Page images

330 Cong....20 Sess.

Kansas-NebraskaRecent ElectionsMr. Stephens, of Georgia.

Ho. of Reps.

I wish to say to the House and to the country, are for aiding the slaveholder in robbing the most the inquiry, and appointed a committee to draft an that the great issue tendered to the people of the degraded slave of these endowments.

Answer. Mr. Jefferson, the apostle of American free States is far broader and more comprehensive Another great principle is impressed upon man, i Democracy, penned the unanimous reply of the than the existence of slavery in Kansas and Ne. and upon all animate existence. It is the innate American people, admitting that “When, in the braska. This policy of the President, rendering right of " self-defense,” said to be the first law course of human events, it becomes necessary for the people of the free States responsible for the of nature.” Wherever rude man exist, this pri- one people to dissolve the political bonds which support and encouragement of that institution, is mary principle, this " higher law"prevails. The have connected them with another, and to assume a question of vase importance; involving a perfect || protection of our own lives, and the defense of among the Powers of the earth the separate and revolution of our Government. The matters to our own liberties, is not only a right pertaining equal station to which the laws of nature and which I have referred, and many others, are inci- to every creature bearing the likeness of God, but nature's God entitle them, a decent respect for the dental to carrying out this avowed policy of the the duty is above the reach of all human enact- opinions of mankind requires that they should Executive. In Ohio, we insist that our honor, our ments. He who would legislate to deprive the declare the causes which impel them to the sepamoral purity, shall not be involved in the crimes slave of the right and duty of defending his life ration.' or the disgrace of slavery. On this issue we went and liberty, and that of his wife and children, And, sir, what were those causes which imto the people, and eighty thousand majority attests wages a war against God's law, records himself | pelled them to separate from Britain? I would their intelligence and patriotism. We hold to a an infidel; a disheliever of God's word, and a | they were engraven upon every heart, imprinted “higher law” than congressional enactments. 1 traitor to our race.

on every mind, observed by every statesman. know, sir, this " higher law" has been sneered at; Our fathers declared “that Governments are The first great and overshadowing cause was that contempt has been poured out upon those who constituted among men to secure these rights." the right of all men to enjoy life, liberty, and the acknowledge allegiance to it. But those scoffers The President, in his inaugural, takes 188ue with | pursuit of happiness.' To sustain these " selfare now reaping the penalty of their transgression. | the founders of our Republic, and insists that Con- evident truths" they waged that mighty struggle It was the law of unchanging justice and righteous- gress is bound to legislate to aid the States in for independence. They proclaimed, and left on ness impressed upon the hearts and consciences depriving a portion of their people of these rights record, the solemn declaration that " our Governof the people that has pronounced the political to defend their lives and liberties, their wives and ment was constituted to sustain those rights.None doom of those men who voted for extending slavery || children, to rob them of the food which they obtain | but Tories then denied the doctrine; none but into Kansas and Nebraska, and doomed them to with their hands; to deprive them of their rights of | Tories then opposed founding a Government for political forgetfulness. Sir, the law of nature, of locomotion; to take away their intelligence, their this object. The Tories were overruled by the nature's God, impressed upon the planet which hopes of heaven, their manhood. The people of people, and this Federal Power was constituted, we inhabit, at its creation, has driven it for thou- the free States are opposed to this war upon human and consecrated to the just and holy purpose of sands of years through unlimited space, with a nature. These doctrines are so plain that the Pres- sustaining the liberties of all persons subject to velocity inconceivable to human thought, without | ident, and every member of this body, will not our exclusive jurisdiction. On this doctrine, Mr. the variation of a hair's breadth, from its pre- || only admit them, assert them to be in full force Pierce, in his inaugural, took distinct issue, placing scribed course. When man was brought into and application, so far as they, or their families, are himself with the Tories of the Revolution. He being; when the breath of life was breathed into individually concerned, but they would die ten denies that it is our duty to sustain liberty, insisting him by the Almighty, and he became a living soul, l thousand deaths before they would yield one of that we are bound to legislate for the benefit, the the same creative Power gave us a sympathy for these self-evident propositions,

promotion, and extension of slavery. He is now our race, a love of justice, a consciousness of our Sir, go and ask the slaveholder if he admits that endeavoring to carry out this doctrine by a silent, inherent right to life and liberty.

any earthly power possesses the right to rob him unseen method. Can he succeed? His friends This “higher law" has existed among men of his liberty, his food, his wife, his children, his in this body will be constrained to indicate their through the whole eternity of the past. True, it intelligence, his hopes of future felicity? and he position. The question of lending our support to has been obstructed, perverted, obscured, by the will regard you as demented. But he will tell | slavery is presented in too many shapes and forms selfishness, the ignorance, the vices, the crimes of || you that he himself was created a particular to be avoided. The great heart of the nation throbs mankind; yet, it has existed in the hearts of men, favorite of the Almighty, a pet of Omnipotence, | for a total separation from the contagion of slacontrolling the wise and virtuous of all ages. It who gave him not only the right to enjoy these very. To this result the popular tide is setting was this “higher law" of our moral natures, high prerogatives himself, but also conferred on and rolling with a force which no human arm can which guided our people at the recent elections, | him the privilege of robbing others; and the Presi- withstand. It will overwhelm all who oppose it. when they pronounced appropriate judgment upon | dent, in his inaugural, insists that we, the Repre- Let the lovers of justice, those who fear God and hundreds and thousands of individuals who, in sentatives of the free States, shall aid in this piracy. regard mankind, lift up their heads and rejoice: the moments of their political death, scoffed at the ! deny it; the people of the free States deny it; The day of our country's redemption draws nigh. existence of that law which was silently consign- | they expect their Representatives in this body to Christianity, in its progress, is unfolding to public ing them to premature graves. This higher law | deny it.' The late elections have demonstrated the

gaze the crimes of oppression. Those is who rules and reigns throughout the whole physical popular sentiment on this subject; and now the frame wickedness by law” are fleeing before the and moral universe. All animate and inanimate President is silent, struck dumb, like the criminal popular indignation; they cannot endure its fervent nature yield

obedience to it. In perfect accordance when called to plead either guilty or not guilty- || heat. This work will continue and progress until with its eternal, unchanging decrees, the fluids cir- he stands mute." I repeat this dodging the issue is the opponents of liberty shall be driven from our culate through the physical organizations of the unworthy of any Chief Magistrate of our nation. | free States, and the North shall become lustrated whole animal and vegetable kingdoms. But the cir- | He cannot evade it; he must frankly acknowledge and disinthralled from the contagion of human culation of the blood, the beating of the pulse in the || his error, or he will be taken by the people to bondage. human system, is not more distinctly marked upon adhere to it. He must choose whom he will serve. our physical organisms than the love of life and If justice and freedom be of God, let him sustain

KANSAS-NEBRASKA-RECENT ELECTIONS. liberty is impressed on our moral natures. Indeed, them. If he love the mammon of slavery, oppres. this " higher law" of adhering to life and liberty sion, vice, and crime, then let him uphold them. is not confined to man; it pervades all animated But he cannot serve the God of freedom and the SPEECH OF HON. A. H. STEPHENS, beings, down to the lowest insect. But this law mammon of slavery. No man can serve two mas

OF GEORGIA, of nature's God is seen most vividly in all men, ters. If we love justice, and hate crime, we shall and read by all men., Lungs were given to each express and maintain our doctrines. “Out of IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, individual, who, for himself, and not for another, the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh."

December 14, 1854, breathes the free air of heaven; and every breath This maxim was uttered by Wisdom from on acknowledges the existence of the “higher law.High, and is as applicable to the statesman as to In reply to the remarks of Mr. Mace, of Indiana, Limbs were given to bear us forth upon God's the preacher of the Gospel.

on giving notice of his intention to introduce a

bill to restore the Missouri Compromise. acknowledgment of the “higher law.Hands our Country,” said, in his Farewell Address, that

Mr. STEPHENS said: were given us, by which to feed and clothe our a "frequent recurrence to fundamental principles" Mr. CHAIRMAN: In taking the floor on this bodies; every time we taste food, we are reminded | is necessary to the preservation of our liberties. I occasion, it was not my purpose, nor is it my of this higher law;" and he who would rob me, I love to look back upon the doctrines laid down by || purpose now, to reopen or go into a discussion or the humblest of God's creation, of the food our revolutionary patriots, who met toil and

of the general merits of the Kansas-Nebraska obtained by our own effort, would set aside this hardship, danger and death, for the purpose of bill which was passed at the last session of Con

“higher law;" and, had he the power, would founding a Government upon those principles of gress. The gentleman from Indiana (Mr. Mace] -- invade heaven and dethrone Omnipotence. The universal justice, and universal liberty which are so came forward on yesterday, and, in a very for

man who reveres the Almighty, will reverence dear to the patriot and philanthropist. The time, | mal manner, announced the determination, for . His law. The man who denies the" higher law,” too, at which these fundamental iruths were laid. the future, of the opponents to that measure. Redenies the Giver of that law. Why, sir, will the down as the basis of our Republic, was one of peal is their policy. Prohibition of slavery is again President, or his friends, attempt to take from me, || deep interest. They had met our country's foes by act of Congress, my love of parents, affection on the fields of Concord, of Lexington, and of sidered the merits of the

to be put upon Kansas and Nebraska. I con

estion as settled at the for my offspring, admiration of wisdom, veneration Bunker Hill. Britons and Americans had there last session. I consider them as settled now. Revtoward my Creator? These are a part of my met in deadly conflict, and their blood mingled in olution never goes backwards—always forward. moral nature, inseparable from my perfect exisi- broad currents as it moistened the soil of those The argument in and out of Congress, and throughence; ay, they are the very essence of my being. I ensanguined fields. The Christian world demanded

out the Union, on the great movement made by Congress and the President would be no more why we thus arrayed ourselves in arms against a the National Legislature on this question, was then guilty, in the sight of Heaven, for legislating to people of the same origin, the same language, the conclusive, and, by the passage of that bill we deprive me of those parts of my nature, than they same religion? Congress felt the pertinency of I took a grand step in that progress which charac

to , the " Father of


330 Cong....20 Sess. Kansas-Nebraska-Recent ElectionsMr. Stephens, of Georgia.

Ho. OF REPs. terizes this age. There never will be any back- || it in Massachusetts? There is the honorable | against my colleague. It is true that in some of ward movement in this matter—at least in my gentleman from that State, (Mr. GOODRICH,) the southern counties he received but few votes; opinion. I have no apprehensions on that score; who was alluded to yesterday in connection with but it is also true, that in all the counties he reand I repeat, that I do not rise for the purpose of the gentleman from Indiana, as associated with ceived some, so that it was known that Mr. Miller opening, or again canvassing, the merits of the those who got up the Kansas and Nebraska Emi. was a candidate in all the counties in the State. Nebraska-Kansas bill. But the gentleman from gration Society. There is another, (Mr. Eliot,] While I am up, I want to state the reason why Indiana gave utterance to some remarks to which who came here and took the lead in favor of the the first candidate declined. He was nominated

I deem some reply proper. He seemed to think repeal of the fugitive slave law; and the gentleman as the Republican, Fusion candidate, and was 1. and argue that the late elections at the North con- who sits immediately in my rear, (Mr. Walley,) ) brought out by that party. And I hesitate not here clusively showed that the public sentiment there, who was distinguished in his opposition to the to declare that if he had continued in the field he by the late elections, had passed the sentence of bill-all were zealous in their opposition to the would have been beaten by more than ten thoupublic condemnation on the bill referred to, and || bill, all were candidates for reelection, and all were sand votes.' But the candidate who was brought demanded its immediate repeal. He spoke of that | left at home. All, sir, fell before the destroying out at last was indorsed by all the leading Whigs as a fixed fact. The gentleman from Maine, (Mr. || angel which came in the night, and they knew not in the State, as a sound, radical Whig. He was WASHBURN,) who succeeded him in the discussion, whence the blow came. It certainly did not come run by the Whigs and supported by the Fusionindulged in the same line of argument. Now, I from the quarter to which the gentleman from ists, which accounts for his receiving as heavy a wish to state to these gentlemen, to this commit- | Indiana alludes; for if the anti-Nebraskaites struck vote as he did. tee, and the country, that I draw no such inference down such men as those to whom I hare referred, Mr. STEPHENS. Then the interruption of from the late elections. It is true that the results | they did not back their friends as we do ours the gentleman on my left, (Mr. WASHBURNE,) after were very astonishing to some, though not to me, down South,

all, amounts to but very little. He says Moore and took many men, in and out of power, by sur- Mr. Chairman, now let me turn to the State of was elected by eighteen hundred majority. That prise.

Illinois. I allude to hier with pleasure, for I be- is quite enough for my purpose. I ask the honorable gentleman from Indiana | lieve there was not a single northern Slate where Mr. WASHBURNE. How much was Mr. how he reaches the conclusion that these elections the principles of the Nebraska bill were so openly Pierce's majority? set the seal of the public condemnation upon the and widely promulgated and considered, and so Mr. STEPHÉNS. It is not material to me friends of the great movement of the last session ? | fairly represented and met as in that State. The what Mr. Pierce's majority was. The popular I believe, Mr. Chairman, that there was no man distinguished Senator who had charge of the kill vote in Illinois at the recent election was in favor more zealous in his opposition to the bill then in the Senate, stood in the front of the battle, of sustaining the principle of the Nebraska bill. passed, not even excepting the gentleman from uever giving ground, never yielding an inch, and That is my point. I do not care whether the maIndiana himself, than yourself, and you will par- the distinguished and gallant gentleman upon this | jority was eighteen hundred, or five thousand, or don me, sir, the illustration. Even you, sir, from noor, (Mr. Richardson,) who had charge of it eighteen thousand. I am willing to take it at the city of brotherly love, are no longer returned to here, met the people of lllinois everywhere on its eighteen hundred. I heard that it was three thou. the seat which you have filled with so much abil- | merits. If there is a State north which may be sand. The gentleman has heard that it was eighteen ity, and in which you have voted with me on appealed to as one where there was anything like hundred; but the difference is immaterial. It is many questions of public policy-always except- a contest on the question, it was Illinois. And given up that a majority was in favor of the prining this particular measure. Now, I ask the gen- what was the result? There were but three men ciple of the Nebraska bill. So much for the poptleman from Indiana whether that is a proof that from that State who voted for the Nebraska bill, ular condemnation there. the people of Philadelphia agree with him and l and now we have four Nebraska men from Ili- Now, then, take the State of New York--for I with you, Mr. Chairman? I might argue, follow- || nois. It seems Nebraska gained strength by dis- must be brief upon this point. There was but ing his line, that this, your defeat, was the seal of cussion there. We had but three men before, and one candidate for Governor in that State who was reprobation on your course. But, sir, the truth now we have got four.

openly and avowedly in favor of the repeal of the is, your course on that bill, I take it, had but little Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. Will the Nebraska bill. I mean Mr. Clark. New York to do in your defeat one way or the other. Again, I gentleman tell me what the popular vote of Illi- gave but few votes upon this floor, for the bill. I Mr. Chairman, my honorable friend from another nois was upon the Nebraska question?

think it is generally conceded, that if there is any district in Pennsylvania, who sits to my right, Mr. STEPHENS. The only test of the pop- State in the Union that is particularly unsound (Mr. Hiester,) with whom I had a conversation ular vote in the entire State of Illinois that I know on this question, as gentlemen speak, it is New at the last session just previous to the passage of | upon that question, was upon the Siate treasurer, York. Well, sir, New York, with all its antithe bill, and who was quite as zealous in his op- and the Nebraska candidate carried it by a large || slavery organizations; with its Syracuse convenposition as you or the gentleman from Indiana, majority-three thousand majority, I have heard. tion, where everything was done that could be has also been defeated in the canvass for reëlec- In Congress, Nebraska gained one member. done to rally the freemen of the North, as it was tion. I do not recollect the majority against him.

said; with its emigration society; with all this, I have not attempted the Herculaneum excavating from Georgia in regard to the fact of the vote in how many votes did Mr. Clark get? Not more process of ascertaining the depths to which he has | Minois upon State treasurer. It is true that Mr. than one ihird of the votes of the State. Clark been buried in this popular irruption-the majority Moore, the Nebraska man, was elected, I have got one hundred and fifty-odd thousand votes; against him I do not know, but it was decided. seen it stated, by about eighteen hundred majority. | Seymour got some three hundred less--one hunThe gentleman from the first district of Pennsyl- | But it should be stated, in connection with that dred and fifty-odd thousand votes; and Ullman vania, (Mr. FLORENCE,] who voted and ardeníly | fact, that the man who ran against him-Mr. and Bronson, together, received about the same supported the measure, has been reëlected. I also Miller-was not known in the southern part of number, one hundred and fifty-odd thousand see that the gentleman from the Berks district | the State as a candidate, and was not voted for at more. So that, in the great State of New York, [Mr. Jones) has been again returned. Another | all in that part of the State. (Laughter.] where this question was made preëminently a test, gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. Packer,) and Mr. STEPHENS. I suppose not.

in the recent election, not one third of the votes an advocate of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, has been Mr. WASHBURNE. And I will say further, of the State were given for the anti-Nebraska returned. In fine, I find that some who have that if Mr. Miller had received his party vote in candidate. And yet the late election in New York voted for it and some who have voted against it that part of the State where he was not known as is held up as a popular demonstration in opposihave been returned to Congress. Why, sir, in a candidate, he would have been elected by some tion to the principle of the Nebraska bill. Sir, no Pennsylvania a gentleman ran for Governor who five or six thousand majority.

such conclusion can be drawn; and the same may was known to be opposed to the bill, and a gen- Mr. STEPHENS. Well, sir, I do not think be said in reference to the elections in Pennsylvatleman ran for Canal Commissioner on the opposite | the people of Illinois could have been exceedingly nia, in New Jersey, in Michigan, in Indiana; so ticket, and was known to be in favor of the offended and outraged by this measure, if they far as furnishing any popular demonstration upon measure. The opponent of the bill was elected did not take the trouble to have their candidates this subject, they amount to nothing. No person by thirty-seven thousand majority, while its ad- || in opposition known. And yet, the gentleman can draw any legitimate inference from them, in vocate was elected Canal Commissioner by, I from Illinois wants to have us believe that if they reference to this question. Some say it was the believe, one hundred thousand majority. Now, could only have had their candidates known, they Know-Nothings; some say it was the Temperance what is to be legitimately inferred from this state would have been elected by five or six thousand men; and some say it was the anti-Nebraskaites, of things? Certainly, not that the people of majority.

that caused the defeat. Pennsylvania had put their seal of reprobation Mr. WASHBURNE. I will state to the gen- Sir, I am not prepared to say what it was that on Nebraska. I should infer that the Nebraska | tleman that the candidate regularly, nominated caused these, to some people, so strange results. question had nothing or very little to do with the declined, and the other candidate was brought out I am inclined to think that ihe man down in North élection—it was an element only in the canvass. only a short time before the election.

Carolina was about right when he said it was Now, when the gentleman wishes to appeal to the Mr. STEPHENS. Then I can only say that General Malcontent that caused it. Some were results of an election as evidence of anything, he their candidate ran before the popular demonstra- || discontented because of the appointments of the must admit that the question claimed to be decided tion had got hold of him, (laughter;) and it only | President to office; some were discontented beby it ought to be the sole, leading, and paramount shows that the first candidate saw the hand writ.

was improper to send such a man as Mr. question in the canvass.

If such be the case, ing upon the wall, and was more prudent than the Soulé to Madrid; some were discontented beappeal can be made to the result. But when | last one. (Renewed laughter.)

cause it was wrong to send such a man as Mr. you find a Nebraska man elected Canal Commis- Mr. RICHARDSON. With the permission | Belmont abroad; some were dissatisfied at the sioner of Pennsylvania by one hundred thousand | of the gentleman from Georgia, I will make a sin- || appointment of Mr. Vroom; some at Mr. Dix; majority, and an anti-Nebraska man elected gle correction. My colleague states that Mr. some at the turning out of Bronson; some at the Governor by thirty-seven thousand majority, | Moore was elected treasurer of Illinois, because organization of the Cabinet-some at one thing it simply shows that this question could have his opponent was not known as a candidate in the and some at another. Some said one thing and had very little to do with the results. How was southern part of the State. Sir, the facts are if some another. There was general discontent and

[ocr errors]


33p CONG.... 20 SESS.

KansasNebraskaRecent Elections Mr. Stephens, of Georgia.



dissatisfaction—whether rightfully or wrongfully | fabrics—everything? Why, it is the industrial tax for the privilege of bringing our iron into the it is not my purpose now to discuss. But the Administration had pursued such a course as to true, sometimes grumble and complain, huli't be country, Georgia has paid not less than a million

and a half of dollars, as a duty on iron, into the make a large party of malcontents-men bent great majority of the people of the South have Treasury for the privilege of building her own upon breaking up things—this class, the North yielded to what they consider in some instances works of internal improvement. Now, I would Carolina man calls the "Ramshackles;” the des- very heavy exactione, for the support of Govern- | ask any candid man-I would ask the gentleman ignation is a good one. Yes, sir, it was General But when did we ever come up and ask himsell-if it is just, not only to tax Georgia for Malcontent and the great party of the "Ram- | any aid from the Government of the United States ? the privilege of constructing her highways, but shackles” that triumphed at the North at the The constant prayer of the South to you has been then to take these very taxes that we have paid late elections, and not the anti-Nebraskaites. to stay your hands. All that we ask of you is, to open rivers in Indiana?'. It does not strike me

But the gentleman from Indiana referred to the keep your hands out of our pockets. That is all that that is very just. I am speaking now to men South. He said he wanted the members from the thai the South ask, and we do not get even that. of common sense. I am not talking of what you North to get on the same high stand that the Rop- | It is true, sir, that in my own State we have asked can constitutionally do. Is it not an unjust abuse resentatives of the South occupied. I suppose he some little favors, but very few. Some years ago of power to do it, even if you have the power? intended what he said in this connection as a com- we asked that you should take the obstructions The gentleman from Ohio (Mr. Campbell) told pliment to the South, inasmuch as he wanted out of the mouth of the Savannah river-not ob- us, the other day, what the “great West” would, his people to occupy the same position; but, if I structions that nature put there, but that were put do. I have a great respect for the great West, comprehend what he said, I do not receive it as a there during the revolutionary war, to keep out a and I will do everything which I think right, and compliment. He said that southern members foreign fleel-put there, not by the citizens of the proper, and just, to develop the resources of that upon this floor first ascertained the wishes and State, but by public authority. It seems to us section of the country. I am willing, as I have then voted upon all questions as their constituents nothing but right and just that the General Gov- said, to open the mouth of the Mississippi, bewished that they would stard by the interests ernment should remove those obstructions; but cause the State of Louisiana cannot do it, and to of their constituents and represent their wishes. we have asked in vain for that. The gentleman take the snags out of that great river. But when Sir, I say to the gentleman that I think he is just says that the Representatives of the North come I am appcaled to to clear out every little river, and as much mistaken in this as he was in reference here and pass river and harbor bills, which are open up every little harbor, and make works of to the popular elections of the North. I can vetoed, and the wishes of their constitnents are improvements throughout the country, or in any speak, however, only for myself. It is not true thereby defeated. Well, sir, we have some rivers section of il-I do not care which or what-barely that, in my course as a member of this House, I

in the South quite as navigable as those in In- because the people of such section want it, and send look solely to what my constituents, wish. The diana; but when did Georgia, or South Carolina, men here to ask and vote for it, I say it is unjust first question that addresses itself to my mind is, or Virginia, or the South generally, come and ask to dispose of the public money in any such way, whether any measure presented here is right? Congress to clear out those rivers?

and I shall not do it. I ask every man now, who send no leiters home to know what they think Now, Mr. Chairman, I am not going into a looks on these questions as he should, if it is not there about it; I never have and never shall. I discussion of this question of internal improve- || manifestly, unjust? consult my own judgment, and act accordingly. ments, or the constitutional power. I am going

Now, the gentleman [Mr. Mace) says, in If I think' a measure is right, that it is proper, to address a plain, common-sense argument in speaking of the Missouri compromise, ihat, by the that it is just, I vote for it; and if I do not, I vote reply to the gentleman from Indiana, who said Missouri compromise, slavery had been prohibagainst it. Upon the merits of every question ! that when the South asked anything she got it, or ited north of 360 30', and that slavery was to exist am responsible to my constituents; and when I that when a southern measure was vetoed, the south of 360 30'. I wish to correct the gentlego home to them, an intelligent and patriotic South thundered and thundered upon this floor, man. The South has never asked that slavery people, if they do not approve my conduct, they until she got what she wanted, while northern should be extended by this Government any can send another in my place. Sir, I believe that measures were defeated by vetoes. I repeat, that where, south or north. The Missouri compromise that is the general position of southern men. a southern measure has never been vetoed. But of 1820 never established such a principle-never,

But the gentleman says that when southern how does the gentleman stand when he comes here The act of 1820, by which Missouri was to have men's measures are vetoed, they raise their voices | and asks us, out of the public Treasury, to clean come into the Union, but never did, prohibited the in tones of thunder until they carry them. Sir, I out the rivers in his State? I will state here, in existence of slavery north of 360 30'; but it said do not believe there ever was a southern measure passing, that I believe Congress has the constitu- | nothing at all on the subject south of that line. vetoed. I do not recollect one. The South has tional power to clean out harbors, and construct The South never asked such a guarantee. The never asked anything from your Government that roads when it is necessary either for the collection guarantee which the South has asked, and which called for a veto. There is the difference between of the public revenue, or for military purposes. I

has been established in the passage of the Ne49. The South asks but few favors from you. | did what I could last Congress to get the improve braska bill, and which the South will never yield, It is a class of gentlemen from the North who ment of Boston harbor, as well as of various other was simply that the people on every foot of Amer ask aid from the Government. Why, we never harbors that I believed to be necessary for the col- | ican soil, north or south, east or west, shall, when come here in that attitude. Let me ask the gen- || lection of the revenue. I was also in favor of they come to form their State constitution, do as tleman when any measure from the South was removing the obstructions in the mouth of the || they please upon the question of African slavery, ever vetoed? when the South ever asked anything Mississippi river. This is sufficient to show my and shall come into the Union either with or withthat required the exercise of the veto power? general position on this subject. Now, a few out it, as they shall then determine for themselves.

But the gentleman said that he admired the words on the material matter alluded to by the The South does not ask you that a slave State shall South, because “knowing their rights, they dared gentleman, the improvement of western rivers. be admitted from Texas, unless the people thero maintain them." That I take as a compliment. In the State of Georgia, we have never asked so determine. What we insisted on in the Texas And now, what is his position? Why, the South for any harbor improvements except for the re- annexation resolutions was, that the people there "knowing their rights, and daring to maintain moval of those obstructions at the mouth of the might be permitted to settle this matter for them.them," he would have the North to rise up and Savannah river, and we never got that, as I have selves. And this is all the guarantee we secured; prevent her from getting her known and acknowl- stated. We have never asked the General Gov. all that we then asked; all that we asked in 1850; edged rights! If we know our rights, and they ernment to clean out our rivers. But we have a all that we asked in the Nebraska bill, and what are our rights, and we dare maintain them, why country of hill and valley, and we have to get to we will ever maintain is, that the people in every ought not the North, why ought not the gentle market with our products---for we grow some organized community, in every Territory, when man-I will not say the North—to grant us our things in Georgia for market, notwithstanding they come to form their own institutions, shall do rights! Have we ever asked anything but what that, in the opinion of the gentleman from Indi. as they please in that respect, and come into the was right? Now, I say, with all due respect to ana, we are a Heaven-accursed, slavery-doomed Union either with or without slavery, as they the gentleman, that the true position of the South land--we grow some products in Georgia, I say, wish. I say, sir, that is the southern doctrine; and is this: we “ ask nothing but what is right, and for market, and how do we get them to market? I say, also, that it is American doctrine. That is we submit to nothing that is wrong.

" That is Do we come here and ask aid of the General what I mean by national doctrine. the position that the South has always occupied, Government? No, sir. Why, in my State, we The gentleman (Mr. Mace] said yesterday he as I remember her history.

have now upwards cf a thousand miles of railroad was a National man. National! Why, sir, he Now, sir, upon the subject of internal improve- || in full operation. How did we obtain it? We is against his own section. Not only is he against ments which the gentleman alluded to, has the took our surplus capital, and with it we bought the South, but he is against his own people. AcSouth ever asked legislative aid in that particular? human labor, human energy, bone and sinew-cording to his doctrine his own people cannot be I do not speak now, sectionally, or against the we bought the strong arms of our own citizens, trusted in the Territories. He must be their North; but look at the whole history of our Gov- as well as of foreigners, to come and dig down guardian-ma self-constituted protector. He says ernment. Who is it that is constantly appealing the hills and fill up the valleys, and lay down the that members of Congress set up to be masters of here for legislative aid and legislative patronage? | superstructure of our railroads-we bought the their constituents, that they did not know what Who ask for fishing bounties? Who ask for iron, when we could get it, in this country, and we their constituents wanted, and that they came protection to navigation? Why, the people of went abroad for it when we could not get it here, here last session to be their masters by voting for the South, if they were permitted to use or employ and notwithstanding all that, when we brought Nebraska against their wishes. No, sir, it is the foreign vessels in their coast trade, would be ouriron into the country, we had to pay duty upon gentleman himself who wants to be master. Of greatly benefited thereby. But American shipping it to the General Government. Twenty millions whom? of his own fellow citizens! He and the must be protected, and who is it that asks that of dollars have been spent in Georgia in construct- men who embrace his doctrine virtually say that protection, not only on shipping, but almost | ing highways to our markets. That is the way when the people go from the North or South into everything else? Who is it that wants a duty we got our thousand miles of railroad. So far a Territory they become unfit to govern themupon coal? Who upon iron? Who upon woolen from coming here and receiving assistance from selves. This is what the gentleman said about goods? Who upon shoes, hats, leather, cotton the Government, we have actually had to pay a


[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

“The doctrine sought to be established now is this, that as he has in the past, even he, if here, may yet State has the right to come into the Union with we come up here as the masters of the people, that we vote for her admission as a slave State.

such institutions as she, republican in their charcome here not bound to consult with them at all, and that we may pass laws which we know they will disapprove of,

In some things I was surprised at the gentle | acter, might adopt. Missouri was denied admisand then call upon them, as loyal subjects, to acquiesce in man's speech yesterday; for. I recollected very sion, and the South did reluctantly consent that our acts and cease their grumbling."

well the remarks he made with reference to this slavery should be excluded north of 360 30', proThe gentleman says that that is what we do. I Nebraska bill before it passed, and the

amendment vided Missouri should come in as she pleased. which he offered. I beg to call his attention and That

But Missouri was again denied admission-she Bay to the gentleman, “ thou art the man. is exactly what you' do. Why does he offer his the attention of the House to the report of his did not come in under this act of 1820. I will

not, bill to abolish slavery in Kansas and Nebraska? | remarks—made on the 22d of May, the Saturday however, go over this ground again now. The

North would not adhere to the principles of the because he says the people there will have it if before it passed : we do not. Why does he then propose to pass a

" Mr. MacE moved to insert in the first section and the act of 1820. When the strife of 1850 became inla w for them which he knows they will disap- | clude slavery at any time by law. He said he offered the

Territorial Legislature shall have the power to admit or ex- tolerable, when the ship of State seemed about to prove of, and then call on them as “loyal subjects | amendment in good faith, and for the purpose of testing

go down, and when southern men were still standio acquiesce in our acts, and cease their grum- the sincerity of members from the western States, and ing on deck with flag-staff in their hands appeal

more especially the sincerity of those of the delegation ing to northern patriots to come to the rescue, bling?" He says that when men go from Mas

from Indiana, who were to vote in favor of the bill. sachusetts, or from Indiana, or from Illinois, or

and stand upon the old platform, occupied by

«Mr. English. If the amendment be adopted, will my from Ohio, or from Georgia, and get over into the colleague give the bill his support?

them when the Missouri question arose that is, Territories, they shall not govern themselves as * Mr. Mace. I will."

the State-rights doctrine of letting each State settle

this matter for itself-whether in accordance with they please, but as we please. We, the Nebraska Mr. MACE. What reasons did I give?

the wishes of the North or South-it was then men, on the contrary, treat them as freemen, as Mr. STEPHENS. The only reasons he gave that this principle, incorporated in the Nebraska our equals, and let them do as they please. Who, || are those I have read. He said that he offered say, sir, it is that class of men who set themselves testing the sincerity of members, and more esper | in California, Utah, New Mexico, or southern then, are the masters, or would-be-masters? i the amendment in good faith, for the purpose of bill, was first established. This principle now folup as the only safe guardians, protectors, and law- | cially

the sincerity of the members of the delega

Texas. makers for men who have no choice in their elec- || tion from Indiana who voted in favor of the bill;

The same stars and stripes, with the tion, and to whom they are in no way responsible. and he said that if it was adopted—that is, if the

same principles inscribed upon their broad folds, Oh, but the gentleman says, pass this bill, say, by | Legislature should have the power to settle the

now wave far up in Kansas and Nebraska ! Let law, that slavery never shall go into these Terri- question at any time, he would vote for the bill.

them go, knit together, one and inseparable, over tories, and then the people can do just as they Now, he wants to deprive the Legislature, or the every foot of American soil. This, sir, is my please, just as they did in lowa, and can form people in convention, from ever being empowered therefore say to the gentleman from Maine,

io settle, as they want to do, it at all. Perhaps and conie into the Union as that Stale did. Why, when the people do settle, as they now have the day, in my opinion, when this great movement,

(Mr. WASHBURN,) that he will not live to see the sir, the gentleman's idea of liberty on the part of power to do it, he may yet sanction it, notwith

this revolution in American politics, will ever roll the people to do as they please is very much like a standing they may adopt a slavery constitution.

backwards. Its course will rather be onward. story that I heard told by the late Justice Mc- Mr. MACE. Did the gentleman vote for my There are some other topics to which I wish to Kinley, of the Supreme Court. The incident | amendment?

allude. occurred in Lexington, Kentucky, I believe. A Mr. STEPHENS. I did not, and for the member of Congress from that State had given reason given, that by the bill we had given the introduction of slavery into Kansas, if the people

Why is it that gentlemen object so much to the very much dissatisfaction to his constituents by people all the power that we could under the Con of that Territory desire it to go there? When I burning him in effigy. Accordingly they got up could not exercise more if we had granted it

. I ject

, I stated that I would vote for the principle of and as they were going along with a great deal of could not give them more. The government of allowing the people of any section of the country "noise and some confusion, some person on the the Territories, in my opinion, devolved upon they please. This I said when I knew there might side-walk, not partaking of the feelings of the Congress, in the first instance. It was our duty crowd, but believing it to be an outrage rather, to govern them, or provide governments for them.

be twice as many people there from the North as whispered this opinion to a man next to him. I siated then to the country, and now state, that | from the South, and the chances of emigration ! One of the rowdies in the procession, who over- | I believe it was right and just for us to turn over

knew would greatly preponderate in favor of the

North. I am willing, now, to abide by that prinheard the remark, stepped up and said to him, || our powers to the people, all the powers at least "What is that you say?"..." You think that this that they can exercise under the Constitution. So ciple. I have no desire to deprive the people of

State or Territory in our common country of is a great outrage, do you?” “ Yes, I do," was far as my vote was concerned, I gave the people all the right of adopting such institutions for their the answer. “Then, sir,”replied his questioner, || the power that they could exercise under the Con"I want to let you know that this is a free coun- stitution. We could not give them more, and why government, when they become States, as they try, and that we will do as we d-d please, and should the gentleman have asked to give them please. It is anti-American, and entirely at war

with the spirit of the age, about which we hear you shan't say nothing !". (Laughter.] That is | more?

80 much. "I ask why the people of any section of the way the gentleman (Mr. Mace) would give The gentleman from Indiana said that he would freedom to the Territories. Oh, yes, he will

make | vote in good
faith to give the people of these Terri- the institutions of the South,

if they wish them?

the country should be prevented from adopting it a free Territory. He will have his way, and tories power to admit slavery, but now he comes Socially, morally, and politically, or in any the people there “shan't say nothing." He forward and wants to deprive them of the power of would give them precisely that sort of freedom passing any law by which slavery may be tolerated. depriving them of such right? Is it for the sake

aspect of the question, is there any reason for which closes the mouths of freemen. That sort || I did not know then whether Kansas would be a of liberty he would have which says to freemen, slave State or not. I do not know now whether it

of humanity that gentlemen are not willing for is true; but I will have my way, and you shall difference in my vote. Men may indulge in what: South,

if they think it best to do so Are genYou shall do as I please—it is a free country, it will be or not, but this does not make the slightest the people of Kansas to assign the African the not say a word. You shall not elect Whitfield, || ever speculations they please. If Kansas should or any man who would favor the introduction of come here with a constitution excluding slavery,

clemen willing to degrade their own race by slavery." [Laughter.] and ask admission into the Union as a State,

not permitting them to vote upon matters reNow, sir, the gentleman (Mr. Mace) yesterday while I am a member upon this floor, I should lating to their own government, while they are

endeavoring to elevate the negro to the standard notified the country, and notified the House that vote for her admission. . At least that feature in

of the white man? You may degrade the white Nebraska never should come in as a slave State. her constitution will not cause me to vote against

man, but you cannot raise the negro to the level This is plain and direct language. It presents the her admission. I voted for the admission of Iowa, issue fairly: It is bringing up that question which and I have voted for the admission of every

you purpose. It is impossible. You have to

reverse a law of nature first. has been thrice setuled by this country. And, | northern State, since I have occupied a seat upon

Men may indulge without pretending to speak prophetically, I wili this floor, when I have been in my place. I was

in philanthropic speculations as much as they venture the opinion, thai if Nebraska comes here not here when California was admitted, but I please, but here is the great immutable law of with a slavery constitution, she will be admitted; || defonded her admission.

nature, and they cannot avoid it. I am not here and the great body of these gentlemen who occupy I want gentlemen from the North, and the gen- right, wise, and

just. There is a difference, a vast

to argue whether decrees of the Most High are the position of the gentleman from Indiana, will tleman from Indiana, to understand the South, or

difference, established by the Creator between the be at that time buried so deep under popular conat least the position of some of her Representatives. I different races of men. For

myself, I believe that demnation, that their voices against it will never We stand upon principle. We do not advocate

He who made us all is just, and that He made the reach the Capitol. A great national principle is a measure to-day, because it votes money into the

white man as He made him, and that He made the involved in this question which the people of this | pockets of our constituents, or because it is

negro as He made him-for wise and just purcountry are not a going to ignore. National men || favored by them or advances their interests, and will be sent from the North as well as from the then to-morrow array ourselves in opposition to

poses. Some vessels are made for honor and South. Men will be sent to Congress who stand

some for dishonor; one star differeth from another it, because we think a different result follows from upon principles, and will not “ back and fill," and its operation, but we stand, particularly on this lieve, too, that the system of governmeni, as

star in magnitude as well as in brilliancy. I bebe on one principle

for one week, one month, and question, upon the fixed and immutable principles adopted by the South, defining the status or relaone moon, and upon another principle another | upon which the Constitution itself rests. In the week, and month, and moon. The gentleman's beginning, in the middle of our history, and up them; and I am prepared to argue that question

tion of these two races, is the best for both of principles do not set by him a twelve-month. And to this time, there we have always stood. The

with the gentleman, here or anywhere. Take the if he changes in the future as rapidly and radically || South, in 1820, maintained the principle that a

negroes in Indiana, take them in the North gen

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]







25 (6



103,197 bus.

Flax ....


10 75

6 35

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

erally, and compare their condition with those of population of Ohio, therefore, was more than

KANSAS AND NEBRASKA-GEORGIA AND OHIOthe South. Take them in Africa; take them any- double that of Georgia. Here we see her free

FREE LABOR AND SLAVE LABOR. where on the face of the habitable globe; and then labor more than double in number, working one take them in the southern States, and the negro third more land, worth, by valuation, more than || SPEECH OF LEWIS D. CAMPBELL, population of the South are better off, better fed, three times that of Georgia. From these elements betier clothed, better provided for, enjoy more it might not be surprising to see her agricultural

OF OHIO, happiness, and a higher civilization, than the same products greatly exceeding those of Georgia,

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, race has ever enjoyed anywhere else on the face without resorting to the "curse of slavery” to

December 14, 1854. of the world. Could Howard, the philanthropist, account for it. But how stand the facts? 'Ohio | The House being in the Committee of the whole who has left an undying fame for his deeds of produced the following articles:

on the state of the Union, and Mr. STEPHENS, of humanity, have taken the same number of Africans

.14,487,351 bus. at 80 cents..$11,589,880 Georgia, having concluded his remarksfrom their native country and raised them from

Buckwheat....... 638,060

255,224 their barbarous condition to that of the slaves of Indian corn ......59,078,695 "

17,723,608 Mr. CAMPBELL obtained the floor and said: the South, he would have added much to that


334,358 "


I regret, Mr. Chairman, that an occasion for stature of immortality which, in his day, he erected



discussion like this has presented itself now. lo himself. It would have greatly added to that Peas and benns...

This is the short session, and there is a large reputation, which now sanctifies his memory in Irish potatoes..... 5,057,769 "


amount of unfinished business, involving the just the hearts and affections of mankind.

Sweet potatoes... 187,991

93,995 .10,454,449 lbs.

private claims of American citizens, as well as Look at the three millions of Africans as you

national interests, which was postponed at the find them in the South; and where is the man so

446,932 lbs.

44,693 last session, by the prolonged consideration of the cold-hearted, and cold blooded, as would wish to

188.880 bus.


Nebraska bill. Sir, there is important work to Maple sugar...... 4,588.209 lbs.

275,292 put them in the condition that their forefathers

197,308 gals.


do. Whatever we may think about the consewere, or their kindred now are in Africa? What Wine....

48,207 $1 «

48,207 quence of speeches, the country says it is lime has done so much for these people but that which Garden products returned in money, value

214,004 for work! But the discussion is upon us: I did is so much denounced by inconsiderate fanatics; Orchard


not bring it: in six years of continuous service I men and women, too, who find fault with what


$38,137,695 have never introduced a discussion involving the they know nothing about?

“ vexed question of slavery;"though, when introAgain: take our negroes, and compare their condition with that of the free negroes of the

This list includes nearly every agricultural pro- duced, I never shrink from a proper participation duct of the earth in that State except hay, which

in the debate. North. I have the result of the Census returns is omitted, because in Georgia there is no return

Although not in good health, sir, I cannot, conbefore me, and from that it appears that the infor fodder, which, in that State, answers the same

sistently with my ideas of the duty I owe my crease of the free people of color in the United purpose of hay in Ohio, as food for stock. The

immediate constituents, if not to the country at States, from 1840 to 1850, was only ten and ninety; / quantity of each product produced is given from large, unprepared, refrain from taking my part in the census tables. The values run out are such

the contest, or from sharing in the responsibilities their condition cannot be very good, or desirable; and to this increase is to be added, too, the fugi. ' each article in that State, except the products of as are believed to be the usual average values of of its results.

Mr. Chairman, the question involved furnishes, tive slaves, and those who have been emancipated With all these sources of increase, that increase gardens and orchards, which are taken from the indeed, a fertile field for thought, and for the disa has only been ten and ninety-five hundredths per l in the tables. The estimate above stated is be- which, when discussed here too often, excites

tablee-no other values are put upon the products play of a true American patriotism. It is one centum. Now, how is it with the slaves the down-trodlieved to be a fair one. Now let us take up the

unkind feelings amongst those who should dwell den, the abused, the half-starved slaves ? Their

returns for Georgia and place upon them a like together as brothers, in harmony. Although I estimated average value. Here we have:

may be regarded as one of those who ride back increase, during the same period, was twenty

to this Hall upon the very crest of that triumphal eight and fifty-eight hundredths. Is there any

Wheat........ 1,088,534 bushels at $1 00... $1,088,534
Indian corn.... 30,080,099

50c.. 15,040,019

wave of popular sovereignty which has so lately such result to be presented at the North, where Cotton-bales.. 499 091 400 lbs. at 8c.. 15,970 912 swept over the free States, I have no words of they are free and left to chemselves? How can Rice... 38,930,691 Ibs. at 4c.. 1,558,027 selfish exultation to utter over such as have been your missionaries in philanthropy and crusaders Peas and beans 1,142,011 bushels at $1 09... 1,112,011

25c.. 1,746,607

dashed by its power against the rocks, and have in benevolence account for this?

Sweet potatoes 6,9 6,428
Trish potatoes..


gone down. No, sir, 1 rise this morning with no But some people say that slavery is a curse to


37fc. 1,432,516 unkind feelings in my heart towards any member the white man. 'They abandon the idea that it is

Cane sugar....

1,642 hhds., 1,000 lbs., 6c.. 98,520 on this floor, from the North or the South, the East a curse to the negro.' They say it weakens, im

216,150 gallons at 25c.. 54.037 Orchard products of..

or the West. Incidents of past debate here, which

92,766 poverishes, and demoralizes a State. Let us see.

Garden products of...

76,500 exasperated the feelings, are not forgotten; but all They say there can be no high social, moral, or

of my wrongs, real or imaginary, are freely formaterial development under the institution of sla- Aggregate.........

$38,414,168 | given. very. I have before me some statistics on this

Whilst the eloquent words of the gentlemen point-statistics relating to material development. An amount so far from falling under that of from Kentucky, (Messrs. Cox and Bristow,] the But, before alluding to them, I will say upon the Ohio as might have been expected, actually, ex- gentleman from California, (Mr. LATHAM,) and subject of morals, that I saw a table of crimes | ceeds it above a quarter of a million, without the gentleman from Alabama, (Mr. Smith,) pormade out in the Census Office for 1850. From extending the Georgia list to rye, barley, tobacco, traying the high attainments and social virtues of those statistics it appeared-I speak from mem- and other articles which are produced in that State. the lamented Presley Ewing, (whose desk, during ory; I have not the paper before me—that the Away, then, with this prating cry about slavery's || his last session, adjoined mine,) still linger upon number of convictions for crimes of every grade, paralyzing the energy of a people, and opposing our ears, ought we not to cultivate sentiments of in Massachusetts, the land of “ steady habits," ihe development of the resources of a country, mutual good will. There is something in a higher and where we hear so much of the immoral effects If I were to take the statistics of any other law which whispers to us "in the midst of life we of slavery, with a population under one million, State, and go through them in the same way, I are in death.” was several thousand; while in the State of Geor- have no reason to doubt that an equally favorable I enter the field of this discussion, therefore, gia, with a population not so great, the similar result to Georgia would follow. I took the State

with the kindest feelings. Should I utter a word, convictions are less than one hundred. I say, l of Ohio, not as any disparagement to her, but to in the hour allotted to me, personally offensive to then, upon the score of crime, upon the score of show that even in the South, where they say the

any one, I hope it will be attributed rather to the morals, I am ready to compare my State with that soil is sterile, and the population inert, and cursed impulsive expression of a heart devoted to a of Massachusetts, or any one of the free States. | with slavery, as it is said to be, Georgia, with one

great cause, than a willful design to injure a fellow Where, then, is the moral curse which arises from half of the population, and only two thirds of the

member. slavery?

value of land, exceeds in agricultural products by The remarks of the honorable gentleman from A few facts in reference to physical develop- one quarter of a million of dollars, the great giant | Georgia, (Mr. Stephens,) who has just taken his I had occasion, some time since, for of the West.

seat, present many themes for discussion. I shall another purpose than the present, to look a little Now, then, if the people of Kansas, the people not attempt to follow him in his wanderings over into the statistics of Georgia, compared with those of Nebraska, or the people of any other portion so many fields, or through the various mazes in of other States. I selected the State of Ohio, be- of our territory, going from old Massachusetts, which he has groped his way. I will, for the cause it was one of the most prosperous of the going from New York, or from Indiana, or from present, touch but cursorily upon some of his North-often styled, and, perhaps, justly too, the the South, learning and consulting wisdom from points, in my approach to the prominent theme of giant of the West. According to the census re

the past, and profiting by experience from all his remarks. He alludes to the tariff, and says turns in 1850, Ohio had of improved lands parts of the Union, should think it practically the South has never asked protection to her indus9,851,493 acres - Georgia had only 6,378,479 best for the happiness of themselves and for trial pursuits. When the readjustment of the acres, the cash value of the Georgia land so im- | their posterity in the far distant future, to adopt

revenue laws is properly before us, I am willing proved and under culture was $95,753,445, while the social institutions of Georgia in preference to to meet the gentleman, and delve with him to the The cash value of the Ohio lands was returned at those of Indiana, if they prefer the institutions of bottom of that great subject. He reminds the free $358,758,603—Ohio had nearly one third more the South to those of the North, I say they should States that they had sought, and obtained, a land in a state of improvement than Georgia had, not be deprived of their right to do it, and the little protection to iron and coal, &c., omitting and returned at more than three times the cash | gentleman from Indiana, and those who act with the fact that the slave States have protection in value of the Georgia lands. The whole popula- him, should not set themselves up as judges and their important product of sugar. He seems to tion of Ohio was 1,908,480, the whole population "masters" to control the matter.

have forgotten that General Jackson, a great of Georgia, white and black, was 905,999. Thell (Here the hammer fell.]

southern statesman, whose whole heart (whatever






« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »