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330 Cong....20 Sess.

Steam Mail from San Francisco to ChinaMr. McDougall.

Ho. OF REPs.

It is for the interest of California that the central tions. They have doubtless all long since made country postal facilities, having assumed the exroad should enter that State on the north, and up their opinions. I could not suppose otherwise clusive right to do so, to the extent of prohibiting proceed southward to the Bay of San Francisco. when the Senate, by a very large majority, pre- all competition, it is the unquestionable office, It will secure a road extending nearly the whole ferred the substitute to the original bill. Having business, and duty of the Federal Government to length of the State, which is eventually to become now discharged my duty, as I think, though im- furnish all proper service, whether the revenues its property. The interest of the contractors for perfectly, I take my seat, leaving the bill to the

derived are equivalent to the expense or not. the southern road is, in this respect, the same as decision of the Senate.

When I ask for a mail service to the State of that of the State. They would not désire a second

California, or elsewhere in the United States, called road, entering California south of San Francisco,

for or demanded by the business and interests of STEAM MAIL FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CHINA. to compete with theirs. The State and the south

the country, it is no answer to me upon this floor, ern company having thus a common interest,


or from the head of the postal Department, or, at would make common cause, and their united

least, it is no good and sufficient answer, that the influence would be felt in the location of the cen


revenues of the Department are exhausted. It is tral route. Their efforts would be to secure a loca- IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, . one of the obligations Government has assunied, tion as far north as practicable, in order to make

February 20, 1855,

and, therefore, one she is bound to discharge so the road within California as long and as valuable

long as she possesses the means, no matter whence as possible.

On the bill providing for å Steam Mail from San derived. It is the duty of the Government to see Another and most powerful interest will be ar

Francisco, by the
way of the Sandwich Islands

that the means are properly derived. It is the rayed against that of Missouri, which, aided by

and Japan, to Shanghai, in China.

right of the people to demand the discharge of the California and the contractors for the southern Mr. McDOUGALL said:

assumed obligation. road, will secure the location of what is called the Mr. SPEAKER: At an early day in the last ses- I make these remarks as explaining my position central road, north of that Slate. According to sion I reported, from the Committee on the Post rather than as pertinent to the question under conthe bill the contractors for that road may select

Office and Post Roads, a bill for a mail by steam- sideration. If the postal system requires reformany point on the west boundary of lowa or Mis- ships from San Francisco, by way of the Sand- ation, let it be reformed, but I insist that, in the souri as the eastern terminus, (though Iowa is wich Islands and Japan, to China. That bill was process of reformation, there is no sufficient reanot properly a central State,) a range of selection referred to the Committee of the Whole on the son why the offices and obligations of Government quite remarkable, when it is observed to how state of the Union, and still remains in that com- should be suspended. small a space the commencement of the southern, mittee without any prospect of its being reached. I will state further, that this measure is not one and even the northern, road is limited. Now, a A bill with the same object has passed the Senate,

for the benefit of the Pacific coast merely; but one road, commencing north of Missouri, at Rock and is now upon the Speaker's table; and as this called for as well by every interest that moves the Island, for example, and passing through the bill may be reached in the course of the business hand of industry, whether agricultural, manufac. South Pass and Noble's Pass, to the Bay of San of the session, I ask the attention of gentlemen to | turing, or commercial, throughout the Mississippi Francisco, would precisely accommodate northern some of the leading features of the bill, and the and Atlantic States. This last proposition, the Thinois and California. The northern road, which considerations which, in my opinion, should gov- importance of this measure, apart from the interis to have its terminus on the west boundary of ern the action of the House.

esis of the Pacific coast, is the one I propose parWisconsin, will, of course, connect with some road The Serate bill provides for the establishment ticularly to maintain in the remarks I shall address to Chicago. Thus that city, and those who own of a monthly mail by steamships from San Fran- to the House. the road thence to Rock Island, and those extend- cisco, by the way of the Sandwich Islands and This great Atlantic is but a petty and a petulant ing eastward, and who are engaged in the construc-Japan, io China, a measure necessary to complete sea compared with that broad and calm ocean tion of the road from Rock Island westward, will the system of mail communication between the which connects our western shores with the land all be accommodated.

United States and some of the most important of the primitive nations and races of mankind. The bill, therefore, presents irresistible induce markets of the world. It is not a bill to establish Western Europe, although alive with human ments to a combination of all the interests to a steam navy for the Pacific at the expense of the blood, intellect, and enterprise, is yet, compared which I have referred. The South, and the con- Federal Treasury. It is not (I say this to west- with Eastern Asia, a sparsely populated country. tractors for the southern road, the States of Cali- ern and southern gentlemen) a bill to charge the It has been the superior, the commanding intellect fornia and Illinois, and the capitalists who own revenues of the Post Office Department with the and enterprise of Europe that has enabled her 10 the roads from Lake Erie, by Chicago, to Rock cost of an expensive foreign mail by which some make Asia her tributary and subject. The treasures Island, and through lowa, are invited to cooperate portions of the country may be deprived of the of the immemorial East, moving westward with the in securing the location of the eastern terminus of facilities their necessities demand.

sun, after having built a hundred cities, cities of the central road on the western boundary of lowa. This bill provides that, upon due notice, the con- palaces, both upon the desert and by the sea, after That they will coöperate can scarcely be doubled, tract for transportation shall be awarded to the having built up many empires whose history and their success will be almost certain. Hence lowest responsible bidder, fixing the maximum mark successive ages, now find their way still · I am not surprised that the Senators from Illinois of compensation at $500,000 per annum. The westward, compelled to the ports of a little island and California manifest so much earnestness in contract is to be made as all the mail contracts of rocked by the rough waves of our eastern Atlantic, pressing this bill. If it secures the construction of this Government should be made, whether upon compelled, their way compelled, by the intellect any road, the States they represent, and probably the land or sea, with persons offering the best and enterprise of Englishmen. It is not alone InTexas, will be more benefited than all others. terms and the most efficient service.

dia, conquered India, England commands the trade As a member of the Senate, I have been at all The bill further provides that any excess of of most of the Southern ocean, the trade of China, times prepared to support any bill for a single cost over and above the amount received for post- the trade of the islands of the Pacific, the trade road wiih adequate provisions to secure its con. ages shall be paid directly out of the General even of the Sandwich Islands, that almost Ameristruction. Though, as I stated a few days ago, Treasury, and shall not become in any way a can possession. I would prefer to commence at two points on the charge upon the Post Office revenues.

It is supposed by some that we have an eastern western boundary of the States, and proceed Why it is that our postal system is not, what trade. li is true, we exchange our money for thence to a convenient point of junction in the was once contemplated, a self-sustaining system- their merchandise, but this is not trade. We are Territory, and thence to the Pacific; I should not -why it is not in itself equal to all the demands mere carriers to the East, messengers, paid mesa object to a proposition which left the whole fron. and necessities of the country, is a question I do sengers it is true, still but messengers for the great tier of the Siates west of the Mississippi open to not feel now bound to discuss. It is a fact that commercial Power that has made the East her selection for the terminus of the road, as the ori- it is not a self-sustaining system; and whether tributary: We are ourselves tributary to the ginal bill proposed. If such a road were author- this fact results from bad legislation, bad manage- East, or if not to the East, through the East tribized or located, connections might be formed by ment, or from proper legitimate causes, is not, in uiary to England; for we buy of the East while roads from all the States not touched by it. But my judgment, material to the merits of the present we do not sell to the East. While we buy in the the provisions of the amended bill under consider. measure. This measure, while it is brought for- ports of China over twenty-five million dollars ation are so obviously calculated, if not designed, ward to meet the necessary demands of the country, i per annum, we sell but about five millions of dol. to exclude the middle States, and especially that is designed to avoid, and does avoid, all claim upon lars; the balance wo pay in exchange on Eng. which I in part represent, from sharing the bene- that system; is designed to avoid, and does avoid, land. To meet this, to settle the balance of our fits so lavishly bestowed upon others, that I should all collision with the claims of the interior, West, China trade, each year we have to ship to Eng. be inexcusable if I gave iç my sanction. Sir, and South, for better postal service. It looks di- land over twenty millions worth of ourgold, cotton, when Wall street, and the other interests I have rectly and solely to the general treasury and the land tobacco. This is an enormous drain upon the named, are brought into competition with a State abundant general resources of the country for resources and industry of our country. that relies exclusively upon her own resources to whatever balance the proposed service may re- We have been, and we are, the carriers and build her roads, as they are by this bill, the result quire.

meseengers between Europe and Asia. It was a is certain against the State; so believing, it is my I remember the objection made, at the last ses good, a profitable, and a sufficient business for a duty to oppose the measure.

sion, to the bill providing a weekly mail service people as young as ourselves, and I hope we may Mr. President, I have now stated the principal to California, by gentlemen from the West and continue to transact the same business upon terms objections I have to the bill, and, I believe, all South, on account of their own insuficient mail as advantageous as heretofore; but the time has that I intended to remark upon. My purpose in service. I felt the force of their objection, although arrived, it seems to me, the time has arrived when addressing the Senate was merely to place before did not then think, and do not now think, it was we may emerge from the carrier to the trader, my constituents my reasons for the vote I gave a sufficient one. The objeciion then made is ob- from the messenger to the merchant, from the seragainst a bill proposing to provide for the con- viated by this bill.

vant to the master, and do the business, or, at struction of a railroad to the Pacific, a measure in I wish to say here, that I may be perfectly un least, enter into the business and exchanges of which they take much interest. I make no attempi derstood, that it is my opinion that the Federal the East on our own account. How far we have tü convince Senators of the validity of my objec. II Government having assumed to furnish to the | heretofore failed in doing this, I cannot better

330 CONG....20 Sess.

Steam Mail from San Francisco to ChinaMr. McDougall.


illustrate than by reference to a single article of but, as I have proposed, I shall endeavor to pre- the time and expense of transportation the same; commerce, cotton fabrics, Cotton is one of our sent the question in another aspect.

assume, at the same time, that intelligence, by great staples. Our cotton manufactures can now The proposition is a mail from San Francisco mail or otherwise, passes from St. Louis to New compete with the world. While we find a market to China." I ask your attention to the fact that York in three days, and from St. Louis to Boston in China for two hundred thousand pieces of the United States never had any regular commu- in six days, it is the simplest proposition in politcotton goods per annum, England sells to China nication with the Pacific until the establishment | ico economical science that the St. Louis merchant, - three million pieces per annum. One to fifteen is of the present California mail; that she has not trading to Boston, could not compete with the

the ratio. These goods constitute our principal | now, and never had, any regular communication St. Louis merchant trading to New York; or, in item. We send out a little tobacco and a few with Eastern Asia, except through England, and other terms, New York would command the trade Yankee notions; but we have nothing that deserves by the English overland route to India and China. of St. Louis. The multitude of considerations the name of an export trade to China.

It is a marked fact, that although a rival of Eng: entering into this conclusion I have not time to Shanghai, the most prosperous commercial city land as a commercial nation, we have no mail discuss. I will assume-I know that I may safely in China, is almost entirely in the hands of Amer. communication of our own with any of the coun- assume that the correctness, the justness of this ican merchants. At Canton and Hong Kong, I tries of the world, except those of Western Eu- conclusion will be recognized by every gentleman believe, our merchants are in advance, in point of rope. England, English enterprise, on the other who hears me. For the same reason that New enterprise, of their English neighbors; but no hand, has environed the whole world with a net. York, in the case supposed, would command the American or other merchant of Shanghai,or Can- || work of mails. She holds regular mail communica- li trade of St. Louis, England commands the trade ton, or Hong Kong, ever orders a dollar of nier- tion with every country upon the globe where there of China. For the same reason the St. Louis chandise from our markets on the Atlantic. The is to be found a market. London is made a great merchant could not afford to trade to Boston, the orders of both American and English, merchants center, from which radiates and to which is re- American merchant in China cannot afford to all go to the markets of England, no matter what | turned the commercial intelligence which gives to trade to New York. the commodity wanted, no matter how English | England commercial ascendency in all directions, The only China mail has, as I have before stated, prices compare with ours, Our exports are con- From London, by the Cape of Good Hope and to go from New York to London, and from thence, fined to chance ventures of our own merchants, Madagascar, she has a regular mail commanding by the English overland route, to find its way to sent out at their own risk, and they cannot be Africa and reaching the East. The mail by Suez, the place of its destination. London is sixty-five said to constitute a feature in the commerce of our Aden, and Singapore, and thence to Australia, New days from China; New York is nearly eighty country. What I have said of our trade with Zealand, China, and the whole of southern and days. The invoice in reply to an order from China, is more or less true of our trade with the eastern Asia, is the route upon which Europe | China or London would be received in China in States of South America, the Pacific Islands, and, and the United States depend for the facilities for one hundred and thirty days. The invoice in indeed, the whole trade of the Pacific, except so eastern communication. By her line to Halifax, I reply to the same order on New York would not much as is now commanded by the commerce of she communicates with her North American pos- be received until thirty days later. The merchan. the infant city of San Francisco.

sessions; by her line to Boston, she communi- dise itself ordered from England would arrive at I have made these statements for the purpose, cates with the United States; with her lines to an earlier day; besides this, a bill on London befirst, of having understood the condition of our St. Thomas, Jamaica, Havana, Panama, Guaya- | longing to a China merchant is met and answered trade with the Pacific as it now is; and second, of quil, Callao, and Valparaiso, she communicates thirty days sooner than a bill on New York. The showing that the measure now under considera- with the West Indies, and the western coast of monetary and mercantile interests go together, and tion will do much to make it what it should be. South America. With another mail, by the Cape | therefore it is that the first thing that an American I do not hope to see it altogether what it should de Verd Islands to Pernambuco, and thence by merchant who is about to establish himself in be, until I see the great iron horse, on his road of Rio Janeiro to Montevideo; she communicates China has to do, is to make his credits and iron, with his lightning tread, passing and repass- with the whole eastern coast of South America. arrangements both with bankers and merchants. ing our central mountains, and bearing the choicest She has, in fact, the promptest and most certain in England. He is compelled by English entertreasures of the two hemispheres for his burden. communication with all parts, not only of the civ- prise and energy to an English market. He has

The people of the United States are the only | ilized, but of the barbarous world, that human no choice. It is a condition necessary to his enterthoroughly civilized and commercial people occu- skill and enterprise can command.

ing into competition with his commercial rivals pying an advantageous position in the Pacific. It is this feature of British enterprise that has upon equal terms. The city of San Francisco, on the bay of San made and sustains the British empire as the first This bill proposes to give an advantage, in point Francisco, is the only commercial city in the Power in Europe or the world.

of communication, to the markets and merchants Pacific occupying a commanding geographical In extent of territory, in fertility of soil, in na- of the United States over the markets and merposition in respeci to the Pacific commerce. "That tive physical resources, the whole of Great Brit- | chants of England, equal to that which England city possesses a population with the intelligence, | ain would rank below several of the States of this now enjoys. By the steam mail now proposed, enterprise, and spirit of progress, which, when Union, and below many of the States of Europe; 1 in connection with the present San Francisco mail, taken in connection with the great resources and yet she supports a population of more than twenty | the commercial points of China will be brought vitat energies of (permit me to say it) the great millions. Her merchants are merchant princes; within forty days of New York. New York will State of California, must, in the consecutive order her landed aristocracy are the proudest and be twenty-five days nearer China than London is of things, by the force of laws absolute, absolute wealthiest in Europe. The annual income of now, and London will be dependent upon our as the laws of physical nature, command and con- many of her nobility and large proprietors would mails for ten days' earlier intelligence from China trol the rich commerce of the East, despite Eng. purchase a continental dukedom. She maintains a than she now receives by her own. And let me land and the world. I say this must be. I will large standing army, and a navy that has never say, when this advantage has been secured and its not undertake to say when; much depends upon been equaled in extent or capacity; besides this influence upon our commerce has been fairly felt, the intelligent legislation of the Federal Congress; she bears the burden of an enormous national debt. we will cease to have twenty-odd million against more depends upon the enterprising spirit of the These burdens, all burdens-her great debt, her us as'a balance of the China trade. England will American people.

|| navy, her army, and her luxury-she bears them not sell fifteen to our one of cotton fabrics in the For the commerce of that young city; in behalf all; bears them as lightly as a knight might bear China market. Our tobacco will supersede her of the interests of that great State, a State which bis armor, and moves únbent, first in place and l opium, and, with the aid of our commercial posiis now sustaining the trembling credit of the whole power among the nations.

tion at San Francisco, we will in a few years Union; in behalf of the Pacific coast, the fairest. Cut off the communication of Great Britain drive England from all competition on the Pacific richest, most valuable portion of the Republic, I with other and remote countries, where she finds mignt insist upon this measure as a right, or I the markets for the products of her work-shops, The force and truth of what I state, and the might insist upon it as one of essential policy, but and, I ask, where would be the pride and the power importance of this measure, cannot fail to be recog. I have not the time allowed me to discuss this of England ? They would soon become things of nized by every representative of the commercial subject in its various aspects, and I shall drop the the past, only known to history. I ask again and manufacturing interests upon this floor; let question, so far as it relates to our western coast; and to this question I ask the attention of gentle. me suggest, however, that it is of equal importance I will drop, also, the considerations which relates men-why should our ships go in ballast from to the agricultural interests of even the remote to the Sandwich Islands, and I will say nothing Boston and New York to Europe to take in cargo West. The late Commissioner to China, Mr. of the great prospective advantages of our opening for China and the East? Why should we con- Marshall, a very able man, in a very able paper trade with Japan, considerations not to be over- tinue to be carriers and messengers for England ? on our commercial relations with China, addressed looked or disregarded, conienting myself with Why is not Boston or New York as good a to the Secretary of State, which is now printed calling your attention to the facts that we have market for the China merchant as London or and among the documents of the House, even vast possessions, we have an enterprising people, Liverpool? Why may not the American mer- goes so far as to express the opinion that when and we have a large commerce upon the Pacific chant at Shanghai, or Canton, or Hong Kong, as the China trade is fairly opened, California will I am informed that the whale fisheries of the well order merchandise from our own markets as have less interest in it than Mississippi or Arkannorthern Pacific alone employ six hundred and from the markets of England ?

He says she will certainly have less interest thirty-four vessels, and eighteen thousand men, The reply to these questions is mainly found in 1 in it than New York or Massachusetts. I do not and yield an annual profit of $10,000,000. i the single and simple proposition that facility of entirely agree with Mr. Marshall, but there is am further told that the probable number of our communication commands commerce; that mar- much iruth in his observations, and his opinion is people at this moment engaged in navigating the kets being equal in point of commodities, price, entitled to great consideration. We know that Pacific is over thirty thousand, having in their and locality, in competing for buyers, their suc- we cannot improve the market of our manufaccare, in port and upon the sea, some $70,000,000 of cess will be in proportion to the facility with turers abroad without improving the market of American property, and this independent of the which intelligence can be transmitted between the our producers at home. With nothing but an local commerce of California, and the coast. The place of the buyer and the respective markets. agricultural and pastoral population, the whole magnitude of these considerations might well jus- | As, for instance, assume the markets of Boston country would be very much in the condition tify the daim for ocean mail service on the Pacific, Il and New York to be equidistant from St. Louis, Il California was ten years ago, and cattle worth



330 CONG....20 Sess.

Insane AsylumMr. Davis, of Indiana.

Ho. OF REPs.

two dollars a head, the value of their hides for The SPEAKER. Not at all. The House ad- vision for that afflicted class of our fellow men. exportation. The gold mines of California started journed pending the motion, and it held over. The Besides the institutions which I have mentioned another branch of industry in that State, and by Clerk will report the bill which the gentleman from there are in the United States five private establishfurnishing an active market, made the same cattle Indiana wishes to report.

ments for the treatment of deranged persons. worth filiy dollars a head. The manufacturing The bill was reported, as follows:

The official personnel engaged in administering and commercial interests of this country are to its A bill to organize an institution for the insane the affairs of each of thirty out of thirty-three of agricultural interests what the gold mines of Cali- | of the Army and Nary, and of the District of Co- these establishments corresponds so precisely the fornia are to the farmers of that State. They fur-lumbia, in said District.

one with the other that the organic act touching nish the markets for the surplus of our agriculture, The SPEAKER. Is it the pleasure of the that point of any one of them might be applied 10 and those markets will be active, extensive, and House to consider the bill withoui objection? all without materially deranging their present reprofitable, as by our energy and enterprise we (Cries of “Yes!” “ Yes!')

spective modes of management. Sixteen of these make our manufacturing and commercial interests Mr. DAVIS. 'I desire to submit a few remarks || institutions have gone into operation within the triumph over foreign competition in the markets in regard to this bill.

last fifteen years, and all with precisely the same of the world.

The SPEAKEK. The object of the question of internal and external régime. By our enterprise to conquer from England the the Chair was to prevent the necessity of moving This uniformity, sir, did not arise from a blind markets of China would be a worthier and a more to suspend the rules. There was no objection. imitation of some early. example, accidental in valuable achievement, than to conquer all the Mr. DAVIS. Well, if there is no objection, I its character, in all subsequent enterprises of the barren hills of Mexico, or all the sunny islands will defer any remarks for the present.

kind, but is the natural result of mature expeof the Pacific. I believe in, I have faith in, the The Clerk read the bill through.

rience interpreted and applied by men actuated by peaceful triumphs of commercial enterprise. Com- Mr. CHANDLER, of Pennsylvania. Is this a sincere and enlightened benevolence. merce is the great civilizer, and more, she is the bill, and the arrangements made under it, founded The early institutions in this country started off forerunner and companion of freedom.. She is upon the current opinions of Dr. Kirkbride and in imitation of the then prevalent mode of niana builder, not a destroyer. She is a friend, not others?

agement in British asylums. Their organization a foe to mankind, and her triumphs best become Mr. DAVIS. Yes, sir; and I shall take occa- seems to have been derived from that of ordinary this age, while they will best promote not only sion to refer to the opinions of these gentlemen in hospitals, at a time when the management of the the prosperity, but the permanency of our Re- the course of my remarks.

insane was very different from what it now is. public.

Now, Mr. Speaker, it will be remembered that, | There was, accordingly, in the insane as well as I wish, earnestly wish, this bill to pass. It has on the 31st of August, 1852, $100,000 were appro- other hospitals, a physician, or surgeon, who received the sanction of the Senate upon grave and priated by Congress for the purchase of a site, and should visit the patients two or three times in the full discussion. It cannot be objected to upon ihe erection, furnishing, and itting up of an hospital || week; a house-surgeon or apothecary, to live in principle. It is called for by the commercial and for the insane of the Army and Navy, and of the the house, prepare the prescriptions of the physi. business interests of the country. We call ourDistrict of Columbia.

cian, and be ready for accidents and emergencies; -selves a progressive people. This will be prog- The site, which is situated in this District, on a steward to manage the finances and household ress in the true direction.' I indulge in no wild, or the southeast side of the Anacostia river, better economy; and a matron to look after the female indefinite, or merely speculative views of progress. known, perhaps, as the Eastern Branch of the patients. The power intrusted to these officers I am no enthusiast, but I believe in living, acling, 1 Potomac, and about two miles due south from the was so equally divided between them, that respon and legislating up to our destiny, and even will Capitol, came into the possession of the Govern- sibility was frittered away, and that unity of plan confess that I have some sympathy with the sen- ment on the 1st of January, 1853, and on the 27th and of purpose so necessary in maintaining the timent:

of May following the foundation of the hospital | ordinary routine of service, not to speak of any “ Better though each man's life.blood were a river: edifice was commenced.

higher end, was entirely wanting. Each officer That it should flow and overflow, than creep

At the close of the first session of this Congress was constantly interfering with some other, and Throngb thousand lazy channels in our veins,

a further appropriation of $36,809 was made for preparing for some fresh jealousy or heart-burning Dain'd, like the dull canal, with locks and chains; Or moving, as a sick man in his sleep, the same objects.

disorder or dissatisfaction. The ignorance, temThree paces, and then faltering."

At the present time a portion of the building, per, and caprice of the keepers, as those having Gentlemen, permit me again to ask your sup- capable of accommodating about forty patients, the immediate charge of the patients were styled, port of this measure. I have urged it as one of with their usual care-takers, is completed, and suffering but little check from the loose and illcommon interest. In conclusion, let me ask it in occupied by the insane of the District.

defined authority above them, literally rioted behalf of our Pacific interests. Let me ask it in The external and internal walls of another por- among their deplorable victims, and the English behalf of the commercial interests of San Fran- tion, conforming to the original design, and with receptacles for the insane were popularly and justcisco, a city the strange and wonderful history of capacity for fifty patients, have been erected since ly known as mad houses or bedlams, and were the which is the most astonishing evidence of the

the adjournment of the last session. A wash, theaters of the grossest abuses. Finding our procapacity of our people, and the most perfect illus- gas, and engine-house has also been erected sincetotypes in the mother country radically defective, tration of the sufficiency of our free institutions. the adjournment of the last session, and so far and there being here no prejudices of custom to

completed as to be used for its appropriate pur. overcome, as abroad, our countrymen lost no time

poses, and arrangements have been made for in making such modifications as experience sug. INSANE ASYLUM. supplying and storing an abundance of good wa. gested, and were not long in reaching the present

regime the basis of which is the domiciliation of the REMARKS OF HON.JOHN G. DAVIS, At this stage, in the progress of the work, an patients ond the whole household engaged in their OF INDIANA,

organic law, regulating the mode of managing the care, with the superintendent to whom is confided IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, institution, is plainly demanded.

the requisite authority, and upon whom is laid THURSDAY, February 22, 1855.

After a very careful and full consideration of the responsibility of a humane and skillful direc

the subject, the Committee for the District of Co- Lion of his charge. Practically, the simple and On the “ Bill to organize an Institution for the || lumbia unanimously concur in recommending the efficient system of executive government which

Insane of the Army and Navy, and of the Dis- | bill which I now have the honor to introduce. prevails in American asylums creates a family of trict of Columbia."

The plan of organization for which it provides, which the physician-in-chief is the head, to whom Mr. DAVIS. On Monday last I made a mo- appears from various authoritative documents is confided the entire direction of the medical and tion to suspend the rules, in order to enable me to touching the subject examined by the committee, moral treatment of the patients, and of the duties of report a bill from the Committee for the District to embrace all the provisions for the creation of a all persons engaged directly or indirectly in their of Columbia, to organize an institution for the in. || proper board of supervisory inspectors or visitors, An assistant physician who acts as apoth. sane of the Army and Navy, and of the District and for the appointment of a resident principal, or ecary, and aids the principal in all his labors, and of Columbia. Pending that motion the House superintendent, with powers suited to an efficient, a steward and matron, also, reside in the instituadjourned. I am willing now to take that matter economical, and useful conduct of the daily affairs || lion with the superintendent. Holding this relaup and dispose of it, in order that other gentlemen of the hospital, which are found to be usual and lion to the patients and all the employees of the may have the opportunity to make such motions | uniform in similar establishments, situated in the establishment, the principal enjoys the best opporas they desire. different States of the Union.

tunities of studying the peculiarities of each case, Mr. HOUSTON. If the gentleman from In- The provisions of the bill for the admission and and of adapting his treatment to the ever varying diana is willing, I should like to have the vote discharge of the several classes of patients which | exigencies of such a peculiar household, and, at taken without any debate, without speeches, upon the institution is designed to accommodate, are the same time, of knowing and promptly correctthe bill of my colleague, (Mr. COBB.)

believed 10 accord with the benevolent and liberal | ing the abuses which the care of irresponsible and Mr. CHÁSTAIN. I rise to a question of designs of Congress in establishing it, and with exceedingly troublesome persons naturally engenorder. The genileman from Pennsylvania has, || the laws and customs of the several departments ders. Frequent inspections of the establishment as I understand it, moved to suspend the rules for of Government concerned, and, at the same time, || by a board of visitors, composed of individuals the purpose of taking up the bill he indicated. Is to be equally applicable to any changes, that may, well known in the community, and possessing the it in order, pending thai motion, for the gentleman from time to time, be made in the legal relations public confidence,"is found to be an efficient pracfrom Indiana to bring up another question? of the insane of either the Army and Navy or of | tical means of preventing frauds and abuses from The SPEAKER. The Chair has so decided. || the District.

creeping into its service, and, also, of affording The motion of the gentleman from Indiana, to sus- There are, Mr. Speaker, in our country, thirty. the medical head that support before the public, pend the rules, was made on Monday last, and three public institutions exclusively devoted to the under difficulties, to which he is entitled. takes precedence, or rather must be disposed of, || care and treatment of the insane, situated in lwenty- It has been proposed, sir, that a consulting phybefore another similar motion can be entertained. || three different States. "Three other States are now sician should be officially connected with the

Mr.CHASTAIN. Bull understand that prop- | building hospitals for their insane, and five are not “ Government hospital for the insane;" but in osition was voted down.

known to have yet commenced any special pro- ll recommending such an office the committee would



33p Cong.... 20 Sess.

Pacific Railroad - Mr. Yates.

Ho. OF Reps.

have disregarded the great weight both of testi- under all the circumstances, the best that can be devised, submitted with a view alone to influence the action mony and practice upon that point, embracing a physician who resides in the house, com

of Congress upon this bill, but with a hope that pletely controlling the management of the patients, and Dr. Kirkbride, physician-in-chief of the Penneveryihing relating to their welfare, appoinung and dis

they may be of some value to those in other parts sylvania hospital for the insane, distinguished alike charging the attendants, and responsible for the general of our country who may hereafter engage in simfor his great ability and long experience in the condition of the establishment ; an assistant physician, ilar works of charity and benevolence. treatment of the insane, writes:

seconding his views, sharing his labors, and thus enabling
him to discharge his responsibility to science,' using the

I presume, Mr. Speaker, there can be no objec6. No such officer as consulting physician, or visiting language of Jacobi, ' for the results of his medical observa.

tions to the bill, and therefore call for the previous physician, on pre-ident of a board, as was forinerly adopted tions, and for the promotion of his own advancement as a question. in a few institucione, should ever be allowed, for such

man and as a philosopher :' a matron to direct ihe house. arrangements invariably lead to difficulties of a serious na.

The call for the previous question received a keeping, and superintend the work and clothing of the ture, and can be productive of no advantage. I speak wiih

second, and the main question was ordered to be female patients ; a steward to manage the financial and out hesitation on this subject, because, in my seventeen out-of doors concerns, and provide for the subsistence of

now put. years of service among the insane, I have had ample oppor- the whole household. All the officers are usually appointed The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read iunities to witness the results of the different systems that by the directors, but the assistants should virtually, at a third time; and being engrossed, it was read the have been proposed. All the schemes of having non resi- least, be appointed and discharged by the superintendent dent officers controlling institutions for the insane have

third time, and passed. alone." proved signal failures, and I do not think you will find any one who has had much to do with the management of such Dr. D. T. Brown, physician-in-chief of the institutions recommending any other course than that Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, in the State

PACIFIC RAILROAD. adopted unanimously by the association of medical super

of New York, in a letter of the 27th of December intendents. It seems especially important that the national hospital, located, as it is, at the seat of Government, should last, writes:

SPEECH OF HON. RICHARD YATES, be a model, not only in its buildings, but, what is of still “ I can discover no advantage whatever in adding to the

OF ILLINOIS, more importance, in its plan of governinent and system of corps of officers therein mentioned, (medical superintend management." ent, assistant physician, steward, and matron,) or in vary

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Dr. Kirkbride then refers to an essay written by

ing their relations and duties.
* The medical superintendent should be untrammeled in

February 23, 1855, him, and published in the American Journal of || his internal administration by any official embarrassment. In favor of constructing a Railroad to the Pacific Insanity, for his views more in detail on this sub- “ To him, and to no other, though he have a score of

Ocean. ject, and from which I beg leave to read the fol- counselors, is each patient incruried by their friends ; on lowing extracts: him, and on no other, rests the personal responsibility of

Mr. YATES said, I desire to occupy the attentheir care and treatment; in his inind alone is the sense of tion of the committee, Mr. Chairman, for a short Physician.—The physician should be the superintendent that responsibility constantly present and effective; and for time, in giving my views on the subject of a railand chief exrcutive officer of the establishment. Besides him alone are official success, professional reputation, the being a well educated physician, he should possess the

road to the Pacific. And notwithstanding it is love of patients, and the esteem of their families, identified mental, physical, and social qualities to fit him for the post. with a conscientious discharge of duty.

the impression of many that the vote which reHe should serve during good behavior, reside on, or very " Efficient and sticcessful administration of an insane committed the bill to the committee, has sent it near, the premises, and his compensation should be so lib. hospital is to be secured only by intrusting its internal a sleep which knows no waking, yet I hope that eral as to enable bím to devote bis whole time and energies affairs to one controlling inind. to the welfare of the hospital. He should nominate to the “ Division of authority entails division of responsibility,

the House will suffer that coinmittee to report it board suitable persons to act as assistant physician, stew. indifference to the higher moral duties of such a station, back. I am well satisfied, that many who voted ard, and matron. He should have entire control of the variance of opinion on, and consequent confusion of inis. for its committal were the friends of the bill, and medical, inoral, and dietetic treatment of the patients, the chief in, daily occurrences requiring decisive action.

did so that a more perfect bill might be submitted unrestricted power of appointment and discharge of all “ It involves the almost ceriain destruction of that unity persons engaged in their care, and should exercise a general of control over attendants and domestics, and that corie

in its stead. But if this reasonable hope shall supervision and direction of every department of the insti- sponding sense, in their minds, of dependence upon a single fail, I trust that the difficulty may be obviated by tulion."

source of authority, without' which an asylum becomes a bill well digested, and satisfactory to its friends, truly a bedlam."

from the Senate. " It would seem to require but little argument to show that & hospital for the insane should have bui one official head

And now, Mr. Speaker, I might adduce other There can be no good reason for the delay of in reality, as well as in name--lo whom every one employed arguments. I might produce to the House the this measure; there is a majority in both branches about it must be strictly subordinate. It would be as rea

opinions of many other distinguished gentlemen, of Congress for it; a large majority of the different sonable to suppose that a proper discipline, or that good order would prevail in a ship with two captains, or in an

whose ability, learning, and experience entitle State Legislatures have adopted resolutions inarmy with two generals-in-chief, or in a school with several their opinions to the highest consideration, to show structing their Senators, and requesting their Repprincipals, as 10 expect to find them in an hospital of the that the plan of organization and management of resentatives to advocate its passage. The press kind referred to, where two or more individuals were act

this institution in the bill before you, is substan- | and public meetings, and State and National coning independently of all others, or in which there were certain officers over whom the physician in-chief had no con

tially similar to that universally adopted in this ventions have demanded it; the country is not only trol. If such an arrangement ever worked well anywhere, I country, and which has, from experience, been in its favor, but impatient for the favorable action it must have been owing to some very peculiar mental or found to be the best calculated to promote the of Congress; in fact, the sentiment of the people, ganization in those acting under it, and not because the humane and benevolent purposes for which they in every section, and in every State, is strong, perprinciple was not radically wrong. 'The very peculiar character of a majority of the patients

are designed, but I consider it unnecessary. vading, and almost unanimous in its favor. Cali. received in such institutions, the numerous body of assist- One interesting circumstance in the history of || fornia, from her far and isolated home upon the ants required in their care, the large number of persons the progress made in the management of the Pacific, holds out her imploring hands; the toil employed in the various departments, the necessity for active and unceasing vigilance, joined with gentleness and firm

insane, brought to my notice in the examination worn emigrant who plods' his dreary pilgrimage ness in all our intercourse with the mentally afflicted, and

of this subject, addresesg itself to the patriotism, across the desert and the mountains, exposed to for prompt decisions in cases of difficulty render it indis- as well as benevolence, of this body. It is, that a famine, disease, and assaults of the savage, sends pensable-if we wish the best results--that a large amount little more than a quarter of a century has sufficed his strong appeal to us; the emigrant, exposed to of authority should be vested in the chief officer."

to produce a complete revolution in the relative | the hazards of the sea, sends to us upon ihe wailDr. Bell, of the McLean Asylurn, near Boston, ll positions of the English and American asylums. |ings of the ocean storm his anxious prayer for now the senior superintendent in office in this || Hardly thirty years have elapsed since we were our immediate action in behalf of the road. country, after expressing, substantially, the same the grateful imitators of the mother country. We Fot several years past this subject has occupied views as the preceding, adds:

might now be proud of the fact, that we are, to the attention of our statesmen and sagacious busi" I believe I only express the universal opinion of all no inconsiderable extent, her exemplars; and her ness men of the country. And it is, perhaps, well engaged in the cause of the insane, when I say that we

time-honored, but cumbrous and inefficient, system that Congress did not at first embark in the enterwatch the operations of the national institution with the derpest interest. We feel that there should be a model in

of management is fast giving way to the practical, prise. In an undertaking so stupendous, it were régime, ond in detail, after which the hundreds of institu- common-sense plan which prevails here.

always well to abide “the sober second thought.” tions to coine may be wisely conformed. So far, it has met

I apprehend no one is likely to overrate the Hasty, unmatured and prematured legislation the entire approval of all those practically engaged in this

importance of making this establishment at the || would, in all probability, give it a backset from speciality."

seat of the General Government a model in its | which it would not recover for years to come. It Dr. Stribbling, of the Western Lunatic Asylum construction, organization, and management, to should be undertaken with a full knowledge of of Virginia, and who is distinguished for the able | which, as Dr. Bell remarks, " the hundreds of its magnitude and all the difficulties in the way. manner in which he has conducted the affairs of || institutions to come may be wisely conformed.” | The plan of construction, and all the details of that institution for the last eighteen years, has expressed his approval of the provisions of the institutions under consideration are designed to

Humbling as is the confession, the class of that plan, should be thoroughly digested before

undertaking a work, which, in its most favorable bill under consideration in the following terms :

relieve a condition of humanity which is, perhaps, l aspects, challenges the wisdom of the statesman, " After a connection with this asylum for more than eighteen years, I hesitate not to say, that if the responsible

quite as likely to overtake the proudest as well as and the capital, and the enterprise of the country. duty should devolve on me of framing a system of regula

the humblest citizen. And whatever tends to But I think now, sir, all musi admit that the time tions for its reorganization, I would adopt, in every material elevate their character and increase their useful- || for action is at hand. The Government has wisely, • particular, the features embraced in the act which you ness should command our regard and receive our and with prudent forecast, by its appropriation of inclosed me.”


$150,000, caused explorations to be made by comAgain. Dr. Ray, late superintendent of the Mr. Speaker, the institution for the insane in petent boards of engineers; and the country, after Maine Hospital for the Insane, and now of the my own young State is the pride of our people. ihe fullest presentation of the subject for years Buller Hospital, near Providence, Rhode Island, in It has accomplished the most beneficial results for || past, and after a successful wrestle on the eastern. an essay "on the principal hospitals for the insane | this unfortunate class, and met the most sanguine half of her territory in the construction of rail. in Great Britain, France, and Germany," delivered hopes of its early projectors.

roads, has deliberately pronounced i's verdict in in 1846, and published in the American Journal The examination of this subject, appealing, as favor of its immediate construction. The Atlantic of Insanity, after reviewing at length the system | it does, to the best sympathies of the human cities have already extended their various lines of of treating the insane, and mode of managing | heart, has been to me a source of satisfaction. Irailroad to the Mississippi; the iron horse is on asylums in those countries, gives a decided pref- have not regarded it as a work of laboribut a his way west of that stream; he will soon slake erence for our system over all others, and adds: work of pleasure, and although my remarks have his thirst in the Missouri, and be impatient to pur

(* The organization which prevails in our institutions is, been somewhat extended, they have not been il sue his journey into the rich plains and attractive

33p Cong.... 20 Sess.
Pacific Railroad-Mr. Yates.

Ho. OF Reps. regions, which lie beyond, and which only await | making her a farm in the wilderness. Such a tion answers itself. With a young empire on our his coming 10 teem with life, and the busy hum policy is oppressive, a tax upon industry. And Pacific coast, teeming with wealth, and gold, and a of men, and to smile with farms and cities, and where does that doilar and a quarter go? Is it numerous population, our own countrymen and all the improvements of agriculture, commerce expended in giving that pioneer roads, or in im- kindred exposed, in the event of war with foreign and civilization.

proving the rivers and lakes which bear his pro- Powers, to assault and invasion, without the posMr. Chairman, there are four questions to be duce to market? No, sir, it finds its way into | sibility of timely succor, inaccessible to us save solved, and then the path of duty is plainly marked our Federal Treasury, to be lavished for light- | by a long and dangerous sea voyage, or overland before us.

houses and arsenals, in aid of foreign commerce, travel still longer and more hazardous; is it neces. First. Do the wants of the country require such in building ships to rot on our hands, or floating sary to ask whether a speedy and safe communia road? Second. Is it practicable? Third. Who | palaces, in which our merchant princes and the cation with that people is needed? And the ques. is to make it? Fourth. Where is it to be?

wealthy denizens of our cities may take their tion is, not whether the road will pay? I maintain Other questions have been lugged into the de- || pleasure journeys across the ocean. This is not that the road should be made, whether the whole bate. The ofi-answered argument of unconstitu. a correct policy. These lands should be given to amount which the Government shall contribute in tionality is raised. This objection is a sort of rade the bold pioneer who gives them and the adjacent public lands shall be reimbursed to the Governmecum with some gentlemen; it is always on hand, Government lands value by his occupation and ment in dividend or not. It is a work of necessity; ready to be brought against any beneficent meas- cultivation; they should be free, sir; free for the and necessities do not always pay.. We do not ure. It is so indiscriminately applied, and so per- landless and homeless.

ask whether our Army or Navy will pay. Rome tinaciously urged, as to leave it in doubt whether, Then, sir, what has been our Indian policy? I did not ask whether her great military roads would according to the straight-jacketed interpretations speak not of this policy in a moral point of view; \ pay. It is a work of military, postal, political, and given by some gentlemen to the Constitution, that not of the policy which has driven the Indian from social necessity; it is necessary to the efficiency of instrument was not designed as an obstruction to hunting ground to hunting ground, and from the the Government in its administration of its affairs useful legislation, rather than as a charter for the graves of his fathers, until now his fast receding on the Pacific; necessary to the proper representahigh purposes of promoting the public happiness council fires are soon to be lit up for the last time tion of the State and Territories there in Congress; and general welfare. This objection is generally | upon the distant shores of the Pacific; or rather necessary to the transportation of the mails and brought forward by those who vote away freely until hemmed in by the counter currents of popu- munitions of war; necessary to the speedy and the public money for light-houses, arsenals, forts, lation, from the Atlantic and the Pacific, his race proper development of the resources of our vast ships, and all other improvements on the sea- || is to be exterminated, and he is to perish from the interior; necessary to secure to us, against foreign board. In all these things they see no constitu- || face of the earth forever; but, sir, I speak of that competition, the commerce of the Pacific seas; tional barriers; but propose the disbursement of a policy, as it has effected, and still effects, the settle- necessary to the unbroken and perpetuated union dollar of Federal money, or the appropriation of a ment of the new States of the West. The Goy. of these States, and necessary to the full diffusion single acre of the public domain for the removal ofernment, from the first settlement of the West of our ideas, our liberties, our civilization and snags from our rivers, the improvement of our until the present hour, instead of throwing around Christianity. lake harbors, or the construction of a road through the Indian the influences of Christianity and civi- And, sir, as one of the Representatives of those the broad domain which separates us from our lization, has suffered him, through her agents, to magnificent'agricultural empires of the Mississippi Pacific possessions, and their sensibilities are won- be bribed with money, and whisky, and tobacco, valley, which only require the development of derfully shocked. Though there is no reason for to part with his noble and God.given heritage, and their resources, and marketable outlets io constithe discrimination-the object in each case being then has placed him from year to year in advance tute them the granaries of the continent ard of the protection of life and property, the defense of of the white population on each frontier, succes- the world, I anticipate vast and stupendous rethe country, and the proper regulation of com- sively, from Virginia to the Rocky mountains, sults from the construction of this road. We merce, the one with foreign nations, the other a sort of Chinese wall to hem in and keep back the shall behold the western half of our continent-the among the several States—yet, with astute tech- tide of western emigration. And now there is a vast and illimitable acres of Kansas, Nebraska, nical argumentation and abstract metaphysics, cordon of Indian tribes beyond the frontiers of Utah, New Mexico, and Oregon permeated by a - ** splitting the hair betwixt the north and south- | Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, net-work of railroads as perfect and pervading as west side," they find ample constitutional power lowa, and Minnesota-some four hundred thou- i those of the eastern half; a series of populous for the former, but scout at any such power for sand in number-able to bring forty thousand war- States from the Atlantic to the Pacific; a comthe latter. With some politicians this habit of riors into the field; hostile from the memory of merce on the Pacific as extensive and magnificent finding constitutional objections seems to be an their past wrongs, and infuriated at the prospect as that we now have on the Atlantic, and cities incurable malady. It disregards the opinions of of being driven from their last hunting grounds, at each extremity, and at the intersecting point the best statesmen, laughs at the decisions of our ready to wreak their vengeance upon the advancing with the Mississippi which would rival Carthage courts, and defies all the well-defined precedents columns of emigration. i have referred to these in her pride of power. It would open to us the of the Government, established by the great co- systems of policy for the purpose of showing that trade of the Eastern World. We now find our temporary men and framers of the Constitution, the new States have not been such beneficiaries of || long and hazardous way by the Isthmus, or by and approved and ratified by their successors down the Government as some gentlemen suppose; and the southern capes of South America and Africa, to the present time.

to show that the Government, so liberal in its be- after a six moniha' dangerous sea voyage to Asia But, sir, the effect of this objection of unconsti- stowments for the protection of foreign commerce, and the East India Islands; but when this great tutionality is fell in the West. It retards our pro- | ought not, for a moment, to hesitate to donate a continental road shall be built, then we shall have gress. And whenever we decry such a course, portion of the public lands to the construction of a direct route in from three to six weeks to the the new States are taunted by these strict con- a road, which, while it will afford to the western Sandwich Islands, to Japan, China, and Hindosstructionists with being the beneficiaries of the emigrant a safe passage through the wilderness, tan. Then a magnificent commerce will spring Government.

will also contribute to the highest interest, pros- up between our grain growing States and the Since I have been a member of Congress, ! || perity, and glory of the whole country,

world of teas, spices, drugs, porcelains, cottons, have frequently heard the new States denounced Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that the strictest silks, and elegantly wrought fabrics, such as the as land pirates, simply, because they asked for constructionist can have no doubt upon the ground Oriental world alone can produce. To the great portions of the public lands to aid them in the of the constitutionality of the Pacific road. If he West it would open a choice of markets either construction of railroads, as beneficial to the east- favors the Jackson test as a constitutional power, I way, to the Atlantic and to the Pacific, to Europe ern cities, as to themselves, and when the Gov. mean nationality, then he cannot deny that such a and to Asia. Our great staples in agriculture ernment, by the donation, so far from losing a work possesses all the elements of nationality. would give us the means of unlimited exchange, dollar obrained full price for the lands donated at Then, there is ample power for Congress under and we should become the factors between Eua period much earlier than if she had never parted either the war, post office, or commercial power. rope and the five hundred millions of the huwith them. Now the truth is, that the land pol- Take the case of military defense only. Is not such man race in Asia and the Indies. Standing on icy, and I may add the Indian policy of this Gov- a road urgently demanded for the speedy and cheap the banks of the Mississippi, the great dividing ernment, have both been systems of oppression transportation of our munitions of war and sup- line of the contment, and ihe center of the three to the West, and they ought to be changed, and plies to our Army in the Indian country ? And continents, at the crossing point of the greatest changed at once. Both of them have been bar- then, our Pacific possessions are the most exposed system of roads and rivers the world has ever riers to the progress and onward march of the free and least defensible points in the whole country; seen, what a commercial expanse would open States. The Government has owned these lands, and, in the event of a war with one of the strong before us! Spread out before us is the fatber of and she now owns fourteen hundred millions of Powers of Europe, it would require our whole waters and his tributaries, affording twenty thouacres of unoccupied lands, and it is to her interest | naval force to be drawn from every other sea to sand miles of water navigation, and then to the to have them settled and improved by inde defend them. But establish a telegraph and rail. north, and south, and east, and west, long lines pendent freeholders. Every consideration of na- road communication, and then, in the event of a of railroad, stretching through every State and tional prosperity and progress would dictate such threatened attack from a foreign fleet on our Pa. l section, like arteries through the human framea policy; and she should say to every homeless cific possessions, in a day the news would be at the channels of vigor, health and vitality. We and landless American citizen, and every honest the War office, in another day it could be dis- shall shake hands to the right and to the left, to foreigner who seeks our land as an asylum, | patched to our troops in garrison, and to every the Atlantic and Pacific, to the great Lakes of the go upon a quarter section of that land and build section of the country, and the next day numerous North, and the Gulf of the South. The mind stag. up a home for yourself and your posterity for regiments of our regulars and brave volunteers gers at the contemplation of the mighty results to ever! But, instead of that, sir, she has pursued | would be moving to the scene of war across the commerce and our country, and to the world, from the " dog in the manger policy;" she has charged prairies faster than the wild horse 'erst traveled the present efforts of American genius, skill, cap. the bold pioneer who has encountered the vicissi- | ihem before the pursuing prairie fire."

ital, and enterprise. And, sir, with this comtudes of ihe forest, and exposed himself and fam- Het enough, sir, upon the question of power. merce of merchandise will start up a still mightier ily to every hardship, a dollar and a quarter per The first question to be settled' is, Do the wants and more beneficial commerce of ideas, carrying acre for these lands. And for what? I answer, for ll of the country require such a road? This ques. Il afar off our language, liberties, and laws, and

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