's work, that the best speed of the Susquehanna, under canvass only, did not equal that of the Atlantic when she returned to England without using her machinery.
“ Eleventh.-The weight ofarmament, stores, &c., would not amount to the weight of the thousand tons of cargo of the Arctic; therefore they would not be so deep as ordiuarily, nor would their speed be decreased.
“ Twelfth. The cost of converting the Collins steamers into war steamers would not exceed $10,000 each, and, in fact, the money must be very extravagantly disbursed to amount to halt that sum.
" With respect to the general principles combined in the construction of the Collins steamers, I bave no doubt that the Government would be greatly benefited by following, more closely, the superior manner in whien the Colijns stcamers are constructed, and particularly since the San
Jacinto was calked after a single passage from New York --and build these seven sloops of war, at an ex
month by the arrival ofan English steamer in less than two to Norfolk; and the Mississippi in six months, just previous pense far exceeding the whole extra compensation
wecks from Liverpool, cod embark his fortune and reputa10 her return from the Mediterranean, was calked twice,
tion in starling the enterprise. and wanted calking again on her arrival at the port of New proposed to be given to Mr. Collins during the life
“ History will record the name of E. K. Collins, who, in York, notwithstanding she made a southern passage. (l of his contract ? Economy, it seems to me, demands my humble judgment, has, under Providence, done more allude to the Mississippi particularly, as she is so often the continuance of the Collins steamers, rather
to advance the name and interests of his country than any cited by gentlemen of the navy as the ne plus ultra of war
American since the immortal Fulton-for the one proved steamers.) I have good reason to believe, had her com. than the building of additional steam sloops of war.
the possibility of applying ibc steam-engine to the useful mander been ordered to England with Kossuth, he would Mr. Chairman, it has been claimed, and I doubt
navigation of our rivers and lakes, which has caused, in a not have attempted a northern passage homeward. Her not will be again, that no extra compensation greai degree, the unprecedented growth of our inland and passage from Madeira was made in nineteen days, which certainly could not have required any very great stress on should be allowed Mr. Collins, inasmuch as,
western Staies; the other the scarcely less important prac. the ship. Now the only ship of the Collins line which has without it, his compensation is greater than that
tical lesson of narrowing the broad and boisterous Atlantic
io a pleasure trip of ten days. To those who, from study of yet been calked, was the Atlantic, last month; and so firm paid by the British Government to Mr. Cunard.
experience, know the vasi difference there is in construetwere her seams that it was deeined altogether unnecessary I have already anticipated this argument by ing a steamer capable of crossing the ocean, at all seasons to even try the seams of the other steamers of this line, ail of which bave done equal service. Toe English steamers showing that Collins's time, over that made by of the year, not only with safety and wonderful prgolarity,
but to do so in ten days, instead of twelve or souriren, ibis in the same service, and built, at least, equally as well as
Cunard, costs over $16,000 the round trip-and any of the United States naval steamers, had to be greatly that it costs $10,000 the voyage in and out, in
encomium will, it is believed, be deened just and deserved.
A reference to the steam logs, given herein, will fully illus. strengthened, fully double, before they had completed their making the passage direct from Liverpool to New trate the labor and cost necessary to accomplish the . quicksecond year's service; and with all that, Neptune gives York, instead of from Liverpool to Boston, via
est passages on record' across the Atlantic." them pretty good evidence that they are not beyond the effects of his power. After the preceding facis, should Halifax.
Under such circumstances, we induced Mr. there be any doubt about the unequalled strength of the But, sir, in addition to this, it should be borne Collins to build steamers of great size and power, Collins steamers, the many shipwrights of England can in mind, that Collins's four steamers are nearly not because such vessels were demanded by the bear testimony, to their great astonishment, on seeing those ships in dock (three of them within the last three
equal in tonnage and power to Cunard's seven mail service, but because we designed them for months) with their bottoms as perfect as the day they were steamers; and that the cost of navigating and national war vessels, whenever and wherever the built, without even the slightest wrinkle in their copper, propelling a steamer increases with the tonnage. interests of the Government might require ihem, and exhibiting such evidences of strength and endurance I cannot better illustrate this point than did the Mr. Collins, without regard to his own interag was never before witnessed in that country. The increased quantity of timber and scantling used in
honorable gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. est, embarked his all in the enterprise; and has the construction of the Arctic (see Stuart) over the Sus
Chandler,] in his argument upon the subject in produced a class of steamers highly satisfactory quehanna..
this House in 1852. I read from his speech on to the Government, and reflecting the highest
credit upon the country The bolting and coaging of the wales and
But the undertaking, clamps.
which has been so glorious to the country, was
gate tonnage of twelve thousand two hundred and eighty- ruinous to the private interest of Mr. Collins and each other, and secured to the framing of the
two, making cighty-five trips a year, or the working of one his associates. Arctic..
.3.68 times. hundred and foriy qive thousand seven bundred and tiny The increased depth of the Arctic, with the adtons, for which the exact payment is $856,871, or $5 75
Upon a careful investigation by both Houses ditional upper deck.......
of Congress, in 1852, it was found that Collins By the form and strength of the arc in every po.
* Collins's line has four steamers, with an aggregate ton- could not sustain the service he had engaged to sition, from horizontal to vertical.. 1.28 times. nage of thirteen thousand seven hundred and lwn, and un
perform, without increased compensation. The “ These ratios include permanence of form, ultimate
der present contract crossing the Atlantic fifty-two times a strength and power of endurance, and prove conclusively year, and thus takes across ttie Auantic thiriy thousand
Finance Committee of the Senate, and the Ways that ihe Arctic is 7 1.7 times stronger than the Susque
tons more than Cunard, with his seven ships; for which and Means Committee of the House, found it ne
service Collins will receive, if the amendment before us banna.
cessary to increase the compensation to $33,000 “ This increase of strength, no doubt, will astonish many;
sbould pass, the sum of $858,000, or $4 82 a ton, being yet any person, however skeptical, can be convinced if he less, by twenty per cent., Han the amount paid by Great
on the round trip. Both Houses concurred in the Britain to Cunard."
finding of these committees; and Mr. Collins's will, with me, go through the calculations. “Calling your attention particularly to the armament that This statement of the honorable gentleman froin
compensation was increased accordingly. can be carried and effectually used by any one of the Col- Pennsylvania, is changed somewhat at this time,
Let it be borne in mind, sir, that this increase lins steamers as vessels of war, viz: On the spar deck two
in compensation was not for one year, nor for two eiglity-four pounders, on the main deck thirty-Iwo sixty- l by the adding of the steamer Arabia to the eight pounders, I am, sir, yours, &c., &c., Cunard line, which has somewhat increased its
years, but during the contract of Mr. Collins, OLIVÉR BYRNE, tonnage. But still, it does not, in the least,
unless terminated by Congress. Civil, Military, and Mechanical Engineer. change the force of his argument. To multiply
Now, I ask, in all candor, was not the faith of PHILADELPHIA, June, 1854.” words upon this point, would be wasting the time
the nation tacitly pledged, that this extra compenof the committee.
sation should be continued until such time, during Mr. Chairman, as an American, justly proud of the achievements of our commercial marine, and
Now, then, let it be borne in mind, Mr. Chair
the continuance of the contract, as Collins & Co., especially so of those noble steamers, which took man, that the Postmaster General tells us that
without loss or detriment, could perform the retime is very important-and let it also be borne in
quired service, without the extra pay? and have maintained such marked preeminence in mind that ihe Government orders the passage to
The power which you have reserved, " to give the maritime world-steamers which have by their admirable performance, compelled even British back; and what man, what American legislator, be made direct from New York to Liverpool, and
the notice," does not in the least change the pledge naval officers, with all their national prejudices, to that does not wish to see Collins and his asso
of faith, unless you can show that Collins, with.
out embarrassment and bankruptcy, can continue pronounce superior to anything of the kind in the ciates utterly ruined, and the line broken up, can
the line without the extra pay. Before Congress, British navy, I feel myself much indebted to Mr. refuse to continue this extra compensation? Sir,
in good faith, can give the notice it must be satisByrne, who, by his calm and purely rational debefore we take such a step, we should reflect for
fied that the line, at the old price, will remunerate monstration, has convinced me that we have in a moment upon the circumstances under which it
the owners. those steamers, not only an unequaled commercial was originally given.
No man, Mr. Chairman, who has listened to fleet, but the means of adding to our naval strength
The Government desired the establishment of my argument, can fail in being convinced that, in' a time of war, vessels which would be unapthe line. The Washington and the Hermann, the
without this extra allowance, the line must be proached in general efficiency by any other now in two American-built steamers in the Havre and
hopelessly and utterly ruined.' I do not hesitate our naval service, and which the whole world acBremen line, although the best specimens of sea
to say, Mr. Chairman, that so long as the Govknowledges, are unsurpassed by those of any other steamers our constructors and engineers had pro
ernment continues the contract, and so long as nation. I trust, sir, that with such an array of testimony of the English line, and far behind, in point of
Mr. Collins would lose money in the performance duced, proved entirely unequal to the early vessels
of this service without the extra pay, the faith of as I have here presented, the testimony of the best
the nation is just as much pledged to continue the naval officers of both Great Britain and the Uni- speed, the later Cunar.lers.
Mr. Stuart, in his history of the naval and mail
extra compensation, as it is to give any compented States, the unprejudiced testimony of our very steamers of the United States, says:
sation whatever. best naval constructors, and most scientific engi. “ Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that
Allow me, Mr. Chairman, to notice another neers, we shall hear no more about the impracticaAmerican capitalisis, constructors, and engineers should
objection which is urged against my amendment, bility of converting those noble steamers into hesitate to compete with the cnlarged experience of the and then I will conclude. vessels of war.
English nation, sustained by the immense capital of that Sir, at the last session ofthis Congress, we passed country, and fostered by the aid of the Government.
It is urged that the extra compensation should "To enter the contest with England for the supremacy
be withheld from Mr. Collins, from the fact that a law authorizing the building of six steam frig. of ocean steam navigation required capital, talent, energy,
we have offers before the Post Office Committee, ates, and we have now upon the Clerk's table, and faith of the ligbest order known to our countrymen ; for to fail, would involve a loss not only of the va-i sums
and upon our tables, to perform this mail service, partly acted upon, a bill to authorize the building necessary to make the effort, but, what is of far more value
for one half the sum now paid Mr. Collins. of seven steam sloops of war. We are told by the chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, national disappointment, more deep.felt from the fact that 10 every lover of his country's reputation, it would insure
Sir, before we do injustice to Mr. Collins, we
should remember that, when the Post Office Dethat we must have these steam sloops, because we England had already been vanquished by our sailing ships, partment 'first advertised for proposals for this must have vessels drawing less water than will and gracefully yielded 10 us the palin of victory ; since more brilliantly illuminated by the yacht America and the clipper
gervice, so discouraging were the prospects, that the steam frigates, in order that they can enter ship Witch-of-the-Wave.
no offers were made to the Department. The Postour southern harbors. Sir, in the Collins line, we
" Al this time, 100, as already seen, the entire postal ser- master General then sent for Mr. Collins to come have just such vessels as the honorable chairman vice between Great Britain and America, and the transportof Naval Affairs says we must have. These steam- ation of passengers (except emigrants) and costly light | dertake the service. Mr. Collins hésitated-went
to Washington city in order to induce him to uners draw only eighteen feet of water on entering freights, was under the control of the Canard line, which involved not only the reputation and pride of the country,
home to consult New York capitalists--Mr. Van. port on returning from a cruise. That is just but also its coinmercial prosperity. Who was there, among derbilt, one of the present bidders, was one of the the draft proposed for the seven steam sloops of all the wealihy and enterprising merchants or ship build- gentlemen 'consulted by Mr. Collins. He utterly
ers of our metropolis of genius, able to cope with the mis. war. Why, then, I ask, shall we strike down the tress of the seas, and character ample to gain the confidence
refused to engage in the enterprise, alleging tbal Collins aleamers-steamers which, at a moment's and aid of cautious capitalists, that at this critical time
it would prove ruinous to those who embarked in warning, can be placed in the Government service | offered to step furth, take up the challenge repeated every it. And, sir, when two years ago, the Postmaster