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..416 Wallace, William.

...419 the Jehossee... .416 Vasquez, Hypolite..

..416
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...423 Coody, Susan, payment to. .417 Vasquez, Joseph.. .....................416

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....417 Çook, Anna E., pension of.... .422 Lawrence, Zachariah, payment to..........

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...418 Cousin, François, land title confirmed to 417

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..422 | Pool, Sidney P., pension of.....

..419 DeKalb, General, payment to children and heirs Lynch, George, increase of pension of.......419 Porcher, Charles J., paytaent to...

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.422 Finly, Andrew, payment to heirs of......... .422 McLaughlin, James, increase of pension of...422 | Ridgway, Paul S., pension of .. ....415 McLellan, Jacob, payment to....

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Russell, Gilbert C., payment to............. Finnall, Walter, payment to.....

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..416 Fisher, George, seltlement of claim of. . .416 | McLellan, J. Josephine, payment to.e......421 Rutherford, Mary, pension of ...... Foundling, the, register to issue to....... ..378 | Miles, Patrick C., increase of pension of.....418

S. French, Jesse, pension of....... ..423 | Mills, Clark, advance of money to.....

.... •424 Sanford, Henry S., payment to..............421 Mitchell, Edmund, pension of...

.420
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..416 Monagan, William, payment to......... :423 Savage, Joseph, payment to representatives of, 421 Georgia Railroad and Banking Company, duties More, Enoch S., entry on army roll respecting Scarritt, Irene G., payment to....... .423 to be refunded to....

..415 Searle, Daniel, & Co., settlement of accounts of, Gerard, Reese A.P., allowed to enter certain land, to have rights, as if he served out his term.. 415 .418 Morris, Thomas, payment to children and grand- | Sears, David B., allowed to enter certain land, 417

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.415 418 Morriss, Sarah, payment to...... ..421 | Slavin, Parmelia, pension of..

.421 Gould, Harrison, released from a judgment...419 Morse, Daniel, pension of........ .419. Smith, Isaac S., payment to....

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...419 Mutual Fire Insurance Company, in District of Smith, Larkin, payment to representatives of, 420 Graham, James S., payment to... ..415 Columbia, incorporated...

..377

St. Andrew, the, register to issue to.........381 Greathouse, Daniel, payment to representatives

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.378 Greeneaux, C. E., settlement of claim on....416 Paige, Lieutenant George H., credit to be allowed

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.424 H. Palmer, Susan, grant of bounty land to......420

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.416 Hagerty, William, payment to... .420 Park, Thomas, payment to representatives of..422 Stockton, Francis B., payment to.. Hankins, William, payment to...... 1.418 Parsons, Thomas B., payment to...........416

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atives of.... Heminger, Jepiha L., pension of..

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T. Hinton, Otho, settlement of claim on bail of, 423 Pierce, Franklin, the, register to issue to, under Taylor, Thomas M., settlement of accounts of, 418 Hinton, Rebecca, act for relief of...... .423 Hogan, Moses D., payment to... ..417 | Pensions, acts concerning, in favor of

Texana, the, register to issue to............378

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Angus, Ann W..... Holmes, J. H., the, register to issue to, under

.422

.417 the name of The Effort... ...378 Arnold, Catharine B.

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416 Hughes, James, settlement of claim of......424 Brown, John, Jr...

.419 Vasquez, Hypolite, authorized to enter certain Humphrey, Alexander, payment to heirs of..417 Brown, Oliver.

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...416 Humphrey, Sylvester, payment to.. .417 Butler, James...

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416 Cole, John....

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Venture, the, payment to captors of.........420 Insurance Company, Mutual Fire, incorporated, Cook, Anna E.

.422 | Vigil, Don Juan J., claim of, to be audited and
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.419 | Washington, George, advance to Clark Mills for
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.418 Weeks, William, land claim of, confirmed ...416 Lands, public, acts concerning, in favor of

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.421 || White, Elijah, land claim of, confirmed......418 Coffey, Cornelius

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.420 Winn.....

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.422 | Wino, Timothy, adjustment of accounts of..420 Gerard, Reese. A. P...... ...................418 Rawson, Zebina....

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417 Holstin, James.....

.423
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.422 || Woodbridge, Judge, compensation of.........415 Marsh, Henry H....... .420 Rutherford, Mary......

.416 | Wool, General John E., double rations to be Palmer, Susan.

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This is the first number of the Appendix to the Congres- the temporary interests of others may suggest. tional being, has been a cherished idea of the sional Globe for the second session of the Thirty-Third Con

They do not admit that the sovereigns of one congress. It will contain all the Messages of the President of

statesmen of this country. At one period or anthe United States, the Reports of the Exeentive Depart

tinent, or of a particular community of States, can other every maritime Power has, by some solemn ments, and all the speeches of Members of Congress with- legislate for all others.

treaty stipulation, recognized that principle; and held by them for revision. All the Laws that may be Leaving the trans-Atlantic nations to adjust their it might have been hoped that it would come to passed during the session will be published in the same form; || political system, in the way they may think best be universally received and respected as a rule of so that they may be bound up with the Congressional Globé and Appendix.

for their common welfare, the independent powers international law. But the refusal of one Power Subscription price of the Congressional Globe and Ap- of this continent may well assert the right to be prevented this, and in the next great war which pendix and the Laws for this session, (payable in advance,) exempt from all annoying interference on their ensued, that of the French revolution, it failed to $300. A sufficient number will be printed 10 supply all who may subscribe before the 15th of January.

part. Systematic abstinence from intimate polit be respected among the belligerent States of ical connection with distant foreign nations, does Europe. Notwithstanding this, the principle is

not conflict with giving the widest range to our generally admitted to be a sound and salutary one; MESSAGE.

foreign commerce. This distinction, so clearly so much so that, at the commencement of the ex

marked in history, seems to have been overlooked, listing war in Europe, Great Britain and France Fellow-Citizens of the Senate

or disregarded, by some leading foreign States. announced their purpose to observe it for the and of the House of Representalives:

Our refusal to be brought within, and subjected present; not, however, as a recognized interna

to, their peculiar system, has, I fear, created a tional right, but as a mere concession for the time The past has been an eventful year, and will be jealous distrust of our conduct, and induced, on being. The coöperation, however, of these two hereafter referred to as a marked epoch in the his. their part, occasional acts of disturbing effect upon powerful maritime nations, in the interest of neutory of the world. While we have been happily our foreign relations. Our present attitude and tral rights, appeared to me to afford an occasion, preserved from the calamities of war, our domes. past course give assurances, which should not be inviting and justifying, on the part of the United tic prosperity has not been entirely uninterrupted. questioned, that our purposes are not aggressive, States, for a renewed effort to make the doctrine in The crops, in portions of the country, have been nor threatening to the safety and welfare of other question a principle of international law, by means nearly cut off. Disease has prevailed to a greater nations. Our military establishment, in time of of special conventions between the several Powers extent than usual, and the sacrifice of human life, peace, is adapted to maintain exterior defenses, of Europe and America. Accordingly a proposithrough casualties by sea and land, is without and to preserve order among the aboriginal tribes tion, embracing not only the rule that free ships parallel. But the pestilence hås swept by, and re- within the limits of the Union. Our naval force make free goods, except contraband articles, but stored salubrity invites the absent to their homes, | is intended only for the protection of our citizens also the less contested one, that neutral property, and the return of business to its ordinary channels. abroad, and of our commerce, diffused, as it is, other than contraband, though on board enemies' If the earth has rewarded the labor of the husband- over all the seas of the globe. The Government ships, shall be exempt from confiscation, has been man less bountifully than in preceding seasons, it of the United States, being essentially pacific in submitted by this Government to those of Europe has left him with abundance for domestic wants, policy, stands prepared to repel invasion by the and America. and a large surplus for exportation. In the pres- voluntary service of a patriotic people, and pro- Russia acted promptly in this matter, and a conent, therefore, as in the past, we find ample vides no permanent means of foreign aggression. | vention was concluded, between that country and grounds for reverent thankfulness to the God of These considerations should allay all apprehen- | the United States, providing for the observance of Grace and Providence, for His protecting care sion, that we are disposed to encroach on the the principles announced, not only as between and merciful dealings with us as a people. rights, or endanger the security, of other States. themselves, but also as between them and all other

Although our attention has been arrested by Some European Powers have regarded, with nations which shall enter into like stipulations. painful interest in passing events, yet our country disquieting concern, the territorial expansion of None of the other Powers have as yet taken final feels no more than the slight vibrations of the the United States. This rapid growth has re- action on the subject. I am not aware, however, convulsions, which have shaken Europe. As

sulted from the legitimate exercise of sovereign that any objection to the proposed stipulations individuals, we cannot repress sympathy with rights, belonging alike to all nations, and by many has been made; but, on the contrary, they are human suffering, nor regret for the causes which liberally exercised. Under such circumstances, it acknowledged to be essential to the security of produce it. As a nation, we are reminded, that could hardly have been expected that those among neutral commerce; and the only apparent obstacle whatever interrupts the peace, or checks the pros- them, which have, within a comparatively recent to their general adoption is in the possibility, that perity, of any part of Christendom, tends, more period, subdued and absorbed ancient kingdoms, it may be encumbered by inadmissible conditions. or less, to involve our own. The condition of planted their standards on every continent, and The King of the Two Sicilies has expressed to States is not unlike that of individuals. They are now possess, or claim the control of, the islands our Minister at Naples his readiness to concur in mutually dependent upon each other. Amicable of every ocean as their appropriate domain, would our proposition relative to neutral rights, and to relations between them, and reciprocal good will, look with unfriendly sentiments upon the acqui- | enter into a convention on that subject. are essential for the promotion of whatever is sitions of this country, in every instance honor- The King of Prussia entirely approves of the desirable in their moral, social, and political con- ably obtained, or would feel themselves justified project of a treaty to the same effect, submitted to dition. Hence, it has been my earnest endeavor in imputing our advancement to a spirit of aggres- | him, but proposes an additional article providing to maintain peace and friendly intercourse with all sion or to a passion for political predominance. for the renunciation of privateering. Such, an nations.

Our foreign commerce has reached a magnitude | article, for most obvious reasons, is much desired The wise theory of this Government, so early and extent nearly equal to that of the first mari- | by nations having naval estab’ishments, large in adopted and steadily pursued, of avoiding all en- time Power of the earth, and exceeding that of proportion to their foreign commerce. If it were tangling alliances, has hitherto exempted it from any other. Over this great interest, in which not adopted as an international rule, the commerce of many complications, in which it would otherwise only our merchants, but all classes of citizens at a nation having comparatively a small naval force, have become involved. Notwithstanding this, our least indirectly, are concerned, it is the duty of would be very much at the mercy of its enemy, clearly defined and well-sustained course of ac- the executive and legislative branches of the Gov- in case of war with a power of decided naval tion, and our geographical position so remote ernment to exercise a careful supervision, and superiority. The bare statement of the condition from Europe, increasing disposition has been man- adopt proper measures for its protection. The in which the United States would be placed, after ifested by some of its governments to supervise, policy which I have had in view, in regard to this having surrendered the right to resort to privateers, and, in certain respects, to direct, our foreign interest, embraces its future as well as its present in the event of war with a belligerent of naval policy. In plans for adjusting the balance of security.

supremacy, will show that this Government could power among themselves, they have assumed to Long experience has shown that, in general, never listen to such a proposition. The navy of take us into account, and would constrain us to when the princ Powers of Europe are engaged the first maritime power in Europe is at least ten conform our conduct to their views.

in war, the rights of neutral nations are endan- times as large as that of the United States. The another of the Powers of Europe has, from time gered. This consideration led, in the progress of foreign commerce of the two countries is nearly to time, undertaken to enforce arbitrary regula- the war of our independence, to the formation of equal, and about equally exposed to hostile deptions, contrary in many respects to established the celebrated confederacy of armed neutrality, redations. In war between that power and the principles of international law, That law the a primary object of which was to assert the doc- United States, without resort on our part to our United States have, in their foreign intercourse, trine that free ships make free goods, except in mercantile marine, the means of our enemy to in uniformly respected and observed, and they can- the case of articles contraband of war; a doctrine flict injury upon our commerce would be tenfold not recognize any such interpolations therein, as which, from the very commencement of our na- greater than ours to retaliate. We could not ex

1

One or

33p Cong....20 Sess."

Message of the President.

SENATE & Ho. of REPS.

tricate our country from this unequal condition, treaty concluded by the United States and Great the officer to whom it was intrusted. A treaty, with such an enemy, unless we at once departed Britain in 1846, regarding possessory rights of opening certain of the ports of that populous counfrom our present peaceful policy, and became a the Hudson's Bay Company, and property of the try, has been negotiated; and in order to give full great naval power. Nor would this country be Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, have given effect thereto, it only remains to exchange ratificabetter situated, in war with one of the secondary rise to serious disputes, and it is important to all tions, and adopt requisite commercial regulations. naval powers. Though the naval disparity would concerned, that summary means of settling them The treaty lately concluded between the United be less, the greater extent, and more exposed con- | amicably should be devised. I have reason to States and Mexicó seuled some of our most emdition of our wide-spread commerce, would give believe, that an arrangement can be made on just | barrassing difficulties with that country, but nuany of them a like advantage over us.

terms, for the extinguishment of the rights in merous claims upon it for wrongs and injuries to The proposition to enter into engagements to question, embracing, also, the right of the Hud- our citizens remained unadjusted, and many new forego a resort to privateers, in case this country son's Bay Company to the navigation of the river cases have been recently added to the former list should be forced into war with a great naval power, | Columbia; and 'I therefore suggest to your con- of grievances. Our legation has been earnest in is not entitled to more favorable consideration than sideration, the expediency of making a contingent its endeavors to obtain from the Mexican Govwould be a proposition, to agree not to accept the appropriation for that purpose.

ernment a favorable consideration of these claims, services of volunteers for operations on land. France was the early and efficient ally of the but hitherto without success. This failure is, When the honor or the rights of our country re- United States in their struggle for independence. probably, in some measure, to be ascribed to the quire it to assume a hostile attitude, it confidently | From that time to the present, with occasional disturbed condition of that country. It has been relies upon the patriotism of its citizens, not ordi- slight interruptions, cordial relations of friendship my anxious desire to maintain friendly relations narily devoted to the military profession, to aug. have existed between the Governments and people with the Mexican Republic, and to cause its rights ment the Army and the Navy, so as to make them of the two countries. The kindly sentiments, and territories to be respected, not only by our fully adequate to the emergency which calls them cherished alike by both nations, have led to exten- citizens, but by foreigners, who have resorted to into action. The proposal to surrender the right sive social and commercial intercourse, which, I the United States for the purpose of organizing to employ privateers is professedly founded upon trust, will not be interrupted or checked by any hostile expeditions against some of the States of the principle, that private property of unoffend- casual event of an apparently unsatisfactory char- that Republic. The defenseless condition in which ing non-combatants, though enemies, should be acter: The French Consul at San Francisco was, its frontiers have been left has stimulated lawless exempt from the ravages of war; but the proposed not long since, brought into the United States dis- adventurers to embark in these enterprises, and surrender goes but little way in carrying out that trict court at that place, by compulsory process, greatly, increased the diffioulty of inforcing our principle, which equally requires that such pri- | as a witness in favor of another foreign consul, in obligations of neutrality. Regarding it as my vate property should not be seized or molested by violation, as the French Government conceives, solemn duty to fulfill, efficiently, these obliganational ships of war. Should the leading powers of his privileges under our consular convention tions, not only towards Mexico, but other foreign of Europe concur in proposing, as a rule of inter- | with France. There being nothing in the transac- nations, I have exerted all the powers with which national law, to exempt private property, upon tion which could imply any disrespect to France I am invested to defeat such proceedings, and the ocean, from seizure by public armed cruisers, or its Consul, such explanation has been made as bring to punishment those who, by taking a part as well as by privateers, the United States will I hope will be satisfactory. Subsequently, mis- therein, violated our laws. The energy and activreadily meet them upon that broad ground. understanding arose on the subject of the French | ity of our civil and military authorities have frus

Since the adjournment of Congress, the ratifi- Government having, as it appeared, abruptly ex- trated the designs of those who meditated expedications of the treaty between the United States cluded the American Minister to Spain from pass- tions of this character, except in two instar.ces. and Great Britain, relative to coast fisheries, and ing through France, on his way from London to One of these, composed of foreigners, was at first to reciprocal trade with the British North Ameri- | Madrid. But that Government has unequivocally countenanced and aided by the Mexican Governcan provinces, have been exchanged, and some of disavowed any design to deny the right of transit ment itself, it having been deceived as to their its anticipated advantages are already enjoyed by to the Minister of the United States; and, after real object. The other, small in number, eluded us, although its full execution was to abide certain | explanations to this effect, he has resumed his the vigilance of the magistrates at San Francisco, acts of legislation not yet fully performed. So journey, and actually returned through France to and succeeded in reaching the Mexican territosocn as it was ratified, Great Britain opened to Spain. I herewith lay before Congress the cor- ries; but the effective measures taken by this Govour commerce the free navigation of the river St. l respondence on this subject, between our Envoy ernment compelled the abandonment of the underLawrence, and to our fishermen unmolested access at Paris, and the Minister of Foreign Relations of taking. to the shores and bays, from which they had been the French Government.

The commission to establish the new line bepreviously excluded, on the coasts of her North The position of our affairs with Spain remains tween the United States and Mexico, according American provinces; in return for which, she asked as at the close of your last session. Internal ag. to the provisions of the treaty of the 30th of Defor the introduction, free of duty, into the ports | itation, assuming very nearly the character of cember last, has been organized, and the work is of the United States, of the fish caught on the political revolution, has recently convulsed that already commenced. same coast by British fishermen. This being the country. The late Ministers were violently ex- Our treaties with the Argentine Confederation, compensation, stipulated in the treaty, for privi- | pelled from power, and men, of very different and with the Republics of Uruguay and Paraguay, leges of the highest importance and value to the views in relation to its internal affairs, have suc- secure to us the free navigation of the river La United States, which were thus voluntarily yielded ceeded. Since this change, there has been no Plata, and some of its larger tributaries; but the before it became effective, the request seemed to propitious opportunity to resume, and press on, same success has not attended our endeavors to me to be a reasonable one; but it could not be negotiations for the adjustment of serious ques- open the Amazon. The reasong in favor of the acceded to, from want of authority to suspend tions of difficulty between the Spanish Govern- free use of that river, I had occasion to present our laws imposing duties upon all foreign fish. ment and the United States. There is reason to fully in a former message; and, considering the In the meantime, the Treasury Department issued believe that our Minister will find the present gov. cordial relations which have long existed between a regulation, for ascertaining the duties paid or ernment more favorably inclined than the preced- this Government and Brazil, it may be expected secured by bonds on fish caught on the coasts of ing to comply with our just demands, and to that pending negotiations will, eventually, reach the British provinces, and brought to our markets make suitable arrangements for restoring harmony a favorable result. by British subjects, after the fishing grounds had and preserving peace between the two countries. Convenient means of transit, between the sevbeen made fully accessible to the citizens of the Negotiations are pending with Denmark to dis- eral parts of a country, are not only desirable for United States. I recommend to your favorable continue the practice of levying tolls on our ves- the objects of commercial and personal communiconsideration a proposition, which will be sub- sels and their cargoes passing through the Sound. cation, but essential to its existence under one mitend to you, for authority to refund the duties I do not doubt that we can claim exemption there- Government. Separated as are the Atlantic and and cancel the bonds thus received. The provinces | from, as a matter of right. It is admitted on all Pacific coasts of the United States by the whole of Canada and New Brunswick have also antici- hands, that this exaciion is sanctioned, not by breadth of the continent, still the inhabitants of pated the full operation of the treaty, by legislative the general principles of the law of nations, but each are closely bound together by community of arrangements, respectively, to admit, free of duty, only by special conventions, which most of the origin and institutions, and by strong attachment the products of the United States mentioned in commercial nations have entered into with Den- to the Union. Hence the constant and increasing the free list of the treaty; and an arrangement, mark. The fifth article of our treaty of 1826, with intercourse, and vast interchange of commercial similar to that regarding British fish, has been Denmark, provides, that there shall not be paid, productions, between these remote divisions of the made for duties now chargeable on the products on the vessels of the United States and their car- Republic. At the present time, the most practiof those provinces enumerated in the same free goes when passing through the Sound, higher duties cable and only commodious routes for communilist, and introduced therefrom into the United than those of the most favored nations. This may cation between them are by the way of the Isthmus States: a proposition for refunding which will, in be regarded as an implied agreement to submit to of Central America. It is the duty of the Governmy judgment, be in like manner entitled to your the tolls during the continuance of the treaty, and, ment to secure these avenues against all danger of favorable consideration.

consequently, may embarrass the assertion of our interruption. There is difference of opinion between the right to be released therefrom. There are also

In relation to Central America , perplexing ques. United States and Great Britain, as to the bound- | other provisions in the treaty which ought to be tions existed between the United States and Great ary line of the Territory of Washington adjoin. i modified. It was to remain in force for ten years, Britain at the time of the cession of California. ing the British possessions on the Pacific, which and until one year after either party should give These, as well as questions which subsequently has already led to difficulties on the part of the notice to the other of intention to terminate it. I arose concerning interoceanic communication citizens and local authorities of the two Governa deem it expedient that the contemplated notice across the Isthmus, were, as it was supposed, adments. I recommend that provision be made for should be given to the Government of Denmark. justed by the treaty of April 19, 1850; but, unfora commission, to be joined by one on the part of The naval expedition, dispatched about two tunately, they have been reopened by serious her Britannic Majesty, for the purpose of running years since for the purpose of establishing rela- misunderstanding as to the import of some of its and establishing the line in controversy. Certain tions with the empire of Japan, has been ably and provisions, a readjustment of which is now under stipulations of the third and fourth articles of the Il skillfully conducted to a successful termination by Il consideration. Our Minister at London has made

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strenuous efforts to accomplish this desirable ob- This pretended community, a heterogenous nation, nothing in extenuation of their conduct; ject, but has not yet found it possible to bring the assemblage gathered from various countries, and but contumaciously refused to hold any intercourse negotiations to a termination.

composed, for the most part, of blacks and persons with the commander of the Cyane. By their As incidental to these questions, I deem it proper of mixed blood, had previously given other indi. | obstinate silence they seemed rather desirous to to notice an occurrence which happened in Central cations of mischievous and dangerous propensities. provoke chastisement than to escape it. There America, near the close of the last session of Con- Early in the same month property was clandes- | is ample reason to believe that this conduct of gress. So soon as the necessity was perceived of tinely abstracted from the depot of the Transit wanton defiance, on their part, is imputable chiefly establishing interoceanic communications across Company and taken to Greytown. The plun- to the delusive idea that the American Governthe Isthmus, a company was organized, under

derers obtained shelter there, and their pursuers ment would be deterred from punishing them, authority of the State of Nicaragua, but composed, were driven back by its people, who not only through fear of displeasing a formidable foreign for the most part, of citizens of the United States, protected the wrongdoers and shared the plunder, || Power, which, they presumed to think, looked for the purpose of opening such a transit way, by but treated with rudeness and violence those who

with complacency upon their aggressive and inthe river San Juan and Lake Nicaragua, which sought to recover their property.

sulting deportment towards the United States. soon became an eligible and much used route in Such, in substance, are the facts submitted to The Cyane at length fired upon the town. Before the transportation of our citizens and their prop- my consideration, and proved by trustworthy much injury had been done, the fire was twice erty between the Atlantic and Pacific. Mean- evidence. I could not doubt that the case de suspended, in order to afford opportunity for an while, and in anticipation of the completion and manded the interposition of this Government. arrangement; but this was declined. Most of importance of this transit way, a number of ad- Justice required that reparation should be made the buildings of the place, of little value generally, venturers had taken possession of the old Spanish

for so many and such gross wrongs, and that a were, in the sequel, destroyed; but, owing to the port at the mouth of the river San Juan, in open

course of insolence and plunder, tending directly considerate precautions taken by our naval comdefiance of the State or States of Central America, to the insecurity of the lives of numerous travelers, mander, there was no destruction of life. which, upon their becoming independent, had right- and of the rich treasure belonging to our citizens, When the Cyane was ordered to Central Amerfully succeeded to the local sovereignty and juris- passing over this transit way, should be peremp- | ica, it was confidently hoped and expected that diction of Spain. These adventurers undertook iorily arrested. Whatever it might be in other no occasion would arise for "a resort to vioto change the name of the place from San Juan respects, the community in question, in power to lence and destruction of property and loss of del Norte to Greytown, and, though at first pre- do mischief, was not despicable. It was well | life.” Instructions to that effect were given to her tending to act as the subjects of the fictitious sover- provided with ordnance, small arms, and ammu- commander. And no extreme act would have eign of the Mosquito Indians, they subsequently nition, and might easily seize on the unarmed been requisite had not the people themselves, by repudiated the control of any power whatever, boats, freighted with millions of property, which their extraordinary conduct in the affair, frustrated assumed to adopt a distinct political organization passed almost daily within its reach. It did not all the possible mild measures for obtaini satisand declared themselves an independent sovereign profess to belong to any regular government, and faction. A withdrawal from the place, the object State. If, at some time, a faint hope was enter- had, in fact, no recognized dependence on or con- of his visit entirely defeated, would, under the cirtained that they might become a stable and respect- nection with any one to which the United States cumstances in which the commander of the Cyane able community, that hope soon vanished. They or their injured citizens might apply for redress, | found himself, have been absolute abandonment proceeded to assert unfounded claims to civil juris- | or which could be held responsible, in any way, of all claim of our citizens for indemnification, and diction over Punta Arenas, a position on the oppo- for the outrages committed. Not standing before submissive acquiescence in national indignity. It site side of the river San Juan, which was in pos- the world in the attitude of an organized political || would have encouraged in these lawless men a session, under a title wholly independent of them, society, being neither competent to exercise the spirit of insolence and rapine most dangerous to of citizens of the United States, interested in the rights nor to discharge the obligations of a govern- | the lives and property of our citizens at Punta

Nicaragua Transit Company, and which was in- ment, it was, in fact, a maranding establishment, | Arenas, and probably emboldened them to grasp

dispensably necessary to the prosperous operation too dangerous to be disregarded and too guilty to at the treasures and valuable merchandise continI of that route across the Isthmus. The company pass unpunished, and yet incopable of being treated ually passing over the Nacaragua route. It cer

resisted their groundless claims; whereupon they in any other way than as a piratical resort of | tainly would have been most satisfactory to me proceeded to destroy some of its buildings, and outlaws, or a camp of savages, depredating on if the objects of the Cyane's mission could have attempted violently to dispossess it.

emigrant trains or caravans and the frontier settle-| been consummated without any act of public force; At a later period they organized a strong force ments of civilized States.

but the arrogant contumacy of the offenders renfor the purpose of demolishing the establishment Seasonable notice was given to the people of dered it impossible to avoid the alternative, either at Punta Arenas, but this mischievous design was Greytown that this Government required them to to break up their establishment, or to leave them defeated by the interposition of one of our ships repair the injuries they had done to our citizens, || impressed with the idea that they might persevere of war, at that time in the harbor of San Juan. and to make suitable apology for their insult of | with impunity in a career of insolence and plun. Subsequently to this, in May last, a body of men our Minister, and that a ship of war would be der. from Greytown crossed over to Punta Arenas, dispatched thither to enforce compliance with This transaction has been the subject of comarrogaling authority to arrest, on the charge of these demands. But the notice passed unheeded. | plaint on the part of some foreign Powers, and has murder, a captain of one of the steamboats of the Thereupon, a commander of the Navy, in charge been characterized with more of harshness than of Transit Company: Being well aware that the of the sloop-of-war Cyane, was ordered to re- || justice. If comparisons were to be instituted, it claim to exercise jurisdiction there would be re- peat the demands, and to insist upon a compli- | would not be difficult to present repeated instances sisted then, as it had been on previous occasions, ance therewith. Finding that neither the popu- l in the history of States, standing in the very front they went prepared to assert ii by force of arms. lace, nor those assuming to have authority over of modern civilization, where communities, far Our Minister to Central America' happened to be them, manifested any disposition to make the less offending and more defenseless than Greypresent on that occasion. Believing that the cap- required reparation, or even to offer excuse for town, have been chastised with much greater se. iain of the steamboat was innocent, for he wit- their conduct, he warned them, by a public proc-verity, and where not cities only have been laid nessed the transaction on which the charge was lamation, that if they did not give satisfaction in ruins, but human life has been recklessly sacfounded, and believing, also, that the intruding within a time specified, he would bombard the rificed, and the blood of the innocent made proparty, having no jurisdiction over the place where town. By this procedure he afforded them oppor- || fusely to mingle with that of the guilty. they proposed to make the arrest, would encoun- tunity to provide for their personal safety. To Passing from foreign to domestic affairs, your ter desperate resistance if they persisted in their those also who desired to avoid loss of property, attention is naturally

directed to the financial con, purpose, he interposed, effectually, to prevent vio- in the punishment about to be inflicted on the dition of the country, always a subject of general lence and bloodshed. The American Minister offending town, he furnished the means of remov- interest.

For complete and exact information afterwards visited Greytown, and whilst he was ing their effects, by the boats of his own ship, regarding the finances, and the various branches there, a mob, including certain of the so-called and of a steamer which he procured and tendered of the public service connected therewith, I refer public functionaries of the place, surrounded the to them for that purpose. .At length, perceiving you to the report of the Secretary of the Treasury; house in which he was, avowing that they had no disposition on the part of the town to comply from which it will appear, that the amount of come to arrest him, by order of some person ex- with his requisitions, he appealed to the com- revenue during the last fiscal year, from all sources, ercising the chief authority. While parleying mander of her Britannic Majesty's schooner was seventy-three million five hundred and fortywith them he was wounded by a missile from the Bermuda, who was seen to have intercourse, and nine thousand seven hundred and five dollars; and crowd. A boat, dispatched from the American apparently much influence with the leaders among that the public expenditures for the same period, steamer Northern Light to release him from the them to interpose, and persuade them to take exclusive of payments on account of the public perilous situation in which he was understood to some course calculated to save the necessity of debt, amounted to fifty-one million eighteen thoube, was fired into by the town guard, and com- resorting to the extreme measure indicated in his sand two hundred and forty-nine dollars. During pelled to return. These incidents, together with proclamation; but that officer, instead of acceding | the same period, the payments made in redemp: the known character of the population of Grey- io the request, did nothing more than to protest tion of the public debt, including interest and town, and their excited state, induced just appre- against the contemplated bombardment. Nosteps premium, amounted to twenty-four million three hensions that the lives and property of our citizens of any sort were taken, by the people, to give hundred and thirty-six thousand three hundred at Punta Arenas would be in imminent danger the satisfaction required. No individuals, if any and eighty dollars. To the sum total of the after the departure of the steamer, with her pas- there were, who regarded themselves as not re- receipts of that year is to be added a balance sengers, for New York, unless a guard was left sponsible for the misconduct of the community, remaining in the Treasury at the commencement for their protection. For this purpose, and in adopted any means to separate themselves from thereof, amounting to twenty-one million nine order to insure the safety of passengers and prop- the fate of the guilty. The several charges, on hundred and forty-two thousand eight hundred erty passing over the route, a temporary force was which the demands for redress were founded, had and ninety-two dollars; and at the close of the organized, at considerable expense to the United been publicly known to all for some time, and were same year, a corresponding balance amounting States, for which provision was made at the last again announced to them. They did not deny to twenty million one hundred and thirty-seven session of Congress.

any of these charges; they offered no expla- I thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven dollars of

330 CONG....20 SESS.

Message of the President.

SENATE & Ho, or Reps.

receipts above expenditures, also remained in the similar frauds in the public service may be perpe- from that close connection with troops, and those Treasury. Although, in the opinion of the Sec. | trated, render the necessity of new legal enact- active duties in the field, which are deemed requiretary of the Treasury, the receipts of the current ments, in the respects above referred to, quite site to qualify them for the varied responsibilities fiscal year are not likely equal in amount obvious. For other material modifications of the of high command. Were the duties of the Army those of the last, yet they will undoubtedly revenue laws which seem to me desirable, I refer staff mainly discharged by officers detached from exceed the amount of expenditures by at least you to the report of the Secretary of the Treas- their regiments, it is believed that the special serfifteen millions of dollars. I shall, therefore, ury. That report, and the tables which accom- vice would be equally well performed, and the discontinue to direct that the surplus revenue be pany it, furnish ample proofs of the solid found- cipline and instruction of the Army be improved. applied, so far as it can be judiciously and eco- ation on which the financial security of the country While due regard to the security of the rights of nomically done, to the reduction of the public debt, rests, and of the salutary influence of the inde- officers, and to the nice sense of honor which the amount of which, at the commencement of the pendent treasury system upon commerce and all should be cultivated among them, would seem to last fiscal year, was sixty-seven million three hun- monetary operations.

exact compliance with the established rule of prodred and forty thousand six hundred and twenty- The experience of the last year furnishes addi. motion in ordinary cases, still it can hardly be eight dollars; of which there had been paid on the tional reasons, I regret to say, of a painful char- doubted that the range of promotion by selection, twentieth day of November, 1854, the sum of acter, for the recommendation heretofore made, which is now practically confined to the grade of twenty-two million three hundred and sixty-five to provide for increasing the military force em- general officers, might be somewhat extended with thousand one hundred and seventy-two dollars; ployed in the territory inhabited by the Indians. benefit to the public service. Observance of the leaving a balance of outstanding public debt of The settlers on the frontier have suffered much rule of seniority sometimes leads, especially in only forty-four million nine hundred and seventy- from the incursions of predatory bands, and large time of peace, to the promotion of officers who, five thousand four hundred and fifty-six dollars, parties of emigrants to our Pacific possessions | after meritorious and even distinguished service, redeemable at different periods within fourteen have been massacred with impunity. The recur- may have been rendered by age or infirmity inyears. There are also remnants of other Govern- rence of such scenes can only be prevented by capable of performing active duty, and whose ment stocks, most of which are already due, and teaching these wild tribes the power of, and their advancement, therefore, would tend to impair the on which the interest has ceased, but which have responsibility to, the United States. From the efficiency of the Army. Suitable provision for not yet been presented for payment, amounting to garrisons of our frontier posts, it is only possible this class of officers, by the creation of a retired two hundred and thirty-three thousand one hun- lo detach troops in small bodies; and though these list, would remedy the evil, without wounding the dred and seventy-nine dollars. This statement bave on all occasions displayed a gallantry and a just pride of men who, by past services, have estabexhibits the fact, that the annual income of the stern devotion to duty, which on a larger field Tished a claim to high consideration. In again Government greatiy exceeds the amount of its would have commanded universal admiration, commending this measure to the favorable conpublic debt, which latter remains unpaid only they have usually suffered severely in these con- sideration of Congress, I would suggest that the because the time of payment has not yei matured, flicts with superior numbers, and have sometimes power of placing officers on the retired list be limand it cannot be discharged at once, except at the been entirely sacrificed. All the disposable force ited to one year. The practical operation of the option of public creditors, who prefer to retain of the Army is already employed on this service, measure would thus be tested, and if, after the the securities of the United States; and the other and is known to be wholly inadequate to the pro- | lapse of years, there should be occasion to renew fact, not less striking, that the annual revenue tection which should be afforded. The public | the provision, it can be reproduced with any imfrom all sources exceeds, by many millions of mind of the country has been recently shocked by provements which experience may indicate. The dollars, the amount needed for a prudent and savage atrocities committed upon defenseless emi. present organization of the artillery into regieconomical administration of the Government. grants and border settlements, and hardly less by ments is liable to obvious objections. The service

The estimates presented to Congress from the the unnecessary destruction of valuable lives, of artillery is that of batteries, and an organization different Executive Departments, at the last ses- where inadequate detachments of troops have of batteries into a corps of artillery would be more sion, amounted to thirty-eight million four hun- | undertaken to furnish the needed aid. Without consistent with the nature of their duties. A large dred and six thousand five hundred and eighty.one increase of the military force, these scenes will be part of the troops now called artillery are, and dollars; and the appropriations made, to the sum repeated, it is to be feared, on a larger scale, and have been, on duty as infantry; the distinction beof fifty-eight million one hundred and sixteen thou- with more disastrous consequences. Congress, I tween the two arms being merely nominal. This sand nine hundred and fitty-eight dollars. Of this am sure, will perceive that the plainest duties and nominal artillery in our service is disproportionexcess of appropriations over estimates, however, | responsibilities of Government are involved in this ate to the whole force, and greater than the wants more than twenty millions was applicable to ex- question, and I doubt not that prompt action may of the country demand. I therefore commend the traordinary objects, having no reference to the be confidently anticipated when delay must be discontinuance of a distinction which has no founusual annual expenditures. Among these objects, attended by such fearful hazards.

dation in either the arms used, or the character of was embraced ten millions to meet the third article The bill of the last session, providing for an the service expected to be performed. of the treaty between the United States and Mex- || increase of the pay of the rank and file of the In connection with the proposition for the inico; so that, in fact, for objects of ordinary expend- Army has had beneficial results, not only in facili- crease of the Army, I have presented these sugiture, the appropriations were limited to consid- tating enlistments, but in obvious improvement in | gestions with regard to certain measures of reform, erably less than forty millions of dollars. I the class of men who enter the service.

I regret

as the complement of a system, which would therefore renew my recommendation for a reduc- that corresponding consideration was not bestowed | produce the happiest results from a given expendition of the duties on imports. The report of the

on the officers, who, in view of their character and iure, and which I hope may attract the early Secretary of the Treasury presents a series of services, and the expenses to which they are ne- attention, and be deemed worthy of the approval, tables, showing the operation of the revenue sys- cessarily subject, receive at present what is, in of Congress. tem for several successive years, and as the gen- | my judgment, inadequate compensation.

The recommendation of the Secretary of the eral principle of reduction of duties with a view The valuable services constantly rendered by Navy, having reference to more ample provisions to revenue and not protection may now be regarded the Army, and its inestimable importance, as the for the discipline and general improvement in the as the settled policy of the country, I trust that nucleus around which the volunteer forces of the character of seamen, and for the reorganization little difficulty will be encountered in settling the nation can promptly gather in the hour of danger, and gradual increase of the Navy, I deem emidetails of a measure to that effect.

sufficiently attest the wisdom of maintaining a nently worthy of your favorable consideration. In connection with this subject, I recommend a military peace establishment; but the theory of The principles, which have controlled our policy change in the laws, which recent experience has our system and the wise practice under it, require in relation to the permanent military force, by shown to be essential to the protection of the Gov- | that any proposed augmentation, in time of peace, sea and land, are sound, consistent with the theory ernment. There is no express provision of law be only commensurate with our extended limits

of our system, and should by no meana be disrequiring the records and papers of a public char- and frontier relations. While scrupulously ad- | regarded. Bui, limiting the force to the objects acier, of the several officers of the Government, hering to this principle, I find, in existing circum- | particularly set forth in the preceding part of this to be left in their offices for the use of their suc- stances, a necessity for increase of our military | message, we should not overlook the present cessors, nor any provision declaring it felony on force, and it is believed that four new regiments, magnitude and prospective extension of our comtheir part to make false entries in the books, or two of infantry and two of mounted men, will be mercial marine, nor fail to give due weight to the return false accounts. In the absence of such sufficient to meet the present exigency. If it were fact that, besides the two thousand miles of express provision by law, the outgoing officers, necessary carefully to weigh the cost in a case of Atlantic sea-board, we have now a Pacific coast, in many instances, have claimed and exercised the such urgency, it would be shown that the addi- stretching from Mexico to the British possessions right to take into their own possession important Lional expense would be comparatively light. in the north, teeming with wealth and enterprise, books and papers, on the ground that these were With the increase of the numerical force of the and demanding the constant presence of ships of their private property; and have placed them | Army should, I think, be combined certain meas

war. The augmentation of the Navy has not kept beyond the reach of the Government. Conduct of ures of reform in its organic arrangement and pace with the duties properly and profitably asthis character, brought in several instances to the administration. The present organization is the signed to it in time of peace, and it is inadequate notice of the present Secretary of the Treasury, result of partial legislation often directed to special for the large field of its operations, not merely in naturally awakened his suspicion, and resulted in objects and interesis; and the laws regulating rank the present but still more in the progressively the disclosure that at four ports, namely, Oswego, and command, having been adopted many years increasing exigencies of the commerce of the Toledo, Sandusky, and Milwaukie, the Treasury ago from the British code, are not always applica- United States. I cordially approve of the prohad, by false entries, been defrauded, within the ble to our service. It is not surprising, therefore, | posed apprentice system for our national vessels, four years next preceding March, 1853, of the that the system should be deficient in the sym- | recommended by the Secretary of the Navy. sum of one hundred and ninety-eight thousand metry and simplicity essential to the harmonious The occurrence, during the last few months, of dollars. The great difficulty with which the de- | working of its several parts, and require a careful marine disasters of the most tragic nature, intection of these frauds has been attended, in con- revision.

volving great loss of human life, has produced insequence of the abstraction of books and papers The present organization, by maintaining large tense emotions of sympathy and sorrow throughby the retiring officers, and the facility with which I staff corps or departments, separates many officers Il out the country. li may well be doubted whether

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