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33p Cong.... 20 Sess.

Report of the Postmaster General.

SENATE & Ho. of Reps.





weight of one quarter ounce and under than by matter received and sent by the different mail

Collected in the United Kingdom. British packets; and, consequently, much the steamship lines during the year; the amounts of By Collins line.....

$83,307 52

Dy Cunard line........... larger part of the correspondence is still diverted letter postages on British, Prussian, Bremen, and

217,041 23 By Havre line...........

21,208 16 to the British lines. For instance, taking the Havre mails; the portiou thereof collected by the By Bremen line.

18,305 78 weight of the French mails received at New York United States, Great Britain, Prussia, and Bremen, by the Cunard packets to be the same with that respectively; and the amounts of unpaid and paid

$339.862 69 maiter received and sent by each of the lines of

Excess collected in the United States..... received by these packets at Boston, and reckon

299,922 92 ing four leiters to the ounce, the number of French mail steamers. The gross and net revenues re- Of the amount collected in the United States letters brought by the Cunard line during the year ceived by the Department from each of the trans

there was: was 237,576, while the number received by the || Atlantic mail lines are shown, and also the rev- Of unpaid received ..............

.. $363,326 52 Collins steamers, performing just half as many enue derived from the correspondence with Great

of paid sent.......

......... 276,459 09 trips, was only 41,608—less than one fifth. The Britain, Prussia, and Bremen, respectively, under of the amount collected in the United Kingdom present treaty in other respects gives an undue | the existing postal arrangements with those coun- there was— advantage to Great Britain, and operates to the tries, both including and excluding the United of unpaid received.

8193,268 16 serious injury of the United States. Under its States inland postage. It also shows the number of paid sent ...

146,594 53 provisions, as will be seen by a statement in of letters and newspapers exchanged during the | The unpaid received in the United States exceeds

the unpaid received in the United Kingdom., 170,058 36 appendix A, an excess of at least $75,000 British year between the United States and Great Britain

And the paid sent from the United States also postages has, during the last year," been collected in British mails, between the United States and

exceeds the paid sent from the United Kingby the United States for the British office over Bremen in Bremen mails, and between the United dom ...

129,864 56 and above the whole amount of United States States and the Kingdom of Prussia in closed

The amount of unpaid received by Cunard line

229,110 88 postages collected by Great Britain. This large mails; the number of letters (in ounces) received

Deduct paid received by same line....

101,477 06 balance of British postayes has been collected at and sent in closed mails under each of our closed an actual expense of about $61,000 in the shape of mail arrangements, and the number of letters and Excess of unpaid received ......

127,633 82 commissions to our postmasters; and this Depart- | newspapers conveyed by the several home lines The annount of unpaid received by Collins line ment suffers also the additional loss by exchange, of ocean steamers. Other valuable statistics con

91,378 46 &c., necessary to place the money in possession nected with the foreign mail service are also fully

Deduct paid received by same line....

31,271 45 of the British office in London, of not less than stated.

Excess of unpaid received..

60,107 01 $3,500. When it is considered that all this outlay The usual report of fines and deductions will be

The amount of unpaid received by Havre line is made on our part without receiving any equiv- duly furnished for the information of Congress.

21,286 23 alentin return, one of the most striking inequalities These fines and deductions for the year ending Deduce paid received by same line..

7,161 44 of the existing arrangement is pointedly exhibited. the 30th June, 1854, amount to $110,486 59. The

Excess of unpaid received...... No satisfactory progress has been made since amount for the previous year was $37,920 31.

14,124 79

The amount of unpaid received by Bremen line my last report toward effecting a postal convention | The increased amount has been mainly caused by

21,550 95 with France, nor has the contemplated arrange- a more rigorous exaction than heretofore of for. Deduct paid received by same line....

6,684 58 ment with Belgium been yet consummated. feitures incurred for defective service. The ag. Some steps have been taken with reference to gregate amount of fines and deductions for the

Excess of unpaid received .....

14,866 37 a postal convention with Mexico. A mutual last year has thus been greatly increased.

Total excess of unpaid over paid received by

all the lines ... exchange of dead letters has already been agreed I am pleased to say that the introduction into

216,734 99

The amount of paid sent by Cunard line was.. 143,008 54 upon and carried into effect; and I now await a the post offices of a better system of responsibility Deduct amount of unpaid sent by same line.... 115,564 17 project, which Mexico is to propose,

for a more for mail bags has resulted in checking the waste of perfect arrar.gement, by which it is expected the this species of property. The consequence has

Excess of paid sent......

27,444 37 rates of postage between the two countries will been a decrease of twenty per centum in the num

The amount of paid sent by Collins line was... 90,721 77 be materially reduced. bers of letter mail bags procured during the year

Deduct amount of unpaid sent by same line. 52,036 07 Under our postal convention with Great Britain, ending 30th of June last, as compared with the Excess of paid sent......

38,685 70 the Philadelphia post office, with the concurrence preceding year; though the ordinary increase in The amount of paid sent by Havre line was... 20,815 44 of that Government, has been constituted an office the transportation of letters has required the use Deduct amount of unpaid sent by same line.... 14,046 72 of exchange for United States and British mails. of a greater number of bags than were actually The articles of agreement on this subject are used before,

Excess of paid sent......

6,768 72 hereto annexed. I regret to state that my propo- My assistants and chief and other clerks have

The amount of paid sent by Bremen line was.. 21,913 34

Deduct amount of unpaid sent by same line... 11,621 20 sition for the reduction of pamphlet and magazine faithfully attended to all their duties during the postage between the two countries to one cent an past year.

JAMES CAMPBELL. Excess of paid sent....

10,292 14 ounce on either side has been positively declined To the PRESIDENT.

Total excess of pard over unpaid sent by all the by the British Post Department. The combined


83,190 93 rate is at present altogether too high, being eight


The total amount of letter postages on Prussian cents an ounce for all works of this kind above

The report of the Auditor of this Department, mails during the year was $217,663 18. the weight of two ounces. shows that the aggregate amount of postages, in- Amount collected in Prussia..

..120,491 73 In the month of March last an arrangement was land, sea, and foreign, on letters and other maila

Amount collected in United States..

97,171 45 made with the proprietors of the Australia pioneer ble matter received and sent by the following lines line of monthly packets to convey mails regularly during the fiscal year, was:

Excess collected in Prussia........

23,320 28 between New York and Port Philip, Australia, at By Collins line, New York and Liverpool

Of the amount collected in Prussia there was two cents a letter, one half cent per newspaper, On letters.......

$288,273 55 of unpaid received $104,494 74; of the amount and one quarter cent an ounce for pamphlets and On newspapers....................vor..... 9,643 58 collected in Prussia there was of paid sert magazines; and, with the view of affording to our

$15,996 99; of the amount collected in the United citizens the cheapest practicable means of commu

$307,917 13

States there was of unpaid received $41,903 64; nication with that country, I have fixed the rates

By New York and Bremen line

of the amount collected in the United States there on all out-going matter by that line at five cents a On letters.......................

•$135,687 07 was of paid sent $55,267 81. letter, two cents each for newspapers, and one On newspapers....................... 2,349 62 The total amount of paid and unpaid sent from cent an ounce or fraction of an ounce for pamphlets

Prussia was $57,900 63, conveyed, as follows: and magazines, prepayment required. These

$138,036 69

By the Cunard line, $28,186 29; by the Collins rates embrace both the United States inland and

By New York and Havro line

line, $16,772 42; liy ine Havre line, $6,882 21; sea postage. As the United States postage cannot On letters

$92,424 56 by the Bremen line, $6,059 71. be prepaid on incoming letters by this line, they On newspapers...............

2,353 52

The total amount of paid and unpaid sent are treated as ordinary ship letters. Similar ar

from the United States was $159,762 55, conveyed,

$94,778 08 rangements have been made during the year with

as follows: By Cunard line, $84,062 30; by Collins the proprietors of the steamers Black Warrior and By Charleston and Havana line, on letters and

line, $51,60306; by Havre line, $17,110 35; by Cahawba to convey mails semi-monthly between newspapers

10,156 53 Bremen line, $6,986 84. New York and Havana, and New Orleans and By New York and California lines, on letters

The total amount of letter postages on Havre Havana, at two cents a letter, and also with the

and newspapers, including receipts from
British and California closed mails pertaining

mails during the year was $18,732 43; all of proprietor of the steamship Jewess to convey mails to the lines...

324,005 19 which was collected in the United States; amount once in every twenty days between New York | By New Orleans and Vera Cruz line, on letters

received by Havre line, $10,540 70; by Collins and Nassau, New Providence, returning by way

and newspapers..

4,675 99 line, $102 90; amount sent by Havre line, of Havana, at the same rate of compensation.


.$879,570 61

$8,088 83. By these agreements an important point has been

The lo!al amount of letter postages on Bremen gained in sustaining the Departmeni in the efforts which should be made in all future arrangements

The total amount of letter postage on British mails during the year was $82,979 86; amount

mails collected in the United States and Great collected in the United States, $69,367 69; amount to keep the cost of the ocean service, if possible, Britain was $979,648 30.

collected in Bremen $13,612 17; excess collected within its receipts.

Collected in the United States.

in United States, $55,755 52. To the appendix (marked A) I invite your par- By Collins line....

.8182,100 23 of the amount collected in the United States ticular attention and that of Congress.

By Cunard line....

372,119 42 there was of unpaid received $50,138 41; of the It exhibits full statistical information on the

By Havre line................

42,101 67

amount collected in the United States there was subject of the foreign mails; embracing the amount

By Bremen line...

43,464 29

of paid sent $19,229 28; of the amount collected of postages, inland, sea, and foreign, on mailable Total....

$630,785 61 in Bremen there was of unpaid received $9,657 63;

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of the amount collected in Bremen there was of of postages accruing to the United States on Bre- Sent by the Cunard line, 4,3384 ounces; by paid sent $3,954 54.

men mails was $69,621 42; the net revenue to the the three United States lines, 1,963. Total sent, The total amount sent from Bremen was United States Post Office, with the United States 6,3014. $54,092 95, conveyed, as follows: by United inland included, was $39,983 09; deducting the Bremen closed mails sent by Collins line, 2,773 States steamers $45,914 58; by Bremen steamers United States inland there was a deficit to United $8,178 37.

States Post Office of $1,50) 84; the amount of Havana closed mails received, by Cunard line, The total amount sent from the United States

postages accruing to the United States in Prus- 2,916 ounces; by the three United States lines, was $23,886 91 conveyed as follows: by United siap closed mails was $172,737 39; the disburse- 985. Total received, 3,901). States steamers, $22,168 62; by Bremen steamers, ments by the United States for the conveyance of The number of letters and newspapers conveyed $5,090 12; by Collins line $1,628 17.

those mails, including $91,962 58 paid to Great during the year was, by the New York, New OrBritish Postages collected by the United States. Britain and commissions paid United States post- leans, Aspinwall, and Pacific mail steamship lines, Amount by Cunard line.....

$372,119 42 masters, was $178,132 95; showing a deficit to 2,958,681 letters and 3,482,410 papers; CharlesDeduct United States inland, 5-24..

77,524 88 the United Siates Post Office Department of ton and Havana line, 80,012 leiters and 35,820 Balance...

$294,594 54
$5,395 56.

papers; New Orleans and Vera Cruz line, 21,528 Amount by the United

The number of letters exchanged between the letters and 22,486 papers. Total number of letters, States steamers.. ..$267,666 19

United States and the United Kingdom in British 3,060,221. Total number of papers, 3,540,666. Deduct United States

mails, during the year, by the Cunard line was, The amount received from Great Britain on inland and sea, 21-24 231,207 91

2,740,866; by the Collins line, 1,086,495; by the 33,458 28

loose letters collected during the year on board the Balance..

Bremen line, 253,540; by the Havre line, 255,803. Atlantic mail steamers was $981 74; amount paid Total..... $328,052 82 Total, 4,336,704.

Great Britain on same, 87cents; the amount of postUnited States Postages colleced by Grea:

The number of newspapers by the Cunard line ages collected by the United States, and accounted Britain.

was, 1,571,299; by the Collins line, 630,685; by for to Great Britain on letiers to and from foreign Amount by the Cunard

the Bremen line, 122,787; by the Havre liné, ll countries in transit through the United Kingdom line ..

$217,041 23 Deduct British inland 148,005. Total, 2,472,776.

was, on unpaid letters received, $21,282 51; on and sea, 19-21....... 171,824 30

The number of letters received by the Cunard paid letters sent, $11,550,43; on unpaid newspa$45,216 '93

line was, 1,491,458; by the three Únited States pers received, $1,155 97; on paid newspapers sent, Amount by the United Stales steamers......$122,821 46

lines, 707,635. Total received, 2,199,093. $692 06. Total, $34,689 97. Deduct British inland,

The number of letters sent by the Cunard line | The amount collected by Great Britain, and 3-24..... 15,352 68

was, 1,249,408; by the three United States lines, accounted for to the United States on similar 8107,468 78 888,203. Total sent, 2,137,611.

matter in transit through the United States, was, Total....

$152,685 71

The number of newspapers received by the on unpaid letters received, $1,854 40; on paid

Cunard line was, 716,864; by the three United letters sent, $13 96—$1,868 36. Excess collected Excess of British collected by the United

States lines, 243,241. Total received, 960,105. in United States on this class of correspondence, States......

..$175,367 11

The number of newspapers sent by the Cunard $32,812 61; amount received from Great Britain This calculation is based on the assumption that

line was, 854,435; by the three United States lines, on dead letters to the London office, $1,587 73; all the letters originated in the United Kingdom or 658,236. Total sent, 1,512,671.

amount paid Great Britain on dead letters returned the United States, which is not the fact. It, how

The number of letters exchanged between the to Washington, $2,086 02; amount received on ever, gives the result in the most favorable light the year, by the Bremen line was, 377,530; by

United States and Bremen, in Bremen mails, during dead letters returned to Prussia, $44 588; amount possible with respect to Great Britain, inasmuch

paid on dead letters received from Prussia, $945 58; as a very considerable portion of the unpaid matter

Bremen steamers, 65,797; by the Collins line, amount received on dead letters returned to Brereceived from Great Britain is from Australia, 8,631. Total, 451,958.

men, $1,705 30; balance due the United States China, and other countries, in transit through the

The number of newspapers, by the Bremen op the adjustment of the accounts with Prussia at United Kingdom, on which the British proportion line was, 10,453; by the Bremen steamers, 2,228; | the close of the last fiscal year, $70,412 13; balance

due Bremen on the adjustment of the accounts at of the whole postage is proportionably much larger by the Collins line, 1,035. Total, 13,716. than it is on matter posted in Great Britain. On

of this number there were received, by the the close of the fiscal year, $13,823 46; balance the other hand, the amount of unpaid matter reBremen line, 238,032 letters, 5,773 newspapers;

due Great Britain on adjustment of the accounts ceived in Great Britain from countries in transit

by the Bremen steamers, 35,304 letters, 393 news- at the close of the fiscal year, $195,522 68. through the United States, on which the United papers. Total received, 273,336 letters, 6,166 The amount of postages for the year on mails

newspapers. States proportion of the postage is increased, is

received and sent between the United States and

There were sent, by the Bremen line, 139,498 the British provinces, under the postal arrangecomparatively triling.

ments with Canada and New Brunswick, by Statements are annexed, from the Auditor's | letters, 4,680 newspapers; Bremen steamers, 30,493 office, showing the revenues derived to the United

letters, 1,835 newspapers; Collins line, 8,631 lec- || which each party retains what it collects, was

ters, 1,035 newspapers. Total, 178,622 letters, States, and also to the United States Post Office,

$156,763 41. 'or this amount the British provinces 7,550 newspapers.

have collected from letters-received' unpaid, from each of the trans-Atlantic mail steamship lines, as follows:

The number of letters exchanged between the $48,302 43; sent paid, $30,928 77. Total collected

United States and the Kingdom of Prussia in The gross revenue to the United States, without

in British provinces, $19,231 20. deducting commissions or the United States inland

closed mails during the year, by the Cunard line The United States have collected from letters,

was, 366,642; by the Collins, Havre, and Bremen received unpaid, $38,161 79; sent paid, $39,375 42. postageslines combined, 345,652. Total, 712,294.

Total collected in United States, $77,537 21. From the Cunard line was..

- $139,830 50 From the Collins line was...

274,741 16

The number of newspapers by the Cunard line || Balance in favor of the provinces, $1,793 99. From the Bremen line was..

123,507 11 was, 25,025; by the Collins, Havre, and Bremen The balance in favor of provinces during the From the Havre line was....... 86,864 35 lines combined, 25,031. Total, 50,056.

previous year, as per last' annual report, was Total gross revenue........

The number of letters received by the Cunard $1,543 22. $624,943 12

line was 91,633; by the three United States lines, The net revenue to the United States post | 96,655. Total received, 188,288.

EXECUTIVE POLICY. offices, deducting commissions, but including the The number of letters sent by the Cunard line United States inland postages: From the Cu- was, 275,009; by the three United States lines, The original Policy avowed in the President's Inaunard line was $1,483 91; from the Collins line, || 248,997. Total sent, 524,006.

gural Address; in his first Annual Message; in his $208,670 89; from the Bremen line, $84,817 01; The number of newspapers received by the

Message on the Black Warrior;" his Change of from the Havre line, $63,928 97—total, $358,Cunard line was, 3,356; by the three United States

Position in his second Annual Message; his Secret 900 78. The net revenue to the United States lines 4,584. Total received, 7,940.

Efforts; the Higher Law" which should guide

Statesmen. post offices, deducting commissions, and also the The number of newspapers sent by the Cunard United States inland postages: From the Col

line was, 21,669; by the three United States lines, lins line was $153,377 61; from the Bremen line, || 20,447. Total seni, 42,116.

SPEECH OF HON. J. R. GIDDINGS, $37,906 66; from the Havre line, $46,303 82The number (in ounces) of letters received and

OF OHIO, total net revenue by the three United States lines sent in closed mails during the year was, as follows: is $237,588 09. Statements are also annexed Prussian closed mails received by the Cunard

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, showing the revenue derived during the last fiscal | line, 30,059 ounces; by the three United States

December 11, 1854. year by the United States and by the United States lines, 31,717. Total received, 61,776. post offices on the correspondence exchanged with Prussian closed mails sent by the Cunard line, | The House being in the Committee of the whole

on the state of the Union on the President's Great Britain, Bremen, and Prussia, respectively, || 85,350 ounces; by the three United States lines, under the existing postal conventions with each 77,657. Total sent, 163,007.

Message-of those countries, as follows: The amount of Canada closed mails received by the Cunard line, Mr. GIDDINGS said: postages collected by the United States on British | 97,980, ounces; by the three United States lines, Mr. CHAIRMAN: In the earlier days of the Re. mails, was $660,219 03; the net revenue to the 2,847}. Total received, 100.827.

public the President's annual message was reUnited States Post Office, with United States Sent by the Cunard line, 102,551 ounces; by l garded as the most important State paper of the inland included, but deducting the amount paid the three United States lines, 2,8441. Total seni, 1 session. It was supposed to express the whole Great Britain, difference on British mails, and also 105,396.

policy of Government; and was usually discussed, commissions to United States postmasters, was

California closed mails received by the Cun- | examined, and scrutinized until the holidays were $253,431 78; the net revenue to the United States ard line, 6,3984 ounces; by the three United States passed, when we usually enter seriously upon the Post Office for the ocean postage, deducting the lines, 2,145; by the West India British packets, || work of legislation. From this forum gentlemen United States inland, was $39,988'09; the amount ll 6,276. Total received, 14,8194.

spoke to the people of the nation, calling public 33d Cong.... 20 Sess.

Executive Policy-Mr. Giddings.


attention to whatever they deemed important in take the oath of office, while avowing the most The cause of freedom is going forward there, and the message. That practice, I think, was salutary, important measures which were to characterize his the work of immediate and total emancipation will it was a great saving of time, and I am unwilling | administration, the President announced to the commence at no distant day; indeed, it has already to see it abandoned. This is a Governnient of tho country his convictions that the domestic servitude begun. This influence must tell upon the slaves people, and we cannot communicate with them too of our southern States was based upon the same of our own States, and why is the President silent freely in regard to our national affairs; and I may principles as other recognized rights. His convic- at this important juncture? The reason of this be permitted to add, that if the speeches made on tions that slavery and freedom stood upon the silence this obvious timidity-is understood by our appropriation bills, respecting the policy of same moral level, based upon the same law of our every member. The condemnation of his policy the Government, were pronounced in committee Creator, were thus publicly avowed. He solemnly by the people, at our recent elections, is seen and on the President's message, they would be far || placed on record the declaration that a holy and read of all men. It is written upon the tablet of more appropriate, and we should become better righteous God ordained and sanctified the institu- the moral Universe. It came to the President practical staiesmen.

tion of human servitude, with its attendant crimes, like the voice of the Almighty to the rich man. If no other gentleman is prepared, at this time, as plainly as he did the right to life, liberty, and He trembles, falters, retires before the storm of to speak upon this message, I will occupy the happiness. This lamentable perversion of his popular indignation which now overspreads the attention of the committee for a few minutes, moral faculties might have been passed over with northern heavens. That is right—it is proper. although I am not prepared. But it will be my out attracting attention, except for the inference | So far, I approve his course on this subject. It is purpose to speak of what the message avoids, which he drew from this extraordinary predicate. his duty to yield his sentiments and views to the rather than of what it expresses; of its silence Having laid down this principle, he proceeded to instructions of those who wield the sovereign rather than of its declarations. It is true that announce to the country that our slave States were power of the nation. what is said in regard to the destruction of Grey: | entitled to congressional legislalion in order to sus- But it cannot be disguised that while the Presi. town is open to animadversion. Our national tain their slavery.

dent is thus silent in his message, he continues honor has been compromitted: the act was disrep- This doctrine was novel, important, and startling his efforts in a secret, a clandestine manner, to utable to our Navy.' But so far as the Presideni's to those who examined the address with critical obtain Cuba. Through the Ministers of other elaborate argument goes to exculpate his adminis- attention. No former President had presumed to Governments, resident at Madrid, we are informed tration, or the nation from a transaction so un- declare the people of the free States thus impli- | that our representative at that court is making worthy of the American people, I wish him all cated in the crimes and disgrace of slavery. Of all possible exertions to attain that object. It is success. His attempt, however, to cast odium | all the slaveholders who have filled the Executive a humiliating consideration that we are indebted upon the people of Greytown by characterizing chair, none had thus boldly and unequivocally to the representatives of other Governments, and them as “a heterogeneous assemblage of blacks, attempted to nationalize an institution which the the press of other nations, for information which and persons of mixed blood," was unworthy of an people of the free States abhor and repudiate. should be communicated by the President in his American Magistrate. Had he spoken of their The declaration was clear and distinct to every annual message. These attempts to evade popular intelligence, their virtue, or their patriotism, his man accustomed to the diplomatic language of the scrutiny cannot avail the President. They are remarks would have been understood; but the President. There was apparently no disguise on unworthy of the station he occupies. If his policy attempt to impute demerit to the people of Grey- his part. For many years we had seen cur in- be just, the people will sustain him; if unjust, he town to justify the destruction of their dwellings Auence as a nation occasionally prostituted, in a should abandon it; but no circumstances can exand property on account of their complexion, silent manner, to the support of slavery, while cuse these secret efforts. His organ, too, the shows a distrust of his own position-a want of the advocates of freedom opposed the practice, Union, of this city, is silent on this subject. So fact and of argument to justify himself. The dis- and called on slaveholders and their “northern are his friends. reputable proceeding at Greytown arose from one allies” to throw off their disguise, to stand forth Now, Mr. Chairman, we all like to see men of the basest murders ever perpetrated. It was before the nation, and openly maintain or deny the bold and manly in their conduct, and I hope the committed upon a man of mixed blood, in the right of the Federal Government thus to pervert advocates of the President's avowed policy will presence of our Minister, who, by a display of its power. Mr. Pierce met this demand in a stand up to their work lise men, or surrender at mob violence, protected the murderer and made manner becoming a President of determined pur- | discretion. If that policy be carried out, we must himself accessory to the crime. He is a slave-pose. He promptly accepted the issue which his have Cuba to give strength to slavery; if they holder, accustomed to witness all manner of out- predecessors and his party had so long evaded. abandon Cuba, they must abandon the President's rages upon colored people, and no doubt supposed And when the slaveholding press of the country policy. What do the President's friends intend that a white man had the right to commit murder called on him and on Congress to take measures doing? Let them speak out, show their colors, on a colored person; but this attempt of our Pres- for obtaining Cuba, in order to prevent the ex- and prove themselves men. Why, the battle has ident to carry out this slaveholding principle, this i ample which emancipation in that island would scarcely commenced; yet as the supporters of absurd doctrine, was not expected. It must fail have upon the slaves of our southern States, Mr. slavery see their black nag trailing in the dust, of its object.

Pierce responded, in his message on the Black they cease firing and spike their own guns. Does But, Mr. Chairman, I repeat that I intend call- Warrior, that if Cuba persisted in a policy thus the President and his friends understand that if a ing the attention of the House and country more endangering the honor and safety of our slave States, treaty for the purchase of Cuba be obtained, to matters which the message avoids, than to those she could not expect that peaceful relations would another Congress, composed of other men, will which it discusses. Firstly, I ask attention to long subsist between this Government and Spain; \ pass upon the bill to make the necessary approthe fact that this important State paper does not and he proceeded to intimate the proprieiy of priation to pay the purchase money? Or, if war contain the word slavery, nor does it make any Congress making provisions for carrying this war- be waged, chat another Congress, composed of direct reference to that institution. The import- like policy into effect.

men who repudiate the President's doctrine, must ance of this omission will be appreciated when I In urging this measure the people of the South either carry on such a war, or constrain the Presstate that for twenty-five years no annual message relied on the doctrine avowed by the President. ident to make peace and do justice to the Spanish of our Presidents has omitted direct reference to If the nation be bound to sustain the slavery of Government. In short, the decree has already human servitude, and I think in every instance the South, then, sir, we must prevent emancipation been entered, the fiat has gone forth from the the Executive has assured the slaveholders of his | in Cuba, whatever may be the expense of blood American people, that if Cuba comes into this intention to protect their “peculiar interest” and treasure. If the policy and doctrine of the Union, it must come free. Her slaves can never against all improper influences. This fact shows President's inaugural 'be correct, then are the breathe the air of this Republic. an important change, a revolution in the Execu- southern people correct in urging this Govern- Again, in pursuance of the general policy avowed tive mind. Of this omission, however, I do not ment into a war with Spain, unless we can pre- | by the President, he strongly urged us, in his last complain. In truth, no President ever ought to vent emancipation in Cuba by other means. Ac- annual inessage to make an appropriation from have expressed any such assurance in favor ofcordingly, in his annual message of last year he our national treasury to compensate the Cuban slavery; nor had the Executive or legislative endeavored to prepare the public mind for obtain-pirates who claimed to own the people on board branch of Government any right to extend any ing that island. A long paragraph of that mes. ihe slave ship Amistad. He evidently deemed influence or aid in maintaining oppression. The sage was devoted to this subject; and it was well this incidental to his avowed policy of sustaining duty of both those branches of Government understood by all intelligent men that a Minister | the institution. It was well calculated to soothe the ever has been, and now is, lo sustain freedom, to the Court of Madrid was selected for the very Spanish authorities, to assure them that we had protect the liberties of all men under our exclusive purpose of obtaining. Cuba by purchase, or of no moral objections to the business of dealing in jurisdiction, and to leave slavery with the States involving our nation in a war, to open the way human flesh, and thereby show them that all the in which it exists. And if the President was now for its conquest.

interests involved in Cuban oppression would be exerting no secret, no clandestine influence in Sir, the people, particularly those of the South, sustained and upheld by us if that island were favor of slavery, had his acts on this subject cor- will read ihis message with astonishment, when annexed to our Government. I toois occasion to responded with his silence, I should not have now they find that it contains no allusion whatever to expose the depravily of that proposition at the troubled the House with any remarks. But I ask Cuba. Why this silence upon a matter so import- first moment in my power. wliy this ominous silence? Why has the Presi- ant? Has the Presidentgiven up the policy avowed The honorable chairman of the Committee on dent abandoned the practice of his predecessors in his inaugural address? If so, he ought to let it | Foreign Affairs, assured the House tha his comfor the last quarter of a century? Why has he be known. All must understand, that if he carries mittee would report a bill in conformity with the abandoned the practice adopted by him in his out the doctrine avowed at his entrance upon President's recommendation. He declared my inaugural address ? repeated' in his first annual office, he must obtain Cuba; and the inquiry of speech to be full of errors of law, errors of fact, message? enlarged upon in his message upon every man is, what are the prospects! The people and errors of logic which he would, at an early the Black Warrior, and carried out, so far as able, have a right to know. Yet, here is a total silence day, expose. One year has passed, and we have by the efforts of his most distinguished political in the message in regard to that measure. Civili. not heard from him on this subject. I would and personal friends?

zation is advancing in Cuba. The authorities respectfully inquire whether he will expose my On the 4th of March, 1853, standing in the there are more active than ever in arresting the errors in this world, or will he postpone it to the eastern portico of the Capitol, as he was about to slave trade; in setting the emancipadoes free. next? If he delay it to the future, it must go 330 CONG.... 2D. Sess.

Executive Policy-Mr. Giddings.


before a Plutonic Congress, where alone slavery | to office, is unmanly and undignified. I ask, will were based on the same moral and political prinwill be respected, and of that Congress I hope not the President's friends in this body follow his ciples; and he, too, like Mr. Pierce, attempted to to be a member.

example? Will they sit here during the present carry the doctrine into practice; but the people Mr. BAYLY, of Virginia. At the last session session with their lips hermetically sealed on this | denounced such infidelity to God, to our Constiof Congress I distinctly explained to the gentleman policy? We shall see what we shall see.

tution, and to mankind; and the press spoke out from Ohio why I did not report the Amistad case. In direct and obvious accordance with this doc- ll in thunder tones; and Mr. Tyler, a slaveholder, In my statement at that time, I said that our trine of the President, we saw a distinguished || had the grace to recede, and leave the claims of the 1 affairs with Spain were so unsettled that I was personal and political friend of the Executive, in slave merchants without pressing them farther, not disposed to move in that matter until we had l ihe other end of the Capitol, at the last session of 1 and to abandon the doctrine since proclaimed by disposed of the Black Warrior case, and several Congress, move to restore the African slave trade, || Mr. Pierce at his inauguration. other cases before our committee. My anxiety to with all its attendant crimes, its unutterableguilt- It has been said with great propriety, that the expose the errors of fact and argument in the gen- | to bring back the horrors of the middle passage' principal distinction attained by the present Adtleman's speech was not so great as to cause me to in board our slave ships, and to sustain them ministration, consisted in the fact that it had, by obtrude myself upon the attention of this House with the influence and power of the nation. The way of contrast, added dignity to that of Mr. Tyler. merely for the sake of that exposure, when it || proposition is most reasonable, if the President's | It is certainly true that the present Executive has might inflict injury upon our public interest and doctrine be correct. If we sustain slavery, it | assumed doctrines which Mr Tyler discarded. pending affairs with Spain.

follows that we must sustain the traffic in slaves. I shall wait to see whether Mr. Pierce will have Mr. GIDDINGS. I thank the gentleman for || If slavery be right, the slave trade cannot be wrong, the grace to repudiate them as his illustrious prethe explanation. This statement was made sub- || and if we protect one we must protect the other. Il decessor did, or will he, in the midst of this polic

sequently to his promise to which I alluded; but ||1t is idle io pronounce him who sells slaves a ical etorm, imitate the sailor who, when the ship : I do not see very clearly how the exposure of my l pirale, and hang him, and then turn round and was going to pieces, under directions of the captain errors would have very dangerously affected our uphold and encourage him who buys and flogs || for every one to seize upon something on which relations with Spain. 1 frankly let ihe gentleman them. We cannot sustain the President's policy to float ashore, laid hold of the anchor and went off at this time, hoping he will not postpone his without restoring the African slave trade. And the down with it. promised exposure unul after my death.

movement in the other end of the Capitol for that Again, we are all aware that the Administration But my object in calling attention to this subject, | purpose was an effort to carry out the President's || is called on to obtain a treaty with Great Britain is to notice the silence of the President, of his doctrine. It was an important movement; one for the return of the fugitivé slaves now resident organ, of his friends, in regard to it; while one that has excited wonderand astonishment through-1 in her Canadian Provinces. This, too, is but an year since he so strongly urged its consideration out the Christian world. Captain Smith, now incident in carrying out the President's avowed upon us. Why this backing out? Have the awaiing, in the prison of New York, the time at policy. If that policy be correct, it follows that recent elections paralyzed these Goliahs of the which he is to expiate upon the gallows the crime the nation is under obligations to obtain those fugislave dealing interest? Are they struck dumb at of slave dealing, has done no more than the Pres- 1 tives. Why does the President falter or hesithe recent manifestations of the people's displeas- | ident and his friends now propose authorizing. I tale? He must depart from his pledged devotion ure? Is the chill of political death 'already upon every American citizen to do with impunity. If 10 that institution, or he must put forth whatever them? Are they beginning to look into their the President's doctrine be correct and just, this influence he can command to obtain those fugipolitical graves?

man ought not to suffer. If the President's ideas tives. Yet he is silent on the subject. He apWe have been informed, though not by the | be correct, the law pronouncing the slave trade pears unwilling to say anything respecting the President, that negotiations have been entered piracy is unjust and cruel. If the President be matter. Why, sir, all these subjects to which I into by which this Government has obtained from || morally innocent, Captain Smith cannot be morally have called attention are matters to which the the Dominican authorities territory upon the bay || guilty. Nor do i blame the President so much as Executive stands solemnly pledged before the of Samana, for the purposes of a naval depoi. some do for this attempt to restore the African country. He must violate that pledge, or mainThe object of this is obvious. For many years

commerce. It is no worse, indeed it is not so tain to the extent of his influence and political the Executive has been exerting its influence to aggravated in some respect as the commerce in power, these and many other measures which, if encourage and sustain the mulattoes of San Do- slaves, now carried on uponour southern coast, and carried out, will operate beneficially for oppresmingo in their resistance to the legitimate authority in this Dietrict, for the sole purpose of encouraging | sion. of Hayti, for the evident purpose of eventually and sustaining slavery. Here, in this District, as It is true, that when the inaugural address was subverting that colored Republic. The example || well as on the coast, we authorize the sale and delivered, the Whig and Democratic parties had, of a colored people sustaining the position of an in- transportation of civilized and christianized men in national conventions, resolved to resist all agidependent nation among the Powers of the earth, ll and women. We authorize the sale and transfer tation of the slave question. While they stood is at war with the pretense of slaveholders and of Methodists and Baptists, Episcopalians and thus bound to observe silence, the President seized their apologists, that colored people are ignorant, Catholics, and even preachers of the gospel are upon the opportunity to go farther in favor of stupid, and incapable of protecting themselves. It made merchandise. We authorize the sale and | agitating for the benefit of that institution than is at war with slavery. Our Government has there. | purchase of the Savior of mankind in the person any other President or statesman ever went; and fore exerted its influence to blot out this example of his followers. This traffic in Christians is sus- one of his followers in the Senate subsequently, of the Republic of Hayti. The mission of Mr. | tained by the President and his friends; he insists in imitation of his example, declared that he would Green, and other agents sent there, was to bring || that we are bound to uphold it. Indeed we have, yet call the roll of his slaves under the shadow of about that result. It is necessary to carrying out | under former Presidents, silently lent our national the monument on Bunker's Hill. Neither Whig this policy of supporting slavery by our Federal influence to encourage il, to obtain indemnity from nor Democratic presses at the time appeared willing power. Although it is said that a treaty has been | Great Britain for slave dealers who were far more to discuss the subject of slavery, notwithstanding effected by which we have obtained this cession deserving the halter than Captain Smith. We the important avowal of the President; nor did of territory, the President says nothing in regard | legislate to encourage one and to hang the other. || they appear generally to appreciate the importance to it. So far as the President has power, we and But my object in referring to these attempts to of the doctrine to which he pledged his Administhe people are kept ignorant of all that has been restore the foreign slave trade, was to exhibit thetration; but the people now see its application, and done, and all thai is doing, in this matter. For- || President's silence in regard to it. He makes no appreciate its bearing. tunately, however, the negotiation was confided | allusion whatever to the subject; and I shall await But another subject, incidental to this policy of to the judgment and discretion of a lady minister, || with interest the movement of his friends in the the President, has proven of paramount interest. who donned the cocked hat and small clothes of other House, and in this body. Will they, too, I refer to the repeal of the Missouri prohibition of her office, and bidding her husband to follow as recede? I am curious to see whether they will || slavery from our western Territories. This, too, one of the attachés of her legation, proceeded to the follow the President's silent example. In short, I was but carrying into practice the President's docdischarge of her important mission. I hope no am anxious to learn the precise effect which the trine of sustaining slavery by Federal legislation. lady will think me opposed to "women's rights,”: late elections have on the advocates of slavery in His silence on this exciting topic is more aston(laughter;) for really, I am an ardent advocate of the two Houses of Congress.

ishing than it is on any other. While this questhat doctrine, and regard this as one of the best dip- Sir, one other Administration attempted to pros- tion was pending at our late session, the Executive lomatic appointments the President has yet made; || titute the influence and powers of the nation to organ, the Union of this city, assured us repeats and if Mrs. Partington, or some other experienced protect the coast-wise slave trade. It was the edly that the President was anxious for the repeal lady, could take the place of a certain European | Whig Administration of John Tyler. I speak not of that prohibition. It exhorted all friends of the Minister, I doubt not it would be a great improve- || of past parties to injure the feelings of any one, Executive to stand up manfully and fight the bat.

It is an old adage, that ladies never keep | and it would be no more than justice to say that tle which then raged, assuring them that he would secrets." I do not believe in political secrets, nor in Mr. Tyler was abandoned and repudiated by the not suffer any to be driven to private life for adgovernmental secrets. Indeed, this is a Govern- Whig party. Yet I, as a Whig, voted for him, hering to his policy. He sent his agents into ment of the people, and they have an indisputable (God forgive me.). When the victims on board the | this Hall, openly proclaiming these terms, to buy right to know what their servants are doing. This slave ship Creole, in 1841, asserting that God had up support for his favorite measure; converting principle seems to have been appreciated by the endowed them, too, with the inalienable right to this forum into a political slave-market, in which lady referred to and from her we derive our inform liberty, took possession of the ship, landed on a lo buy up the representatives of the people; placing ation. My object, at this time, is to call attention British island, and, by the magic influence of his patronage in competition with the will of our to the President's silence on this subject. He British laws, were transformed into free men and constituents. His friends, too, in this body, appabreathes not a word in relation to it; with him, all free women, the slave dealers, who richly deserved | rently speaking by authority, boldly proclaimed is silent, all is-secret, all unknown to the people, the halter, returned and called on President Tyler | the President's views, threatening with expuļsion except as the woman has disclosed faces. I're- to assist them in obtaining compensation for their from the party those who should prove recreant peat, this studied silence in regard to everything loss. Mr. Tyler (honest soul that he was) really to his avowed policy: Now he is silent, and his touching slavery, or connected with the important thought, as Mr. Pierce does, and as many mem- organ is inexorably dumb. doctrine proclaimed by the President at his advent II bers of this body do, that slavery and freedom From day to day we were told that the passage

New SERIES.—No. 3.


330 CONG....20 Sess.

Executive PolicyMr. Giddings.

Ho. OF REPs.


of that measure would bring peace to the country- thus sinned against light and knowledge; but | They neither have, nor can have, such tight. We would quiet all agitation among the people and in having transgressed the law of justice, they must may as well talk of the right to commit piracy. this Hall, and effectually seal the lips of ihose who receive the appropriate penalty:

Popular sovereignty consists in the combined inflú. were advocating the doctrine of man's " inalien- Mr. INGERSOLL. . Will the ger han from ence—the united power of all the people of a State. able right to liberty.” I need not say how far Ohio inform me whether those gentlemen so re- It is an abuse of language, a perversion of the this prophecy was from truth. The result has cently candidates in Massachusetts for reëlection, term, to say that “popular sovereignty" allows shown it to have created a hundred-fold greater and now defeated for Congress, were the peculiar one portion of the people to tyrannize over another agitation on this subject than ever existed in the friends of the President?

portion--to flog, to buy, and sell them as they do nation before. Indeed, if I were to hazard an Mr. GIDDINGS. I believe that they did not brutes. opinion, I should say that this great, this unpar- vote for the bill. I am speaking of those who Sir, one of the best illustrations of this term donable error showed the Executive and those voted for it, at the President's invitation. I had “popular sovereignty," as used by the supporters who united in this assurance, wholly incompetent | particular allusion to the gentleman from Connec- of the Nebraska fraud, was given during the late to guide any political party, much less qualified | ticut, who has just taken his seat. (Laughter.] canvass up in the Wolverine State. A speaker to control the Executive power of Government. As he is about to take his departure to the shades was addressing a crowd there upon the sublime And we have good evidence, that the people of 1 of private life, I will say that I rejoice not in the truth that all men are endowed by their Creator the free Slates concur in this opinion.

deaih of any sinner. (Laughter.] I would rather with the inalienable right to liberty. A man with T'he bill passed. The prohibition excluding that he would have repented and lived, and received a “rich brogue” interrupted him with the inquiry, slavery from those Territories was repealed, the approbation of the people.

whether he denied the doctrine of “popular seoBlavery was admitted there, and the newspapers Mr. INGERSOLL.' The gentleman, perhaps, l ereignty.". The speaker replied, “No, sir; it is now give us the “price current of human fesh is not aware that no nominations for Congress the very foundation of my political faith. I hold upon the territory which our fathers, thirty-four | have been made in Connecticut, and, therefore, that every human being is sovereign of his own years since, solemnly consecrated to freedom. that I have not been put in nomination.

conduct, while he interferes with the rights of no We are now told, through the public press, that Mr. GIDDINGS. And never will be. (Laugh- other person. Now, sir, what do you understand men are worth from $1,000 to $1,500 per head, and ter.)

by the term popular sovereignty?'” “Well, women from $800 to $1,100.. And this informa- Mr. INGERSOLL. The gentleman may have indeed,” said he, “ I think the language is peration was given us at ühe very moment that north- more information in the matter than lor my friends fectly plain; how can a man be a sovereign unless ern serviles were endeavoring to make the people here. I can, however, inform the gentleman from he have one or more subjects on whom to exercise his believe that slavery would never go there. Why, Ohio of this: with the question of popular sover- sovereignty?" (Great laughter.) sir, these men had voted for the very object of eignty involved in the Nebraska bill, 'I feel that I That is precisely the popular sovereignty" sending slavery into that fertile region. It had with safety, go before my constituents, and given to the people of Kansas and Nebraska. It long been excluded, and they voted to remove the look for their approval of my course in sustaining was the right to buy and sell, and flog men and exclusion for the purpose of permitting it to be that great principle in this House.

women. It is the question on which my friend established on that soil. And let me say that this Mr. GIDDINGS. The gentleman says that I says he would be willing to go to the people of was most obviously a fair and legitimate carrying may know more on the subject than he does. I Connecticut. Were he to go to them on that out of the President's avowed doctrine. It was cannot say how that may be. But he speaks of question, I predict he would never return. solely with a view to aid and encourage slavery. Il popular sovereignty-a term iterated and reiterated Now, my friend is about to leave us forever. If his doctrine were correct, the admission of by every servile press of the North. Popular We must separate. I cannot say, as is usual on slavery into those Territories was correct. Il sovereignty, indeed! Do you, my dear sir, mean, funeral occasions, that our loss will be his gain, have never regarded this measure in any other when you speak of popular sovereignty, that all slaughter;) but I may say, in all kinduess, that light than a fair and honest carrying out of the the people of Kansas and Nebraska shall partici- | the political death of every supporter of the repeal President's doctrine. It comes as legitimately 1 pate in the government?

of the Missouri prohibition will be liberty's gainwithin his avowed principles as does the acquisi- Mr. INGERSOLL. I mean by popular sov- a gain to the cause of truth, justice, and humanity tion of Cuba, the restoration of the African slave ereignty that the people in Kansas and Nebraska -a gain to “popular sovereignty.' trade, the treaty with Great Britain, or the obtain- || have the right, under the Constitution, to determ- This sending of northern serviles to early poing territory in St. Domingo.

ine for themselves any questions affecting their litical graves illustrates in a striking manner the The President and the country have witnessed doinestic relations, the same as they have in Con- power of truth on the popular mind, when wielded some of the effects of extending slavery into necticut and Ohio. Is the gentleman answered? with earnest sincerity. When looking over the Kansas and Nebraska. The recent elections have Mr. GIDDINGS. Does the gentleman mean fields of our late political combats, and viewing demonstrated the light in which the people of the by people, all who bear the image of God? the massacre-the destruction of the “allies of free States view that measure. He and his friends Mr. INGERSOLL. I mean citizens of the slavery”—we are constrained to admire that unihave listened to the emphatic condemnation pro- United States.

versal law of God's Providence which visits retribnounced against them by the popular voice. He Mr. GIDDINGS. My friend need not equivo- | utive justice upon mankind for every transgresBees his policy repudiated, his influence prostrated, cate, nor quibble. We understand him. Does he | sion of that infallible rule of doing unto others as his political friends stricken down, his administra- mean by the term people, all who are impressed we would have them do unto us.' tion duomed to an unenviable notoriety, yet he with the likeness of the Almighty?

That man is unqualified for the position of a makes no reference to these things in his message. Mr. INGERSOLL. If I have read correctly statesman who, while he is unwilling to be a slave He has witnessed some of the consequences of this the report of a decision recently made, I believe himself, would authorize the people, or any porfirst carrying into practice the great policy which in the gentleman's own State it has been decided tion of the people, of Kansas and Nebraskato hold was to distinguish his administration, and he re- that a negro is not a citizen of the United States. Il others as slaves. In giving such vote he tramples mains silent. Why does he not inform us whether Mr. GIDDINGS. That is the most direct || upon the plainest dictates of God's " higher law;" he adheres to his original plan, or whether he in- answer I ever did get from a Yankee. (Laughter.) | avows his disbelief of the responsibility of human tends to abandon it? This silence is extraordinary. || I ask you, my friend, and I do it with all respect conduct, and proclaims himself an infidel to God We cannot account for it. He sees his friends and kindness, do you hold with Jefferson, Han- and a traitor to mankind. The time has come stricken down on his right hand and on his left || cock, and the Adamses, and their associates, that when men should speak frankly; and I repeat, by scores, by hundreds, ay, almost by thousands. all men are endowed by their Creator with an inalien- that the statesman who will vote for any law To those who voted for the Nebraska bill he is able right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness? | authorizing any oppression of other persons to bound to extend his protection against the people's || Answer, if you please.

which he is not himself willing to be subjected, indignation. How will he do it? He has not Mr. INGERSOLL. I believe in all the cardi- has failed to learn the first lesson of a “Christian offices enough at his disposal to meet these engage- nal principles of Jefferson--that includeil.

statesman," and is wholly unqualified for the ments. Will he follow the example of many com- Mr. GIDDINGS. I am glad that I have made duties of such an office. mercial men at this day, and declare his admin- || one convert. (Laughter.). Certainly his vote for But I was speaking, when interrupted by my istration to have failed ?' The people have already the repeal of the law which secured to all the friend from Connecticut, of those who are doomed done that; but will he, or some friend of his, inform | people of Kansas and Nebraska this “inalienable to suffer the popular indignation, for having voted us why he is so silent on this important matter? It right to liberty,” looked as though he did not be- to extend slavery into our Territories. Yet the is true that his friends were, at the time, cautioned lieve in that " self-evident” truth; and when he President does not even notice them in his message against the surrender of their judgments, and the now says that the people of Kansas and Nebraska | He attempts no justification of them, or of himself; consciences which God had bestowed upon them. || possess the right to enslave and brutalize a por. nor does he inform us whether he will adhere to or They were told that the extension of slavery into || tion of our race, he denies the doctrine asserted | abandon his policy. Was he destitute of the those Territories would awaken popular indigna- | by the patriots to whom I referred. They declared moral courage necessary to speak his determination. I myself kindly assured them that it would "that Governments are constituted among men to tion? Will he attempt to evade the popular disconsign them to early political graves; that before secure these rights" of life, liberty, and the pur- | pleasure by silence? Sir, it will be in vain. He we should again meei in this Hall, a political suit of happiness to all men. Most emphatically may call on the rocks and the mountains to fall cholera would sweep over the free States, carrying did every man who voted to permit slavery in on him and hide him from the popular indignathose who voted for the extension of slavery to those Territories deny this fundamental, this self- || tion, but it will be in vain. He has “ been that political " bourn from which no traveler re- evident truth.

weighed in the balance and found wanting;" and turns.” This prophecy has proven literally correct. The gentleman refers to popular sovereignty” | like his great prototype, he will be driven out" Why, sir, in Ohio there is not a soul left to tell as though it were contained in this bill, while he from the confidence of men. But it is due to his the sad tale of their overthrow. Judgment bas asserts ihat the people or citizens of the United position, to his friends and his opponents, that he been speedily executed against them and their | States, resident in those Territories, have the right should deal in frankness with the people. Will works. I would speak with feelings of kindness to hold slaves, if they please. I most unequivo- he persist in using his official patronage for the towards those who are about to take their final | cally deny the right of any people to enslave, to support and encouragement of slavery, or will he departure from us. I regret that they should have brutalize the humbleat individual of our race. abandon that policy?

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