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330 CONG.... 2D SESS.
Pacific Railroad--Mr. Yates.
Ho. OF Reps.
breaking up the long ages of Asiatic superstition United States has completed near three times as political elections. It is the unsleeping vigilance and ignorance. The distinguished gentleman from much road, and in the last year near twice as of private capital which will soonest and cheapest Missouri (Mr. Benton] well said in his letter much. The State of New York alone has con- luild the road. There are two disliculties to be to the people of Missouri, “this is a work for structed thirty-two roads, with an aggregate length avoided. Such a work ought not to be exclusively posterity and for three continents." Yes, Mr. of 2,345 miles, at a cost of $94,000,000, besides 989 in the hands of a corporation, with power to subChairman, in all the aspects which I have men- miles of canal; the State of Ohio, forty-six roads, | ject the public to unreasonable extortions; and, tioned, and in numerous others, this enterprise 2,367 miles in length, and 1,578 miles in process again, since to complete the road and to equin it rises to the position and dignity of the great work of construction; Massachusetts, 1.283 miles, at a would reach, probably, to over $100,000,000, of the age-a work to mark an epoch in history, cost of $55,602,000; Indiana, 1,400 miles, with there is no company which has the capital 10 opening not only new paths in commerce, but a 1 800 in process of construction; Illinois has her build and equip the road in as short time as the new era in empire and civilization.
twenty-five roads, with an aggregate length of public wants and interests of the country demand, The next question is, Can the road be built? 2,: Jo'miles completed, and near 1,000 miles in To obviate both of these difficulties, the Gov1 shall not enier into the discussion of this ques. process of construction. In less than five years ernment can donate alternate sections of the public tion with any minuteness. I shall not attempt to ihe greatest road now on the continent, the Central | lands, doubling the price of the reserved sections, demonstrate what has already been so ably and
in and secure to clearly demonstrated, by unanswerable faces and I length, has been constructed, excepting 100 miles figures, by the gentleman from California, (Mr. to be completed by the middle of the ensuing sum- of war, and prevent extortions upon the public by McDougall,) and the gentleman from Missouri, mer. The connection between Chicago and Cairo reasonable limitations upon the charges for trans(Mr. Benton,) and other gentlemen on this floor. is now complete.
portation and travel. The company, on the other The work is praeticable, financially and topograph. Capital exceeding $600,000,000 has already hand, by opening a thoroughfare through the ically so. I do not believe the half we hear in been expended in the construction of railroads in lands, will give them a value, upon which means favor of any of these routes from their different the United States. Estimating the length of the and credit can be secured to aid in the construction advocates, and even we have reason to believe that Pacific road at two thousand miles, and the cost of the road. the topographical engineers who have explored per mile at $50,000, which is nearly twice the The last question is, where ought this road to the routes, each anxious to extend his fame by average cost per mile of all the railroads of the be? In faci, sir, this is the only question. The having his survey selected as the route of the road, United States, and the sum required to complete only danger which confronts us is divided and have given very fair colorings, and underrated the it will be $100,000,000-only one sixth of the jarring councils here. Rugged mountains, gorges difficulties to be overcome. I would not have the amount which has been expended in the United of snow, and deserts of sand are obstacles, but committee believe that I think the work a light Stales in the construction of her railroads. The they vanish before the appliances of human ingeone. On the other hand I believe it a Herculean State of New York has expended that eum in the nuity and skill. The passions of men, party plat. work, requiring immense energy, capital, and also construction of her roads, and prospered all the forms, and sectional prejudices, are more powerful time to complete it. But I look upon the very while. The young State of Illinois, embarrassed obstacles, and but ioo often defeat the noblest magnitude of the undertaking as the guarantee of by a grievous public debt, has completed, and in efforts of philanthropy and the wisest councils of success. It is worthy the genius and indomitable course of construction, a length of roads almost statesmanship. Our only hope, sir, is in concilienterprise of the American people. We have i wice as great as the proposed Pacific road. With || ation, in a patriotic disregard of all selfish considenterprising men bold enough to undertake any. such astonishing results as these, can the practica- eration, and in the unselfish union of northern thing that promises to pay, either in money or in bility of the road longer be a debatable question? and southern hearts and hands for the country, ame. They love obstacles, if it is only to over- li is true the road will run through an uninhab- the whole country, and nothing but the country. come them, and are not deterred if in proportion ited country, and the cost will be increased by Let us resolve, that no considerations shall stand to the magnitude of the work is the glory and the distance over which supplies, materials, and in the way of that rapid communication which is to gain of the achievement.
workmen have to be transported. But the road be the bond of our Union and the inseparable conSir, I am so infatuated with the idea of the valor, can be commenced at both extremities, and the road comitant of our national progress and prosperity. daring, and spirit of my countrymen as to believe will be its own carrier; and, passing through a Mr. Chairman, I assume it as a fact, that no them equal to almost any undertaking within the country for the most part rich and fertile, suscep- | member of this body believes that more than one range of possible achievement. To American tible of a dense agricultural population, it will not road can be built in any short number of years. valor there is no Sebastopol, to American ships no long remain uninhabited. As soon as the road is There is not capital to build more than one road; ultima thule, and to American enterprise no ob- located, before the first spadeful of earth is cast, | the wants of the country do not demand more than stacles of mountains, deserts, or snows which can- emigration will take up its march, and, as the one road; it would not be prudent to undertake not be overcome. And, Mr. Chairman, though road progresses, settlements will advance, and more than one road. My own State is a painful the difficulties in the construction of a railroad to communities will nestle along its track; towns and illustration of undertaking, prematurely, ioo exthe Pacific were greater even than they have been
ten re resented, they can be overcome. Greater have years, the time prescribed for the completion of now travails beneath a debt which her youngest been already overcome. The single fact, that ihe rond, it will be incased by new and flourishing child, now born, will not live to see totally extinfrom fifty to seventy thousand emigrants annually States.
guished, the result of attempting more than the find their way overland to the Pacific in loaded Mr. Chairman, I trust our nation will not admit wants or resources of the State would justify. It wagons, on horse, and on foot, is to me conclu- that she is not equal to what any other nation ever is idle now to talk of railroads to the Pacific in sive evidence of the practicability of a road; for achieved. And yet we are not without example the plural. It is idle to talk of five thousand miles wherever man can travel railroads may go; yea, in history of roads constructed at much greater of railroad, when the wants or capital of the counmore, by the appliances of science and machinery cost and of much greater length. Rome main- f try are not more than equal to one. It is the main ways are opened before inaccessible to him. Wit- tained her supremacy over her conquered and dis- | line we now want, leaving lateral routes and ness the long trains of cars which now sweep, at tant provinces by means of her public roads, branches to be constructed to it from the different t e rate of forty miles per hour, along the cragged through which she maintained with them constant sections as their wants and means from time to sides of the Alleghanies—the untiring tramp of intercourse, facilitated the marches of her victo- time will allow. the iron horse over rapid rivers, and through per- rious legions, and received and transmitted intelli- I regretted very much that this view of the case to sted rock, and cliff, and hill. Look at ihac gence with the greatest celerity: Her great high- || compelled me, in some respect, to disagree with magnificent work of art, the New York and Erie
ways, paved with stone, perforating mountains my friend from California, (Mr. McDougall,) beroad, five hundred and sixty-nine miles of contin- and arching the broadest and most rapid streams, cause I fully appreciated the position of that genuous rail through mountains all the way, spanning extended from the city a distance of four thousand tleman. I can sympathize with him in his zeal rivers with arched bridges, and with viaducts of Roman miles. They reached to her remotest fron. | for his young Siate, standing by herself, single. hundreds of feet of solid masonry. Sir, unless the tier, and pervaded her most distant provinces, | handed and alone, on a distant coast, and separeports of all our travelers and explorers are vastly established her supremacy and laws, and floated rated from her sister States by two thousand exaggerated, then the routes to the Pacific present her imperial eagle over one hundred and (wenty intervening miles of mountain and desert, the road no obstacles as great as those which have already millions of subject people. They united to her- to which is marked at every step by the wrecks of been surmounted, except the bare fact that this
self, as to a common center, all the distant parts | broken wagons and the graves of poor emigrants, road will present a greater continuous length than of her universal empire. With such an example, | fallen by the way-side by the hands of hostile In. any road which has yet been built.
shall our great nation consider herself unequal to dians. 'I have admired the zeal and eloquence I'hat we may proceed upon reliable data, I call a road of half the length, and extending all the with which he has battled, fearlessly and manthe attention of the committee to what American way through our territory, and beneath our own fully, for his State; and I have known him too ent-rprise has already achieved. In 1827, the first
Nag, to our most important and most exposed pos- | long and well to believe that a single pulsation railroad in our country, three miles in length, was sessions?
sways his heart other than the highest patriotism constructed, and now, in a quarter of a century, The next question is, how is the road to be and devotion of his own Siate and the Union. she has completed 20,000 miles, and there is now built? I do not favor the proposition advocated And I have no doubt it was this very spirit of in process of construction an additional 12,500
by the distinguished gentleman from Missouri, patriotism-a strong desire to divest his proposimiles. In the last ten years, 12,806 miles have Mr. Benton,) and others, that Congress should | tion of even the semblance of sectionalism-which been completed; in the last five years, 10,967 miles; build this road by a direct appropriation from the | induced him to depart from his original plan of in the last two years, 5,686 miles; and in the last Treasury. The recklessness and corruption of one road and bring in a bill for three-intending year, 3,938 miles. From these statistics we learn
Government agents have become too proverbial thereby to confer vpon every section equal para ihat the distance of the contemplated road to the to intrust so great a work and such vast means ticipation in this communication between the iwo Pacific is not one sixth of the length of the roads to them. If undertaken by the Government, it already completed in the last ten years, which would suffer from bad management and needless Mr. Chairman, so important do I deem this is the length of time in which it is proposed the delays, and become subject to all the influences of communication, that I shall vote for whatever bill rod shall be built. In the last two years the political intrigues, and to all the corruptions of we can pass, whether it be for one, or two, or 330 CONG....20 Sess.
Pacific Railroad—Mr. Yates.
Ho. of Reps.
three roads, which is otherwise free from objec- | latitude 390, at the terminus of the railroad from to make the main trunk of the road; and these eletion; but there are paramount reasons why only | St. Louis, now in process of rapid construction; ments, possessed in a high degree by the route I one road should now be attempted. The attention or commencing at St. Joseph on the Missouri have described, over all others, will make it the of the country should not be divided on different river, on the parallel of 400, the terminus of the great inter-oceanic road, over which more of the . routes. Let us hold out to capitalists a single road from Hannibal on the Mississippi, also in commerce of the country is to pass than any other; road. We want the benefit of competition in bids process of construction. It then finds its way a great continental road; the great central Missisfor a single road. Will capitalists be as likely to up the valley of the Platte, and by easy grades sippi to the Slales, the plains, the desert, and the bid for å road, with the possibility that their to the South Pass; thence through the valley | mountains, throwing off its branches to the North profits are to be diminished by the competition of of the great Salt Lake, and thence by the emi- and the South, and diffusing, all along its long parallef roads? We want all the available capital | grant route to San Francisco. This route pos- lines, vitality, wealth, and prosperity to the whole of the country submitted to this great enterprise, sesses some advantages, certainly, which can be country. A very short divergence from this line and we can only secure this by satisfactory assur- found on no other route. It would afford a junc- will take in St. Louis, the great commercial city ance to the capitalist that the profits of his invest. tion at Kansas, or St. Joseph, with all the systems and entrepot of the valley of the Mississippi, the ment are not to be diminished by parallel roads of roads from the Atlantic cities through the cen. head of perennial navigation, and the place of between the same commercial poinis. That the tral and southern parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, necessary trans-shipment of our river commerce; time will come, after the completion of one road, Indiana, and Illinois at Kansas, and with all the at which point trade would shoot in every direction when the commerce of the country will justify northern roads through the same States, and through our great river and its affluents, and the another, and perhaps several more roads, I think through Wisconsin and lowa, which are now con. various systems of roads which from every section not improbable; and when that time arrives, I verging and pointing to Council Bluffs, on the of the country are converging to this point as a hope Congress will be ready to extend to them direct line to the South Pass. It would have the common focus. equal advantages.
protection in its prosecution of the heavy emigra- Now, Mr. Chairman, I have but little more to Well, if only one road is to be built, where tion along the route; it would pass through the say: I trust that this Congress will not let the ought that road to be? It ought to be as near Mormon settlements at Salt Lake, where men and golden moment pass, to achieve for itself the great direct and central as may be, central to the States, supplies could be obtained, and where they would merit of setting on foot an enterprise, which in its central lo the Territories, central to population, | be most needed, and it is the only central route magnificent results, is to stand forth without a and central to the business and commerce of the which would afford a convenient branch to the parallel in the annals of the world. Let us recol. country. I do not desire to see a sectional route Territories of Oregon and Washington.
lect that it is not an enterprise to be accomplished adopted, and while I would prefer that the route The route advocated by the gentleman from Mig. || in a week, or a month, but it is a work of years. of the road should be over the section which I souri, known as the central route, is also entitled If we commence it now, many of us, in all probahave the honor in part to represent, yet I would to the greatest consideration. Since the explora- bility, will not live to see it completed. be willing to omit the arbitrary designation of any tion of Frémoni, last winter, there can be no doubt But, sir, above all let us not forget the solemn routes or termini, and to fix upon iwo points on of its practicability. The road, by this route, obligations devolving upon us, to open at once the borders of our western States and Territories, commences at the mouth of the Kansas, thence to safe and speedy communication with our Pacific between which such a road should terminate-one Bent's fort, near the mouth of the Huerfano river, I possessions. Complaint is often made of undue of them South, but not so far South as to be sec- in north latitude 380, thence through the valley of favors to California and our Territories on the tional, and the other North, but not so far North San Luis, which is about half way between St. Pacific. I think it is unjust. The demands of as to be sectional. I think, Mr. Chairman, we Louis and San Francisco; thence through the California are, necessarily, greater than those of might feel assured that the vigilant eye of capital-Coo-cha-tope pass of the Rocky mountains; thence our interior States and Territories. She has a ists would select the roule marked out by the through the valley of Colorado, in latitude 380; coast extending from the 31s10 to 4240 of latitude, a topography of the country, by the channels of and thence to the pass through the Sierra Neva- || population of ihree hundred thousand souls, gathcommerce and travel, and 80 near direct and cen- i da, at the “ Point of the California mountains,' ered from the four quarters of the globe, an emtral as to make it most accessible to atsluent roads (discovered by Frémont last March,) into the pire, as it were, not solid and self-sustaining from from both the North and the South. In such a valley of San Joaquin river, and thence to San ihe compact growth of years, but born in a daycase, I have no doubt that directness, centrality to Francisco. The road, by this route, would run spell-created; already in her harbor “rich navies territory, business, and population, easy grades, its whole length between iwo parallels of latitude; ride;" a magnificent commerce already, swelling grasses, timber, wood, water, minerals, produce it would divide the Territories west of the Missis- her ports; and an extended exterior frontier intive soil and tenperate climate, would be the land- | sippi into two equal parts, and extended on the fested by Indians. It is to be expected, that her marks to guide the engineer, whose flag-staff was same parallel to ihe Atlantic, would be central to claims on the Government will far exceed those of * to be borne before him under the vigilant eye of the States east of the Mississippi, and would be our interior States. private capital.
the nearest an air line from New York to San Fran- There, too, sir, are "our kith and kin,” men of Mr. Chairman, I am not the advocate of a route, cisco, the one the dominant commercial emporium | bold spirits whom no perils of the sea or of the but of a road; but I may be permitted to point out of the Atlantic, and the other of the Pacific. lt land could intimidate; the bold, undaunted pioneers what I conceive to be the most desirable and cen- would possess the same advantages which the l of American civilization, the gallant and chival. tral routes, without by any means assuming that route through the South Pass has, of traversing a rous colporteurs of American laws, liberty, and such are the only routes which I would vote for. country of rich pastoral and arable lands, abound- | Christianity. And, sir, as I would legislate for The present path of travel points out, in the main, ling in lumber, coal, mountains and lakes of salt, Illinois, I would legislate for our Pacific posses. the route of ihe road. I think there was a great | beautiful valleys adapted to cultivation, and a cli- sions; as I would baule in defense of this Capitol deal in the remark of the gentleman from Missouri, mate so healthy and temperate, says Frémont, and the starred and striped banner which floats that the buffalo is the best engineer. Upon this " that the valetudinarian might travel it in his own above it, so I would battle for them. If we acpoint I quote an interesting paragraph from the vehicle, on horse, or even on foot, for the merequire territory we must prepare to defend it; we speech made by that gentleman in the Senate in | restoration of health and the recovery of his must open a way to it, though that way were all 1850. He says: spirits."
arid sands and solid rock. We must adopt the “ There is a class of topographical engineers older than
Mr. Chairman, I have not time now to refer to wisdom of Rome, who never considered a sube the schools, and more unerring than the mathematics. the routes further north and further south, which | dued province as added to her territory, until by They are the wild animals-buffalo, elk, deer, antelope, have been explored, nor do I consider it neces- roads it was rendered pervious, in all its parts, to bears, which traverse the forest, not by compass, but by an
sary, for while they cannot be shown more pracinstinct which leads them always the right way-to the
her arms and authority. Wherever our gallant lowest passes in the mountains, llie shallowest fords in the
cicable than the routes to which I have referred, I ensign shall Boat-whether upon this Capitol or rivers, the richest pastures in the forest, the best salt
it cannot be denied that they would be more or the most distant continent—upon the decks of our springs, and the shortest practicable lines between remote less sectional.
merchant vessels, or in our most distant frontierpoints. They travel thousands of miles, have their annual
But I repeat, Mr. Chairman, that Congress there must be borne, and felt, and seen, the undismigraljons backwards and forwards, and never miss the best and shortest route. They are the first engineers to lay
hould not attempt to make any arbitrary desig- puted supremacy of American law, and the ample out a road in a new country; the Indians follow them, and nation of the route. If she does, she will have no protection of American power. hence a buffalo road becomes a war path. The first wbite road. I consider the district of country which I The union of our Suaies will be most certainly hunters follow the same trail in pursuing their game; and
represent as in no trouble about the route. Con- || maintained and perpetuated by increased facilities after that the buffalo road becomes the wagon roud of the while man, and finally the macadamized, or railroad of the
gress may locate the road where she pleases, north of commercial and social intercourse. If side by It all resolves itself into the same thing, or south, and yet that section will be on the main | side with our acquisitions shall go our ships and the same buffalo road; and thence the buffalo becomes the route; it will intersect it, and through her road our railroad cars, our commerce and our civilizafirst and satest engineer."
will flow the main travel and transportation be- tion, we may trust that our union will survive and Now, Mr. Chairman, it cannot be denied that tween the two oceans. Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Nourish; our rivers and lakes improved, and railthe same inducements which would attract these | Columbus, Indianapolis, Springfield, Hannibal, roads permeating our land throughout its whole first explorers of the country, the buffalo and the and St. Joseph, are all on or near the parallel of extent, and uniting the oceans, will be stronger Indian, and afterwards the emigrant pioneer, such 400, and a line of roads is nearly complete between || bonds of union than armies or navies, or all the as good passes through the mountains, fertile all these points. It runs through the capitals of charters or constitutions which nations have ever country and equable climate, are the very desid- | four of our largest States, through the heart of the formed. eratums to be sought by the constructors of the most fertile country and the most enterprising And then, sir, is there nothing in the idea of road, not only as assistants in its construction, |, agricultural population in the world; it is nearest | securing to ourselves the commerce of the Indies? but as the means of keeping it up, and imparting an air line, of any route, between the Atlantic and -a commerce which, for forty centuries, has ento it value after its completion. Now, sir, the the Missouri river. Legislation may designate a riched every nation which possessed it, and at the route which all will admit is the path of emigrant | route, but it is trade and travel, it is commerce, it bare mention of which mighty memories rise upon travel, and which I believe is denied by no one to is directness, it is population, it is the fertility and the mind--visions of grandeur, power, and splenbe practical, is the route commencing at the productiveness of soil, and the business power of dor, the mighty cities of the past resplendent in mouth of the Kansas, on the parallel of north the country through which it is to pass, which is 1 letters, arts, and in arms-nations rising to the
330 CONG.....20 Sess.
The Tariff Question--Mr. Straub.
Ho. OF Reps.
highest pinnacle of power, or sinking to decay as surprised, if, in consequence of those difficulties John Stryker, George Ashmun, and Henry V. Poor, in
their efforts to obtain a remission and repeal of the duty on they secured or lost the rich trade of the Indies. which surround us on every side, and the difficul
railroad iron heretofore or 10 be imported, or a suspension, This, I repeat, is the great work of the age. Let ties which may arise out of the war now being for a limited time, of said duty; and that the president us meet in patriotic harmony, abjuring all sec- carried on in Europe, your Treasury should be remit said committee 8100; and that, in ile event of a tional jealousies, and provide for its construction, found nearly empty at the close of the present
repeal or suspension of the existing duiy, or of a remission and this Congress will reap the glory of a meas. fiscal year, and ihat instead of your twenty-odd | hereby obligates itself to pay to sad committee, or iis
of the duty on iron, heretofore imported, this company ure which is to revolutionize the commerce of the millions of dollars in it, it would be found with
treasurer, on demand, in cash, five per cent. upon the world, and to perpetuate to the latest posterity a out a dollar over and above the amount required amount of duty so remitted, and also five per cent. upon the monument to American genius, skill, and enter- for the necessary appropriations. The Treasury
amount saved to the company by said repeal or suspension prise. should never be caught with a less sum in it than
on such iron as the company shall import or contract for
prior to July !, 1855; and that a certified copy of this resofrom ten to twelve millions, particularly in times juuon be forthwith forwarded 10 said committee."
of war, even if that war be between foreign na.
This committee are to receive from each rail.
road company in the United States the sum of SPEECH OF HON. C. M. STRAUB, | the corresponding time a year ago. Is this fact
$100, for the purpose of enabling them to meet
such obligations as they may incur, and such exOF PENNSYLVANIA,
not a sufficient reason to induce Congress to payse penditures as they may make, in getting Congress
io remit the duty on railroad iron. In entering
upon the discharge of their important duties, this
committee have issued a circular to all the railroad The House being in the Committee of the Whole | eight additional war steamers. Should this meas
companies in the United States, informing them on the state of the Union
ure be adopted, several millions of dollars will be
of their appointment, and requesting immediate Mr. STRAUB said:
your Texas debt, some six or eight millions will Mr. Chairman: I am opposed to a change or
advanced.” I do not design now to read the cir. be required to pay it. The French spoliation modification of the present tariff at this time, and bill, too, provides for a draft on your Treasury of desire to have members posted up, to let them
cular, but will embody it in my printed speech. I desire to give the reasons for my opposition. five millions of dollars. And besides all this, it is know who these gentry are, so that when they Under the rules of the House, when in the Com. || proposed to increase the Army some three or four mittee of the whole on the state of the Union, it is ihousand men to protect your western frontier, they may know that they are the disinterested
shall come here and take members by the elbow, in order to speak on any qubject, whether it be and to protect your emigrants to the West against | representatives of Azariah'Boody, and his railroad a National or Slate question-whether it be of a being slaughtered by the Indians.
friends. general or local nature. Having this privilege by I am almost persuaded that the alteration pro
New York, March 21, 1854. the rule, I shall, in my remarks, refer to one or posed at the present time, after all, is to be merely
SIR: In entering upon the duties, agreeably to appointmore subjects that are not germane to the ques- a one-idea alteration, to wit: a repeal of the ment of the meeting of railroad companics held in this city, tion before the committee, and more particularly to duty on iron. The reason for this opinion is, the proceedings of which were duly forwarded to your adthe tariff question. thai, at the commencement of the first session of dress, we find it necessary, in the oulset of our proceedings,
10 correspond with all the railroad companies of the l'nited Nothing but an imperative duty due to the the present Congress, the very learned gentleman
States supposed to be interested, for the purpose of obtain. people I have the honor to represent, could induce from North Carolina (Mr. CLINGMAN) introduced ing accurate and reliable information, and of ascertaining me to consume the time of the House. But, sir, a bill which had for its object the repeal of the whether they cooperate with us, in order that we may know there are no people in any district in the Union duty on railroad iron. This measure was pressed 10 what extent we may incur obligations and make expendi
tures in furtherance of our objecis. who have a deeper interest in the tariff question with more than his usual ability. Immediate To make provisions for the expenses unavoidably incl. than those of the eleventh congressional district action was demanded. It failed, however, to re- dent to the prosecution of the measure, it was agreed at the of Pennsylvania; and I will also venture to say, ceive the sanction of this body at that time; but
mecting thai each company coming into the arrangement that there is no question more knotty or difficult soon thereafter the colleague of the honorable
should udvance for this purpose the sum of $ICO; and that,
in case of zuccess, there should be paid by each company to adjust: indeed, it is beyond the scope of human tleman from North Carolina (Mr. Kerr) offered 10 the committee, for the further expenses that may be ininvention so to regulate it that each section of the a resolution for the same purpose. This, too, || curred, and as a compensation for their time and services, (in country will be alıke benefited by its operations, was negatived. The able genileman from Ala
addition to the above advance,) five per cent. on the amount however it may be adjusted.
of duty remitted, or which may be saved to such company, bama (Mr. Phillips) has since tried the same
on railroad iron heretofore imported by it, or which it may Mr. Chairman, if I had my own wish gratified, I experiment, which met with a like success; and import or contract for prior to July 1, 1855, by the passage I would say do not touch the tariff at this time; || another proposition, during the same session, was of ine law or laws repealing, remitting, or suspending for keep “hands off.” To my mind the present is a introduced by the gentleman from Texas, (Mr.
a limited time, the duty on such iron. most dangerous time to meddle with it. The first | Smytu;] but the same fate a waited it in this House.
If a sufficient pumber of companies should not he found
to come into the measure to make it expedient, in the opinand best thing we can do now is to keep peace It was laid on the table.
jun of the committee, for them to undertake to carry it into with all nations, enter into entangling alliances On the first day of the present session, we have cfiect, then the $100 advanced to be returned by ihem to with none, but mind our own business. The on record a resolution offered by the gentleman
such companies as shall have paid the same.
We incloze a copy of the resolution, which we send to next is, to let the people alone. Do you not know from New York, (Mr. WALBRIDGE,) which con- all the railroad companies in this interest, with the request that there is a bloody war now raging, and that,
ibat it be offered for consideration to your board, or other before it terminates, it is more than likely ali templated a repeal of the duty on coal, but which, it seems to me, is in reality intended for the pur
proper authority, at you earliest convenience, and that we Europe will be in arms? How this war will ulti- | pose of ultimately reaching the iron interest. But
be advised of the result, and, is adopted, that we be sur
nish d with a certified copy of the same. mately affect the interests of the people and Gov. a day or two after the resolution was offered by Will you also please furnish us with information on the ernment of the United States, and whether we the gentleman from New York, the gentleman following points: The length of your road; the number will not be inveigled into it, are grave and moment- from Alabama (Mr. Phillips) tries his experi
of wiles in operation; the number of miles for which iron ous questions, the solution of which, it seems to
is to be provided; the weight of rail to be used; the numment again. He made a similar proposition to
ber of tons upon which duties will be refunded, if a retro. me, ought to be known by us ere we attempt the one which he offered at the last session. It active law is obtained, to take effect from July 1, 1853, also to change the tariff. We should not grapple
was, as it should have been, served in the same of January 1, 1853, also from July 1, 1832; a list of the in the dark on so important a subject-a sub
manner as that one was—it was laid on the table. directors, superintendents, and engineers of your company, ject which must unsettle our revenue laws, and
and the posi office address of each, as the committee may The principal reason I give for the opinion I enter
wish to correspond with each of them ou the subjcci. again throw them into chaos. Do you not see tain, that the duty on iron alone is sought to be As the session of Congress is already for advanced, it is the dark cloud hovering over our usual pros. stricken off, will be found in the following state- important that your company should take immediate action, perity? A revolution is going on in our monetary ment, which speaks for itself. It seems that it and advise us of the result, as the answer 10 this commu. affairs at home, and how it will affect our Treas
nication must necessarily be the basis of our action. was got up and signed by men who, but a few
Please inclose your communication to Henry V. Poor, ury other than by daily reducing it no one can
years ago, were high protective tariff men. Some | Esq., No. 9 Spruce street, New York. doubt. Banks are breaking, the necessaries of l of them, I have been informed, are ex-Governors Very respectfully, your obedient servants, life are rising in price, whilst mechanics and and ex.members of Congress. It would appear
8. F. Vinton,
GEORGE ASHNUN, laboring men are, in many places, thrown out of that the boot is on the other leg now. From pro.
NOAN L. Wilson, H. V. PUOR, employment by thousands and tens of thousands, hibitory or high protective tariff men they have
Committee, some of them not only suffering, but almost, or become the advocates of free trade on iron-borers
By this resolution and correspondence it will quite, starving. It is asserted by good authorto Congress—and perhaps it might not be too
be perceived what the “ modus operandi" of the ity that, in the city of New York alone, there are severe to say paid servants of railroad compa.
signers was. It was nothing less ihan a proposed twenty thousand souls dependent on alms for nies.
conspiracy to be entered into between the honor. subsistence. I am aware that the idea of a prohibitory or Boody, and numerous railroad friends with whom
Hear what they have to say. Mr. Azariah
able gentlemen who appended their names to the
address, and certain railroad companies. Well, high protective tariff, particularly in times of he is associated in the great State of New York, I have received for their disinterested labor about a
if those gentlemen had succeeded, they would peace, has become an obsolete idea with all states
and elsewhere, held a meeting to devise the waya
and means necessary to accomplish their objects. I million of dollars, much of which was already paid
into the Treasury several years ngo. A handsome sight into the future can discover what will grow tion, which will inform the people of the mode by congressional borers to filch from the Treasury;
operation that, for a few seleci, stock.jobbing, out of the existing difficulties, or how they will, in the end, affect us financially and commercially, i trolled: which legislation in Congress is sought to be con
Five per cent. of the amount of duty on railroad or what the upshot of the present disarranged
iron co!lected since July, 1852, and five per cent. state of our money market, high prices of the
“ Resolved, That this company will cooperate with the on all to be hereafter paid, was also to go into necessaries of life, and the want of labor in the
committee appointed by the meeting of railroad companies,
the pockets of these honest and modest gentlemen. United States will ultimately be. I would not be 1854, consisting of Samuel F. Vinton, Noah 8. Wilson,
But it seems they were not satisfied with the
330 Cong.... 20 Sess.
The Tariff Question—Mr. Straub.
Ho, OF REPs.
1850.. 1831.. 1852.
70..... 42...... 46..
8...... 10..... 14....
40a45.. 5 00
75 7 50
a 31 a 80
prospective operations of the law, by which they ment of prices for 1853 and 1854, which exhibits and the duty paid by them; and allow them to would have been exclusively benefited after the the fact that some articles, necessaries of life, make the comparison between what they pay on law went into operation, but, it must have a retro- were, in December last, and are at this time higher sugar and what they pay on coal and iron. The spective effect; the Treasury must disgorge, so by two hundred, or one hundred and seventy-five following table, taken from official reports, exhibit that they could pocket five per cent. of moneys per centum, and none less than fifty per centum the amount of sugar which has been imported since already collected. What a beautiful operation ! ihan they were in 1853. I will here say that no 1849, and the value thereof: But these gentlemen misaed their mark. When man in the trade has had a better opportunity than
No. of pounds. they came to Washington, at the last session, their Mr. Silliman to know the state of the coal trade; 1449..
$8.049,769 nefarious plans were exposed, and they have not no one has more experience, and no man more
.218,439,0)).. been heard of since; but if the truth was known,
12.963,607 willing to do justice to all interests. Mr. Silliman
457, 44,614. they probably are at their old tricks again. I am
14.117,129 furnishes the prices, as follows:
14.293.1.13 exceedingly opposed to special legislation. Sir, it
1854, estimated ..464,427,281
14,993.003 is unfair-and if I may be allowed the term, it is
Flour, per barrel..
$5 75......$10 25 a $10 50 wicked-to stab at and strike down a just and Corn, per bushel...........
$73,276,345 honorable interest in order that you may build up
It will be seen that the sugar imported between another upon its ruins.
the years 1849 and 1854 amounts to 2,244,588,414 In connection with this subject, I will read a Cheese, do
pounds, and theaggregate cost is $73,276,345, unon paragraph which I noticed going the rounds of Butter,
which the consumers paid a duty of $21,982,903 50. the papers generally, and, if true, it exposes a Cutting coal by miners, per ton.
For the year 1854, I have set down the quan. mosi extraordinary extravagance:
Outside labor, per week.......
lity and value of sugar as that of 1853, not being “EXTRAVAGANCE.--As an indication of extravagance workings or a colliery, with an advance of tolls on railroad
able, at the time I made out the table, to procure which prevailed in the country for some time, an importing
official information upon the subject; there is house in New York has written a letter stating that the All this is respectfully submitted by your obedient ser- no doubt that the value, in the aggregate, will amount of duties paid for French artificial flowers, for the
JAMES SILLIMAN. first quarter of the current fiscal year, was almost double
equal, if not exceed, that of 1853. Certainly it
To Hon. C. M. STRAUB. the amount of duties paid on railroad iron."
will not be less; and now, what comparison does If this information be correct, I think it would
Sir, I cannot forego the present opportunity the duty paid on sugar and molasses bear to that comport more to the honor of Congress to adopt it being the last in my political life) of putting on coal for the same period ? It is within a fracsome plan of legislation by which gew-gaws,
upon the national record a few remarks in refer- tion of ten to one; that is, you pay ten dollars trinkets, and unnecessary articles would be dis
ence to the difficulties and dangers attending the duty on sugar and mglasses to one on coal; bat pensed with, and appropriate the funds thus saved
coal operations; these are only known to the man not a word pro or con was said by the gentleman io the relief of railroad companies. Where are
who engages in the business. I was at one time from New York (Mr. WALBRIDGE) in reference the iron men to-day? Why, sir, many of them
connected with the business, and I will never for- to this matter, although the greater proportion of are lying at the feet of railroad companies. 1
get that time, for it was to my sorrow; I lost a duty on sugar and molasses was paid by the poor understand that some of the best and most hon- large sum of money at it. To my mind, there is and laboring classes. orable firms in the country have been already
no business followed, on sea or land, which is I wish now to call the attention of the committee prostrated.
attended with more peril to lise, limb, and capital. to the item of molasses, which is also entitled to Under this unfortunate state of things, you
And this remark will apply to every branch of be classed among the “necessaries of life;" for it propose now to cripple or ruin the business en
the business, and to every man connected with it, || is not at all likely that our eastern friends can tirely; and this is, no doubt, precisely what the
from the time of striking the first pick in mining possibly do without molasees, at least so long as gentlemen who signed the circular aim at.
until the coal is delivered at the place of destina- pumpkins grow. Since 1850, there has been I will now call the attention of the committee tion. The hundreds of miners and laborers in imported 155,989,417 gallons, the cost of which to the quantity of coal sent to market for the Schuylkill county alone, who annually lose their was $17,562,667, and upon which an aggregate year 1850. Since that period no correct data can
lives by being crushed, or burned to death in the duty of $4,268,800 has been paid. Add to this the be furnished as to the quantity of bituminous coal
mines, is frightful to record; and add to these the duty paiu on sugar, and you have a sum total of consumed in the United States; and any attempt
lives that are lost on the different railroads and $26,250,703 paid for duty on sugar and molasses. to get at the quantity must be guess-work allo- canals, and by coming in contact with the machin- But this is not all. The sugar crop of Louisgether. By a blind and mistaken policy no coal
ery at the mines, and in various other ways, and iana alone for the year 1853 was 368,129,000 statistics appear in the census report of 1850. I
you will have a loss of life and limb that is appall- | pounds, and 22,100,000 gallons of molasses. have a table, compiled by carrying companies, ing. Go with me to Pottsville, Minersville, or The value of sugar at four cents per pound, and which has been certified to, and which exhibits Tamaqua, and you will see, at every square or molasses at twenty cents per gallon, will make the whole amount of anthracite sent to market
turn of the street, a cripple, a lame man or boy, together the sum of $19,145,160. The increased since 1820, including 1854, which I will read pres
some with one leg off, some two; others deformed | value or advance caused by the duty paid on for. ently. For the year 1850, there were 3,796,808
with the loss of an arm, or both; many, by being eign sugar and molasses, estimated at only twenty tons of anthracite and semi-bituminous coal sent
burned in the mines, or the accidental discharge per cent., would amount in the aggregate to the to market, and 35,088.197 bushels of bituminous. of a blast, have lost their eye-sight.
sum of $3,600,000, to which add the daty on Total in tons, 5,049,954, the total value of which
I cannot be restrained from mentioning a pain imported" sugar and molasses-$5,500,000—and was $7,239,110. The proportion of bituminous
ful occurrence which took place a few days pre- you have a total of $9,100,000. The importers to anthracite is as one to four. Admitting the
vious to my leaving home, and in the immediate and merchants must be allowed at least twenty per quantity of anthracite to be 6,000,000 tons, in
vicinity of it. It was an accident which hap-cent., which, on that sum, amounts to $1,820,00, numbers, for the year 1854, you will then have
pened on a railroad near the mines by which a making a grand total of duty on sugar$10,920,000 in all, anthracite and bituminous, for that year,
hard working, industrious, honest, and enterpris. || in one year. The gentleman's figures will not an aggregate of 7,500,000 tons, there being but ing man, whose name is Temple, in the “twink- compare with these. And yet he complains that 1,500,000 tons of bituminous.
ling of an eye,” had three splendid first-choice the consumers of coal have paid within me last Table showing the quantity of Anthracite coal
mule teams killed, fifteen in number; and his loss four years $591,075 70, but entirely overlooks the sent to market since 1820:
is over three thousand dollars, a sum that will re- amount paid as duty on sugar and molasses an. 18:20.
quire years of hard mental and manual labor to nually, which is ten to one. 1,073
recover. The enormous amount of capital, too, You may travel where you will in the United
863,414 required to open and put mines in working order States, into the most densely populated districts, 7,101
before any profit can be realized, no estimate can or the most sparsely settled; you may go into the 11,103
1812. 1,108,001 1825.
be made of. I have known a single mine to cost
wilderness, north, south, east, or west, and you
.1.631.669 16 from $100,000 to $150,000, and that, too, before a will find sugar and molasses used as among the 63,434
2,0-23,052 « ton of coal could be shipped. None cost less than necessaries of life. It is true, as has been said by 77,516 «
from $10,000 to $20,000; these are of the smallest a writer on the subject, that "the consumption is, 1829. .112,083 " 1847. 1830.
kind; and often after the investments are made the perhaps, inordinate, but its use is a fixed and geo
, and the tax, therefore, falls on every.363,871
ment, but by running into faults, and from many || body. It is paid by the inmate of the humblest log1833. 487,748
other unforeseen causes. It is a fact, that more cabin, and falls much more heavily upon him than ..376,630 "
money has been lost, irretrievably lost, in these
upon the owner of the proudest mansion." la 692,429 "
sickness, in health, in plenty, in scarcity, in pros1637.........881,470"
The gentleman from New York (Mr. Wal- perity, and in adversity, no family can do without 48,907,860 BRIDGE) told us that a population of seven hun- sugar. And for every dollar's worth purchased
dred and fifty thousand uses coal for domestic the people pay nearly one third of a dollar is Gentlemen complain of the high price of coal. || purposes. This is true; and it is also true that duty. Notwithstanding this, the gentleman seems Sir, has noi wood also gone up correspondingly? | twenty-five millions of people in the United States to have overlooked this important facı; he has I see by a report made a few days since at a meet. use some other articles as well as coal " for domes- failed to come to the relief of the masses wbile ing of railroad officers, held at ihe Astor House, tic purposes;” and among those that cannot be dis. professing to make that his intention. I have seen New York, that coal used at $6 50 per ton for pensed with, we find that of sugar the most prom- several statements in which the profits on capital each locomotive is at the rate of $1,300 per annum inent. In speaking of the article of sugar, and the invested in the manufacture of sugar and molasses cheaper than wood. If this be so, and I do not amount of duty paid on it, I do so not out of any were exhibited. If they be erroneous, the gentle doubt it, where then is the cause of complaint? | unkind feeling toward our southern friends or their man can correct me; but if true, the profits are I have been very kindly furnished by Mr. James interests, but because I think nothing can be lost enormous, running from thirteen to twenty-five per Silliman, of Potisville, Pennsylvania, with a state- Il by stating to the people the quantity used annually, w cent., averaging nineteen per cent. annually. This
330 CONG....20 Sess.
The Tariff Question—Banks—Mr. Straub.
Ho. OF Reps.
is a very handsome interest, and a much larger | of prosperity, the country is flooded with bank coercing, and purchasing influence by smaller inone than is realized on capital invested in the coal paper, not only do expansions, but inflations also stitutions of a similar kind for similar purposes, or iron business.
occur, and a mere blast of adverse wind seems would have ceased entirely, for the reason that the The aggregate value of imported iron, manu- often to change the current. Then come contrac- lesson taught in the contest referred to, ought to factured, for the year 1854, is $15,278,208, and the tions, no more accommodations, no more dis- || have been a caution to all banks who meddled in value of sugar and molasses for the same period, counts. During inflation and upward tendency, politics. Not so, however; to the knowledge of is $16,822,795; showing an excess in value of you meet extravagance everywhere; high prices the people of the eleventh district of Pennsylvania sugar and molasses over that of iron of $1,544,577, immediately follow. Under this state of thing, there is a political bank that seems to live by politHere we have the extraordinary faci exhibited we go up, up, up, until ultimately the bubble ical huckstering and legislative boring.. Immethat the duty paid on the latter is more by collapses; then down we come, down goes labor, || diately after its organization it entered the polit$463,731 10 than that paid on the former. Under down goes bank paper, and down goes every ical field, and from that day to this it has consuch circumstances where is the cause of com- thing. The latter operation we are undergoing tinued to wield all its ill-gotten power to elevate plaint? I have an answer which I think appro- now. It is a reaction; the balloon has burst and
and aggrandize the gentleman who controls it, priate. It is, that we do more than “an eye for is coming down. The tide is receding, banks and this, too, against the expressed and known will an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.” We give them have been contracting, and some are breaking. of the people; and having been complimented an Oliver for which we receive a Roland.
Many of them, it is true, at such times act hon. several times by them, this gentleman has at last The official report of the Secretary of the Treas- || orably, and do all they can to give relief, but the found that “ Jordan is a hard road to travel," that ury, exhibiting the quantity and value of wool | truth is, when money is the most needed, that is the noblest blood of the best bred steeds have imported since 1850, shows the aggregate cost to the time they afford the least relief.
occasionally the wind knocked out of them while have been $12,973,462; on this sum a duty of We have iwo good banks in the eleventh dis. running the last quarter, and are thus unfited for $3,892,038 60 was paid. I understand that, in trict of Pennsylvania, one in Pottsville, called the use, and must of. necessity be “ turned out to consequence of the tariff on this article, not a Miner's Bank, and one in Northumberland, called grass.' single yard of broadcloth is now manufactured the Bank of Northumberland. I am perfectly Sir, show me a political bank, such an one as in the United States, every broadcloth establish- satisfied that they are sound to the core; and if it we of Pennsylvania are cursed with, and I will ment having ceased operations. Notwithstanding were in their power to relieve the community show you " Pandora's box," whose keeper is this dark picture, the gentleman from New York in which they are located from the present mone- a modern Cataline, with the arms of a Briareus never referred to it, or suggested relief to this tary embarrassment, they would do so. But the whose stock in trade consists of paper promises branch of industry. How this could have es- greater portion at such times— times of severe to pay, poisonous as the Upas; the surroundcaped his sagacity I cannot divine.
pressure-play the part of boa constrictor, having ing air of which is contaminated with sirocco. coiled around you, contract, press, screw, and Again, show me a political bank, whose inception screw until life is extinct.
And another por. commenced in fraud, its chief officer an arrogant, At the commencement of my remarks, I called
tion having issued “ Wild Cat,'
" " Red Dog, the attention of the committee to the fact that there
selfish politician, and I will show you an instituand bogus paper, (I mean such as will not, or existed a severe pressure, at this time, in the
tion controlled by one man, a majority of its offi. cannot pay,) will close their doors upon the hold. cers, if not to be likened unto paper, straw, or money market. The history of the United States,
ers of their promises to pay, place the keys in wooden men, will, at all events, do as the automI believe, in common with every country, is sub
their pockets, and laugh at your calamity. This aton does, move, march, wheel, and halt, at the ject to monetary revolutions at times. They are
lesson has been experienced over and over again bidding of its keeper. Yes, sir, I will then show *8 certain to occur as that the sun is to rise and
in all parts of the Uniop. This imposition is being you an institution in the secret subterranean conset, or the tide to ebb and flow. And that there
practised at this very time in various parts of the clave of which pseudo party men are manufacare various causes, and often a combination of country. Why, then, smother the truth, or re- tured to order on short notice. Where men are causes, is just as true. The gentleman from New York (Mr. WALBRIDGE) seemed to be cautious of || banking, and another species of which I shall fuse to publish it to the world? This kind of " Wheedled, to be sold,
Exchanged for rags, or bogus gold, speaking on the subject of this monetary pressure. I speak presently, are a cheat and a curse wherever
Where lucre wins, and holds its prize, He said: they exist.
And men are shambled by surprise." “ It is not for me, on the present occasion, to trace out Sir, I take pride and pleasure in having it in my Where, after a mysterious conversion by spirit the unlooked for events which have contributed to produce the present state of our monetary affairs. It is sufficient
power at this time to state, that so far not a single rappings, or some other hocus-pocus or legerdefor us to know that severe pressure exists, and it is our bank failure, during the present crisis, has occur- main, men are drilled and exercised as so many duty to interpose for its relief to the extent of our constitu- red in Pennsylvania, and I believe, take them as regular soldiers, and told by their master which tional ability.”
a whole, they are in as sound a condition, prob- l of them are to have front, and which back seats ; He says, “it is not for him to trace out the un- || ably more so, than those of any other State in in the basking beams of his regal assemblies, looked-for events which have produced the present the Union. That there are exceptions, however, whose turn for promotion comes first, and whose state of our monetary affairs;" that," it is suffi- || 1 am convinced. A few of them are bolstered up last; who is entitled to a smile, and who a frown cient to know that severe pressure exists, and it is by false or artificial means, or borrowed capital. from his royal highness; who is to be beheaded, our duty to provide relief to the extent of our con. I have said that the principle of special and er and who pardoned; who shall figure at the head, stitutional ability.” In the admonition contained || parte legislation is a principle that may be, and to and who dangle at the tail of their master's inveto in the latter sentence I fully concur; but let the every man's knowledge is, at times, abused. erate faction; where weak-minded men are in" constitutional ability" be void of special legisla- || When “ bold bad men are made the recipients veigled to be dealt with as merchandise, to have tion; let it be justice to all, and partiality to none. of its favor, (and to our misfortune this is gener- the cost paid for each, when purchased, and to I have my doubts whether the advice given in the ally the case, they may, for selfish and sinister learn the price obtained when knocked off; where former sentence, is such as would prove the most purposes, disarrange all business, if not ruin hun. taxes for gas-lights and water-rents are assessed; advantageous to the people; "tell it not in Gath, dreds of honorable men who may have the moral where servants to alms-houses and turnkeys to publish it not in the streets of Askelon,” says courage to act for themselves. Certain gentle- lock-up are appointed; where it has been said that the gentleman, that after getting ourselves into a
men have a chartered privilege-take a bank for orders and edicts have been issued to control the " tight place," it is wrong to reason together, instance-they turn it from its legitimate business, Executive of the State, and where it has hereto- ; although we might by doing so, extricate our- enter the political arena, and prostitute its funds fore been boasted that the power and influence selves. It seems to me, that it is a duty devolving aggrandize its officers, or be revenged upon existed to tarnish, with impunity, the ermine of upon us lo endeavor to get at the bottom of the political opponents. No plague can be more the highest judicial tribunal in the State; where difficulty. The evil cannot, as the gentleman sup; abhorreul, no curse greater. Far better for a com- the fact is confessed that the taxes paid into the poses, be remedied by smothering the truth, and munity that it be visited with the plague of London, county and State treasury are deposited to be by striking a side blow at a friend.
or the lice of Egypt, than to allow such an estab- used for electioneering and shaving purposes, by The cause of the present pressure, the gentle- / lishment to insult it with impunity. These remarks the use of which the influence of politicians, of man from Massachusetts (Mr. GOODRICH) says, are justified and indorsed by the conduct of the late | all parties and factions, (boys in particular,) are as I understand him, is owing entirely to the ex- Bank of the United States - Daniel Webster's || purchased. cess of importations over exportations. This, of "obsolete idea." The fearful and sanguinary strug- And thus are the people, through the weakness course, is one of the causes, but there are a combi- gle between the patriot Jackson and that institu- || and unfaithfulness of their public agents, (who nation of them-extravagance, an inordinate thirst tion, when the hero and statesman took the "mon- furnish the means for this unholy purpose,) made for speculation-a desire to get rich in a week, ora ster" by the horns, and the result of that strug. subservient to the nod and caprice of a wily polit. day, the construction of too many railroads, over- gle, after he assumed the responsibility, is well || ical trickster, a heartless politician. Yes, sir, with trading at home, in almost every branch of mer- remembered by the people of ihis country. It is || their own money are they made slaves. Better cantile business, and the war between the allied | fresh in their recollection. War, pestilence and than that this state of things should exist and prePowers and Russia. All these have had more or famine would have been a blessing compared to vail as it has, and does now, that the first bank less effect, in bringing about disarrangement in the defeat and downfall of “ Old Hickory” in that chartered should have been overwhelmed and our business and commercial affairs. Loss of con- contest.
smothered with the burning lava of Mount Vefidence, confusion and excitement, as a matter of In his connection, I conceive it to be a bounden suvius; better all such were sunk ten thousand course, have followed. I believe there is a key to || duty, due to the constituency I have the honor to miles beneath the bottom of the ocean; and better, most, if not all of this distress, and the name of it represent, particularly those of Schuylkill county, | far better, for the people, that every town and city is Banks. You issue too many bank notes, you who are immediately interested, to speak of the in which such a bank is located should meet the make too many promises to pay—too little prep- injurious and deleterious effects which a political | fate of Sodom and Gomorroh. aration for paying. This, most assuredly, is one, bank hag upon an honest,confiding, and uncontam- The gentleman from Georgia (Mr. STEPHENS) if not the greatest cause, which has heretofore, I inated people. One would suppose that since the and the gentleman from Onio (Mr. CAMPBELLİ as well as at the present time, involved us in all bank then failed in its efforts to control the polit-have severally spoken of the comparative prosper. these difficulties. "Is it not notorious that in times Il ical destinies of the natian, the practice of forcing, II ity of their respective States. I also avail myself
New SERIES.No. 14.