« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
an almost feminine beauty. He devoted a life to there, and that is not treason, even though a far, I say, its policy should be changed; and the study of financial and statistical science. He | Pennsylvania judge did charge a jury that certain therefore I voted—as I think my friend from Miswas foremost among the advocates of commercial things could not be done, or ought not to be done, | sissippi did not vote-for an exposition of what and personal freedom; and he supported the mon. or were criminal in point of law. Sir, it is the our friends and diplomatic agents were doing in etary policy of Jackson, at a time when giants people who are passing through these avenues, the congress of Ostend. only could iread in his footsteps. As a reformer, those who make judges and district attorneys, and Mr. BAYLY, of Virginia. Oh, let that alone. he was the Romilly of the New World. His they will take care of them all. They will take Mr. BANKS. Yes, if the committee will report life was one of unequal, though not of fruitless, care of the juries and sheriffs as well as judges. soon. (Laughter.) contest. The diamond of his intellect broke in Let me again ask you, Mr. Chairman, if there Then I ask the attention of the committee for a the effort to engrave upon the hardened surface of may not be a necessity that would justify this moment to the programme which the gentleman Eastern politics, cruths, now universally received; action, and its short limit of possible secrecy? I from Mississippi exhibited as the proposed operaand he died, not without tears, but, except by this do not propose to say whether it was justifiable in tions of what he calls the Know-Nothings. I do House, and his immediate neighborhood, almost Massachusells or not.
not know whether he is right or wrong; but in a without notice.
Mr. WALSH. Has this avenue you have paper published in Pennsylvania, I read some Such influences as these, reach all classes of been speaking of any connection with thé "under- months since an exposé of what the purposes of that society. They touch one man in his fortune, || ground railroad?” (Laughter.]
organization are, and of the means through which another in his credit, another in his ambition, Mr. BANKS. It has not. It is altogether they intend to operate. In the first place, I did another in his religion, and another in his means another line of business. I own no stock in that not see anything there about the naturalization of livelihood. All interests succumb to it; and corporation. (Renewed laughter )
laws; nothing of their repeal nor the limitation of even the trenchant blade of Webster was turned Well, sir, I think I have substantiated my view | the term; nor any other matter or topic referring before it. We talk of the patronage of the Fed- of Government, and of the rights of the people to to that subject. The Pennsylvanian published the eral Government! What is it compared with such act in this way; and I now call the attention of document, and it was copied in our section of the elements of power?
gentlemen here, who are interested in this matter, | country, as a full, entire, and perfect expose of the It is but a few years since we asked for a secret and particularly that of my friend from Missis- purposes of the secret association existing in Pennor independent ballot, in virtue of the right of every sippi, (Mr. Barry,) who has presented the ques. || sylvania, and having its ramifications throughout man to give a voțe, not only uncontrolled by, but || tion, from his point of view, in a fair, manly, the country. Therefore, it does not appear that unknown to, other men. It only perfected the sensible light, to the fact, that in the first instance interference with the naturalization laws is one of right of citizens to vote by balloi, for the ballot those who do the wrong he complains of are the these purposes. I looked carefully to that point, itself is a secret institution; but no proposition people—the majority of the people of the United but l'saw nothing referring to that, nor to the could have excited greater commotion than this. Slates.
Catholic Church or Catholic religion. Other difficulties were not of rare occurrence; In the second place, nothing has yet been done Mr. BARRY. Will the gentleman allow me that element of power which is now exciting such which makes them amenable to prosecution or to correct him. I read here from the same paper, attention throughout the country, which seems censure. There is nothing in what they have the Pennsylvanian, and if the gentleman admits to have hitherto held a balance of power in nearly done, or in what they propose to do, so far as this to be an authentic copy of the rules of the all communities, and to have decided nearly every secrecy is concerned, which makes them amenable. | bodycontested election, upon a policy dictated by its If they do not deem it right to give publicity to Mr. BANKS. Sir, I admit nothing. I know leaders, was not without its power among us; and their views and designs, that is their business, || nothing. (Laughter.] a recent, and most important contest, so decided, and they may do in that respect as pleases them. Mr. BARRY. I hold in my hand the paper to has impressed a seated grief upon many thousand Now, a word upon secrecy in politics! Who which the gentleman from Massachusetts refershearts. I mean the influence of foreign votes. made the President of the United States? The the Pennsylvanian—and I find in the oath which
All these causes, some operating on one mind | people, you will say, have elected him to the office, I the member is required to take, the following and some upon another, have produced discontent But who laid the train, to which the people set fire? sentence: among men of all parties. It was not to be ex- Sir, there never has been a presidential election
“ That you tvill support, in all political matters, for al pected that ordinary men could rise superior or in this country which has not been controlled by political offices, second degree members of this order, probe wholly indifferent to them. Nor is it a recent secret associations and combinations; and let me viding it be necessary for the American interest ; that, if it nor sudden ebullition of feeling. For many years say, too, by a combination which has no popular may be done legally, you will, when elected to any office, indications of revolt have been noted. New com- elements; which has no popularity in its consti
remove all foreigners, aliens, or Roman Cathoiics from
office, and that you will, in no case, appoint such to office." binations have appeared and disappeared. One tution; which operates through a few privileged by one, men have abandoned their former organ- members; and it is, in fact, such combinations Mr. BANKS. I call the attention of my friend izations, with more or less success, but not in such that control the government of the country. How to the fact, that in his speech_he used the term strength as to give courage to the timid or security happens it that Governor Reeder denounces com- “Catholics,” he now reads it “ Roman Catholics." to the weak; and the masses of men remained in binations of men to affect the election in Kansas Mr. BARRY. Well, in our section of the camp, waiting only a fitting opportunity to escape who belong to Missouri, and who are citizens | country, Catholics are understood as Roman Cathparty drill. At length it came. In that mysterious and leading men in that State? Did it not come olics. manner so aptly described by the eloquent gentle- by means of secret combination and arrange- Mr. BANKS. I beg the gentleman's pardon if man from Mississippi, somebody constructed a ment—a combination and arrangement by which I say that there may be a distinction in the terms. covered way, a sort of subterranean passage, a the rank and file were excluded, and the leaders Mr. BARRY. I venture to say that no oiher low browed cavernous even e, by which men only initiated? Who can undertake to say that I gentleman in the House misunderstood me, in could pass from one point to another and one the next presidential conventions will not be con- speaking of Catholics, except the gentleman from camp to another, seeing nobody, knowing nobody, || trolled by coteries of men whose only power is Massachusetts, who might do so on Know-Nothand saying nothing to anybody. Sir, you should the secrecy with which their plans and purposes | ing principles. (Laughter.] have seen them go. Eighty thousand men, of are held? Who will deny that it has been ever Mr. BANKS.' I noticed the distinction, and I every pursuit and opinion, in the brief space of thus, or that it will be ever thus? Why is that purpose to speak of it. I have no objeciion to three months, attested their belief in its efficiency i criminal in the people which has been the constant any man of the Catholic Church, or faith. Here and necessity. And was it not their right? Who practice of politicians ?
is our friend from Pennsylvania, (Mr. CHANDLER] will say that the people—the sole depositories of But I am for publicity as well as secrecy. I go an amiable, learned, and eloquent man; I might political power-discontented with existing par- | beyond the gentleman from Mississippi in that be willing to vote for him, Catholic as he is, in ties, may not, even in this mysterious manner, respect. I am for publicity when a man assumes preference, perhaps, to others nearer my political make new combinations for the transaction of their to act for other men; but when he acts for himself, I faith than he is.' What he thinks of the Seven own affairs, and erect new standards of policy for I say that no man has a right to require him to Sacraments, or how many he accepts, is no conthemselves? Is it not their right? Who says no! || divulge bis purposes or views. If he choose to cern of mine. To me, it is no objection, that he Their justification stands not so much upon their wear them on his sleeve, it is his right to do so; receives the interpretations of the Council of Trent, necessities as their convenience; and who can and if he choose to keep them in his own breast, as to the doctrines of original sin and justificapoint out a more effectual or natural method of and say nothing, and know nothing, (laughter,) | tion. It cannot concern me, and it can concern doing what they have done the transposition of it is equally his right. But when a man assumes no man, that, as a matter of faith, any person the rank and file of all parties into a new organ. to act for others, then, sir, he has not the right, as cherishes the doctrine of transubstantiation, acization, excluding nobody but the leaders, taking a representative party, to secrecy; and if the ori-cords the full measure of Catholic veneration to everybody inside that desires to come, and leav. ginal power call upon him for a development of his sacred relics or images, and accepts every article ing nobody outside but the driver? Who will policy he cannot withhold it.
of the Nicene creed. Each man is accountable say it is not the right of THE PEOPLE? Does the I may say here, in passing, that the secrecy for his own faith, as I for mine. And, even gentleman from Mississippi complain of their which this country has, in some degree, contrib- | though my name were appended to the declarasecrecy? Is it secrecy that makes the wrong? uted to fasten on the diplomacy of the world, is an tion, read to us by the gentleman from MissisSir, secrecy is their right. It belongs to them. element of power which is doing more to crush sippi, from the Pennsylvanian, I might still vote No man and - no power can justly take it from the nations of the earth than any other element of for such a man, if otherwise it lay in my way to them. What have they done? As yet they have oppression. The five millions of men who are
do so. done nothing. You cannot punish men for that. this hour in arms, under whose heavy tread the But there is another branch of this subject. It The gentleman from Mississippi, I think, inti- earth shakes, are not doing ône tenth part of the || is a current belief that the Pope, the head of the mated that there were to be some indictments, and wrong to the generations now existing, and yet Roman Church, who stands as the Vicar of God, a friend of his suggested that a Pennsylvania judge | unborn, which the secret and false diplomacy of and is invested with his attributes of infallibility, had charged a grand jury against ihe “Know- the world is producing in its effects upon them; | is not only supreme in matters of faith, but has Nothings. Well, sir, these men have done and so far as this country contributes, in any also a temporal power, that can not only control pothing yet, except to carry an election here and degree, to sustain the secrecy of diplomacy, so Il Governments, but, in fitting exigencies, may abo. 330 Cong....20 Sess.
American Politics -Mr. Banics.
Ho. of Reps.
solve his disciples from their allegiance. I am sachusetts, (Mr. De Witt.) But if my friend to make of this. It is enough to say that it is so aware, sir, that this is disputed ground. But it is from the Essex county district gave me reason to ordered by Providence. I would not shut down a well altested historical fact, that often, in times believe that he accepted direction int political affairs | this swelling tide of emigration had I the power, past, the claim to secular power has been made; from ecclesiastical authorities; acknowledged alle- || if it came only to add to the industry and progand I am yet to learn that by the Pope, or any giance to a foreign ecclesiastical couri, whose perity of the country. Let me call attention, general council speaking with his acquiescence claims to temporal power were of undefined and however, to a single fact. Since 1850, there have the only authorized exponents of the true faith- || doubtful extent; if he invested ils chief with been arrivals, from foreign ports, to the number that this claim has ever yet been disavowed. It vicarious attributes of Deity; if he professed no of one million eight hundred and seventy-nine has not been done in England. The power was fixed political theories, voting sometimes with one thousand persons, exclusive of citizens of the Uniasserted in England under Henry Vill. and Eliz- party, and at other times with another party, and ted States-making an average of nearly three abeth, and it has never been disavowed there, always falling silently into that position which hundred and seventy-six thousand each year. nor in Spain, nor in any other land, Catholic or secured the balance power and a victory to him Should this emigration continue, without increase, Protestant, by the authority of the Roman Church. and his friends; if such were his policy, as 1 || for three years, we shall have received, in eight My name is not appended to the exposé read to know well it is not, he could not challenge of me, years, as many emigrants from foreign States, us here, nor do I know much about it; but I will nor of any man, support; nor denounce opposi- within a small fraction, as came to this country in say that if it be true, that the Pope is held to be tion as based upon the narrow and selfish preju-sixty years—from 1790 to 1850. The ordinary supreme in secular, as in sacred 'affairs, that he dice against men not of native origin. Such is increase from year to year since 1850, would make can absolve men from their relations with others the distinction I make, and, under the circum- the number much larger. They come to us by not of the true faith, it is not strange that men Blances I have suggested, that distinction involves millions. In ten years from 1850, foreign emigrashould hesitate in support of his followers. I questions of great importance.
tion will reach nearly, if not quite, four millions would not vote for any man holding to that doc- Can it be denied that there are those interested of persons. Here are tables I have compiled from trine, and, I doubt not, other gentlemen here in public affairs to whom this description, in some Mr. De Bow's Compendium of the Census, and would concur with me in that feeling.
degree, applies? Can it be denied that the power the returns obtained from the State Department And then again, as to our foreign population. lo control governments in other lands has been for the present year: I bear no enmity towards foreigners. In my assumed and exercised by the Roman Church, From 1795 10 1820, Professor Tucker's estimate, 234,000 political action, I have always endeavored to be that is so much dreaded by a portion of our citizens ? From 1820 to 1846, by custom-house returns.... 1,354,305 just to all men. I have my own faith, I make my || And is it not true that, amid repeated instances of
* Add filtry per cent. for persons arriving by land, 677,152
From 1846 to 1847, by custom-house returns.... 220,182 own creed, I stand upon my own platform, and I attempted exercise of temporal power in the last
From 1847 to 1848, filleen months to Sept. 30... 296,387 have never yet refrained from expressing my thousand years, it has never once been disavowed From 1848, fifteen months to January 1, 1850.. 296,938 honest convictions, whenever I have had occasion or disclaimed by any pontiff, or general council, Add twenty five per cent. for passengers arriving to slate them. I have been just, so far as I have | acquiesced in by the Pope? I ask the honorable
74,234 been able, to all classes of men, and to all sections gentleman from Mississippi to point to any histori
Number of emigrants in sixty years, from 1790 of the country. I have defended the South, so far cal fact, from an authorized source, proving such
3,153,198 as my conscience would permit, and I have stood disavowal or disclaimer.
From Jan. 1, 1850, to Sept. 30, 1850, nine months, 209,985 by the adopted citizens of my own State, without Mr. BARRY. I understand that applicatior.
From Sept. 30,1850, to Jan. 1, 1852, fifteen months 439,437 any distinction of person whatever, whether they was made to various Catholic universities, within From Jan. 1, 1852, to Jan. 1, 1853, one year... 372,725 were high or low, rich or poor. But if they hold the last century, to assert such a power, but the From Jan. 1, 1853, to Jan. 1, 1854, one year.... 368,643 as the supreme head of secular power the Pontiff expounders of ecclesiastical law denied that power, From Jan. 1, 1854, to Jan. 1, 1855, one ycar.... 399,523 of Rome, and consider that he can in any case and affirmed their independence of the Pope in all
1,790,313 absolve them from their allegiance to the Com. temporal matters. I agree with the gentleman, Add for emigrants arriving by land, five per cent. 89,515 monwealth of Massachusetts, or to the United fully, in the position he takes, that any man who States, why they have no claim whatever upon is bound in such temporal obedience, has no right
Total in five years-1850 to 1855............... 1,879,828 any man for support. If they understand ihat to citizenship.
Average each year.......
375,965 their interests are separate from those of American Mr. BANKS. I plant myself upon the ground citizens, if they take direction from their spiritual that the Pontiff of Rome has never, in any authori- Total in eight years--from 1850.......... 3,00?,720 guides in polítical matters, and by preconcerted tative form, so disavowed the right to control the and private arrangements, form associations, and members of the Roman Catholic Church in secular
'This is without estimate of increase. The inmake parties of their own, seeking to obtain and matters. I know the universities of France and
crease of arrivals in 1854 over those of 1850, is hold the balance of power, throwing their weight Spain have disclaimed that power. The gentlemen
about forty-two per cent., and nearly eight per first into one scale and then into the other, as they says that his Catholic friends have disclaimed it cent. over ihe foreign arrivals of 1853. Here are may understand their own interest to dictate, they to him. So my Catholic friends have disclaimed
the figures: will force upon American citizens the alternative, it to me. But ibey have not the right to private
1854. First quarter...........
47,976 Second quarter ...........................
161,169 either to make similar combinations against them, | opinion, much less the right to determine the faith
109,378 by refusing to divide upon the ordinary maxims of their Church. That is the right of Protestants. Fourth quarter, estimated as corresponding of party policy, or to abdicate the seals of political The Roman Church has never disclaimed it. I am quarter of 1853........
112,000 power. A balance of power, under such circum. told that the Pontiff stands upon my ground, and stances, is absolute power, and the direction of that he has a right to keep his own affairs to Deduct for citizens of the United States, as last public affairs is in the hands of those who wield it. himself. Undoubtedly he can do as he pleases in year.......
32,000 Now, I understand the breaking up of preëx- || Rome, where he has political power; but he isting organizations, that were based upon the cannot in the United States, where he has no
Total foreign arrivals for 1854..
398,523 Total foreign arrivals for 1853.
368.643 minute differences of opinion upon past questions, political jurisdiction. thus throwing an unfailing balance of power into Now, sir, as to the subject of naturalization, Increase in one year.
29,880 the hands of a small minority of citizens, not of to which the attention of the committee has been national origin, and possibly of only quasi na- directed, not so much by members of the new A corresponding increase of emigration for the tional interests, to be the purpose and object of party, as by other gentlemen, for certainly, 80 next three years would make the aggregate for the American organizations, that have been so far as this session of Congress is concerned, eight years, from 1850, larger than the entite emi. vigorously denounced. Of course I must admit those gentlemen who have distinctly presented it. || gration to this country for sixty years, from 1790 that the necessity of such combinations to guard for legislative action, have especially disclaimed to 1850. And;has this emigration reached its head? against the public dangers, arising from causes I that connection.
Who can say that? Look at the condition of East. have stated-obedience to ecclesiastical direction I desire to call the attention of the committee ern and Western Europe, of Asia, of China! The in political affairs, and the silent assumption of to the present condition of the country, as it earth shakes under the heavy tread of more than that position which gives to a small number of regards" emigration, and to contrast its resulis five millions armed men, and every State is submen a despotic balance of power-is denied. But with that period when the Constitution and the jected to the general scourge of actual or impend. I hesitate not to say that, in my own State, many early statutes of naturalization were adopted. ing war. Who are to bear its accumulating burthousand people entertain the belief that there is Then the emigration from abroad, according to dens? England must draw upon her resources, cause of fear, and my experience in its recent the estimate of Professor Tucker, was at the rate present or future, at the rate of a hundred millions political history forces upon me a participation in of five thousand per annum. It was said by sterling perannum,and other States will be weighed that conviction..
Roger Sherman, in the convention that framed down by every species of contribution, agressI repeat, sir, I bear no hostility to foreigners, the Constitution, speaking for Connecticut, than ment, and excise. And it is for a war of indefinite as such, and I'desire to do them no wrong. I am which no State was more liberal to citizens of duration, unless terminated by treaties of peace, honored with the friendship of one among my
foreign States, that the United States had never that will annihilate, rightfully, independent States, colleagues, who was born under the jurisdiction i invited foreigners here, nor pledged their faith and divide Europe anew among its great sover. of Great Britain-a man eminent in his profession, | that they should enjoy equal privileges with native distinguished by attainments that would do honor citizens.” But, it is just to say, that the country * The addition of finy per centum for persons not enu, to any statesman, whose character gives to him had been opened to them, through the legislation merated in the custom house returns from 1820 to 1846, is power both to serve and adorn every circle of life, of the several States, and they came at the rate
made upon the authority of Dr. Chickering. It is a viry public or private, and constitutes him an honor: of five thousand each year..
liberal estimate for the period to which it is here applied;
but it is too farge a number to be applied to the years suca able and useful member of this House, esteemed Look, now, at the returns made to us of Eu
ceeding 1846, as will be seen by reference to the emigration here as at home; and I would as cheerfuliy vole ropean emigration. Within the present year, the for that period. An addition of only five per centum is for him for filling political station as for my frieng last quarter of which has not yet expired, the for.
made to the custom-house returns since 1850, wbich is
rather an under estimate, as the returns of the Canadian who sits near me, from the Worcester county dis- | eign emigration will amount to very nearly four Government show nearly that number arriving in the United trict, though born within the jurisdiction of Mas- ll hundred thousand persons. I have no complaint States via Canada.
eigns. What are the people of the Old World || that, after a brief period, no man but a native- weak, and the figures cited, prove it to be true. to do? They have but one course. They must born citizen should be eligible to the office of Presi- But weak in numbers as they are, they are not so bear the onerous and increasing burdens of war, dent. They declared that nine years citizenship weak but their opponents may diride, and Amerior shoulder the musket and brave the dangers of should be required to make a man eligible to the can citizens and Protestants, dividing upon minor battle. There is no alternative. In Great Britain, Senate, and seven years to the House of Repre- questions of policy, can easily give a balance of France, Turkey, or Russia-in Austria, Prussia, sentatives. They took from the States the power power to a party of diminutive numbers that or Germany-here is no alternative.
to confer citizenship, which the States then exer- eschews division. But emigration presents an avenue of escape cised. There is nothing to show that they enter- There is a difference between elections of public from the evils of actual or impending war. Where tained the idca advanced here, that foreigners had officers by the people and Executive appointments, shall they go? To Canada? To unstable Mex- a right to participate in the highest prerogatives of that bears upon this question. The appointment ico? To South America ? They will come to the government. Ti was made a question of expe- of foreigners, by the Executive, must be obtained United States. The three and a quarter millions | diency. It was a privilege conferred.
through solicitation of those who have most inof foreign-born people, and their descendants here, The same caution runs through all our statute fluence in controlling the body of naturalized have so many heart strings out to draw their kith legislation on this subject. The statute of 1790 voters; and successful application binds the recipand kin to the New World. Our country begins required two years' residence as a qualification for | ients, if there be integrity in human nature, partly to be known abroad. The most favorable account citizenship. The statute of 1795 required five to the Government, but largely to the parties of this country, lately published, was written by years' residence. The statute of 1802 required through whom it is obtained. a gentleman, who ten years since asked an Ameri- additional proof of residence, and renunciation of On the other hand there is a kind of purgation can how it was possible he, who had seen Europe, all allegiance to other Governments. The statute in popular elections, that binds a candidate to the could live in America? They begin to feel that of 1816 required proof of residence by two citi- | public, and compels him to look to the people America is the only land where men can reach zens of the United States, showing a constant ad-alone. He can share the favor of no other mistress. their true standard of greatness. Our institutions vance in the demands made by Government upon If the church presents a candidate for popular sufare debated by the light of every camp.fire and those on whom it conferred the privilege of citi- frage, she loses a disciple or he fails in his appeal. hearth-stóne on the face of the earth. The excited zenship. They made it a condition precedent that In the Constitutional Convention, the danger apimaginations of distressed and heart-broken men, aliens who sought citizenship should divest them- | prehended was from election of foreigners by the invest that liberty we actually enjoy, with the selves of all attachment to foreign potentates or people. I leave it for others to say whether pubattributes of an almost fabulous and imp:ssible | Governments, of any character whatever. If I lic apprehension has not fallen, with some reason, prosperity and freedom. When one Staie is ex- recollect aright, Mr. Madison, who was foremost upon a different source of patronage at this time? hausted another is opened. How is it possible | among the advocates of liberal legislation for citi- Now, sir, I will admit that any change of the that emigration can have reached its head? Who zens of foreign birth, in supporting a proposition statutes of naturalization will not obviate this can doubt its increase; or, that it may even, in our of Hamilton, that eligibility to office should de- l objectionable feature in our system of Government. time, be doubled ?
pend merely upon citizenship and inhabitancy, A power already exists that is sufficient to proLook to the East, to China, India, Japan, with | said distincily " that while it was a possible dan. | duce these resulis, if directed to that end. In the their six hundred millions of people, often with- ger that men with foreign predilections might ob | almost perfect equipoise of the great American out, employment or subsistence. They have tain appointments, it was by no means probable parties, a very small number of men, untrammeled already an idea of the institutions and capacity that it would happen to any dangerous degree. by declared opinions, can determine the result of of the American continent. The Chinese, whose For the same reason that they would be attached any election. The election of 1852 is not a fair emigration has been limited to Japan, now seek to their own country, our people would prefer na. illustration, because of the general unanimity of the United States and the islands of our southern tives of this country to them. This, certainly, | political sentiment in that year. But a change of seas. They are already upon the Pacific coast. sounds like a confirmation of the doctrine of the less than thirty-nine thousand votes, out of an agThirty or forty thousand are in California; and Know-Nothings; and it falls from the lips of a gregate of over three millions, would have elected when we are, by-steamships, within ten or twelve steadfast friend of adopted citizens, who knew the General Scott, instead of General Pierce. A change days sail of their crowded empires, who can pro- | services of foreigners in the Revolution, at a time of one hundred and thirteen thousand votes would phesy the extent of this new and unanticipated when the vast, unsurveyed portions of the country have given General Scott every electoral vote, and emigration? Who can check its encroachments ? demanded a pioneer population, and the annual a change of one hundred and i wenty-five thousand Not the States; that has been decided by the emigration from abroad did not exceed five thou- votes would have given to General Pierce every Supreme Judicial tribunal. What power is equal sand persons. He had reference only to the ap- vote General Srott received, and to General Scott to that duty ?
pointment of foreigners to office by the people, every vote General Pierce received. In the election Not long since, I had the pleasure of reading a 1 and did not refer to them as even possible recipi- of 1848, less than eighty thousand votes would letter upon this subject, written by a most intelli- ents of Executive patronage. There is a distinc- have changed the vote of every State of the Union, gent Chinese, who was educating himself in this tion in these sources of appointment that deserves except that of New York, giving to General Taycountry, I think in New Jersey. He says, that to be noted. Mr. Gerry, of Massachusetts-after- lor the votes received by General Cass, and the when the people of the Chinese empire under- || wards Vice President during the administration of vote of General Cass to General Taylor. And a stand that ihere are for them, among us, opportu. Mr. Madison-said that he wished, “ in future, change of less than twenty-five thousand voles in nities greatly to improve their condition, they will eligibility might be confined to NATIVES.
four States would have elected General Cass, inpour in upon us, not by thousands, but in swarms not singular," he said, “ in his views. A great stead of General Taylor. If, in the enthusiasm like the locusts of ancient days; that there is no many of the most influential men in Massachusetts and heat of American politics, there is any party power at home, none here, to stay them from reasoned in like manner. Similar views were that is cool enough, as is suspected and charged, our shores, if they but understand the nature of expressed by leading men of the Federal and deliberately to project and execute a plan that our institutions, and the resources of our country: Republican parties. They placed the new Con- shall secure an absolute balance of power between Their empire is now bristling with rebellion and Blitution upon the ground that, when emigrants the great parties, the remedy, the only remedy, civil war. In times of peace, the Government ceased to be foreigners they were entitled to become must be for the people to abstain from division has been unable to enforce its decrees against expa- American citizens.
upon ordinary questions, as against that party. triation, when Japan alone, held out its allure- How is it with the foreign population of our day? | if it be true that any considerable portion of the ments to them; and now, when for the first time The gentleman from Mississippi alluded to the foreign vote has been directed with a view to in a century, they are subjected to the accumula- || Aattery of foreign voters by General Scott, in the secure this end, there are now votes enough out ting horrors of civil war, choking up the ordinary campaign of 1852. But how was it with the Demo- l of two and a quarter millions of resident foreigners channels of trade and industrial employment, in cratic party in that canvass ? where were the dif- to effect it, were the statutes of naturalization retheir crowded empire, it will be still more impos. || ferent parties of all the States? and how will it be pealed.* There is no remedy but that union which sible. Shall we send off with the bayonet? No, with all the parties in the contest of 1856? May has been described to us, and that, I understand, sir, if they come we shall admit them. There not they too go down on their knees, to those who may be legitimate uses for them, in the economy may hold the balance of power in that contest?
* The following table exhibits the relation in the elec
tion of 1852, in fourteen of the Siates of the Union, wbich of God's providence. But, have they a Christian And a word as to this balance of power. Has
cast a majority of electoral votes, of the foreign population character adapted to the institutions of this coun- it occurred to gentlemen how slight a power is and voters to inc general result: try? I ask the gentleman from Mississippi, required to determine the result of any future whether we shall give to them the rights of citi- election? Has it occurred to us how slight a
Foreign Foreign Pierce's zenship, at the close of their first five years' power, skilfully directed, might have changed the
93,317 27,201 that, in the absence of any legislation, shall deter- il demands? How is it that so many gentlemen | Pivosylvania 303, 105
19,446 mine what affinities of race, and color, and blood, of foreign birth, hold diplomatic stations at foreign
7,287 4,945 Louisiana....
67,308 9,615 1,392 make it impossible for men ever to participate in courts? Is it because General Pierce is Presideni?
7,698 the powers of Government? Would not General Scott have pursued the same Illinois...
15,980 15,613 Mr. Chairman, how does our present condition policy? or, if differing at all, differing in degree
218,099 31,157 16,694
Wisconsin... compare with the period of the Constitution to only, and not in prirciple. Of course, no man
20,968 2,995 1,180 which we are referred, when ten years' emigmation could do otherwise. May not the next man who Rhode Island. 23,32
1,109 gave us only fifty thousand persons? And what occupies the presidential chair do the same thing?
2,890 said the framers of the Constiention even then? I do not censure one parly and excuse another,
749 because the necessities of action are equally imperDid they declare that foreigners had a right to par
Californi3.... 21,628 10,000 ticipate in the affairs of government ? Not at all! ative on all.
5,694 They made the Constitution proscriptive. They Now it is said that the foreign vote, and the
258,548 120,094 declared, by a unanimous vote of the convention, ll Catholic influence in this country is comparatively
vote cast for Pierce
35 27 8 6
ని లుం లాటి = అhe
4 6 3
330 CONG....20 Sess.
Ho. OF REPS. to be a chief object of the party whose members upon a subject which has, for months past, occu- while reason is lejl free to combat it." The evils that are called “ Koow-Nothings." While it deniespied a large share of public attention. That we see are not to be cured by persecution; the no rights to a minority, it demands the rights subject is, in cominon parlance, called Know- raggot and the stake are exploded arguments; of a inajority. While it denies to foreigners | Noihingism. Opinions the opposite of those ! and having discarded the more open, mauly, and nothing that belongs to them, it claims and entertain have already been avowed here; and I responsible instruments of torture, we will not assumes the prerogative of Government, which seize the opportunity, which I did not before enjoy, now turn to seize upon those, which are secret, is, here, the unquestioned right of AMERICANS. of declaring iny own.
sinister, and irresponsible. Denying to no person the righis of conscience, or This society, or association, known by the A sew Germans, so goes the story, have formed the ireedom of religious opinion, it establishes name of “Know-Nothings,” is one which has an association whose purpose is, among other and perpetuates both, in placing the Government i recently sprung into existence. Its founders are heterodox things, to abolish the Christian Sabupon the basis contemplated by the Constitution, | unknown; its purposes are unknown, because the bath, and straightway the alarm is given, and and by the fathers of this Republic.
purposes avowed by those who are supposed to men who never seemed to care for. Protestantism It is useless to speculate upon the extent to belong to it--by those advocating it—are con- before, have become disturbed. We have a body which this power may be carried, should such a tradictory in their character. These are to lie of Christians, numerous, zealous, and devont; policy be adopted. But I may mention an inci- deduced, not from authorized avowals of those we have a press, able, skillsul, and ever ready; we dent within my own exnerience which illustrates | acknowledged to belong to the society, but they have a clergy, watchful, learned, and pious; and a possible limit. In 1848, I supported the Dem- are to be gathered by scraps, collected here and more than all, we have a Revelation on which, as ocratic candidate for the Presidency; and, being there from the declarations of those who are sus- on a rock, is based the institution of the Christian earnest in the canvass, I was sanguine of success. pected of being members, or who have incident- || Sabbath; yet neither, nor all of these is thought I was intimate with one who likewise advocated ally acquired information. It is not like other sufficient to save the Sabbath from the assaulis of a the claims of General Cass, but who always said political organizations here, avowing principles, | few nameless foreigners, and the aid of the civil he would be defeated. It was a tight battle, as and meeting and daring the responsibility of the authority is invoked to devise some policy by which every one knows; and none but very wise men avowal. It is not like other associations, which || the uide of German infidelity may be stayed. That knew its result until after the election. Some having principles believed to be of vital import- remedy is worthy of Rome herself ibree hundred
months after, my friend mentioned to me his ance to the country, their members are willing to years ago. It is to disfranchise three millions of | prediction. “ How was it," said I, “that, while declare those principles, and to sta id or fall with people, to reverse the policy of the freest Governyou labored for Cass, you were certain of his chem. If, then, in attempting to find out the ment on earth, and while there are indications of defeat?" Said he, "I am Jesuit; and our instruc- || purposes of this order, I shall do injustice to it- progress in every nation of the civilized world, to tion: were to shout for Cass but to vote for Tay- | if I shall ascribe to it that which its advocates present ours as the only one which is going backlor." I ask no gentleman to take this statement deny, let members upon this floor, if there be such ward. If the efforis of a few hundred foreigners upon the credit of any man. I repeat it, as an belonging to the order, rise and correct me. I can put Christianity in peril, it has a fecbler hold illustration of the extent to which this balance of shall be willing to be supplied with the informa- upon the human heart, and is less closely interpower policy might be carried.
tion--more willing, perhaps, than they will be to woven with the wants and principles of our Now, sir, I know, what I have said before, that give it.
nature than I had supposed. a change of the slatutes of naturalization, will This association appeals to that which is strong There have been meetings held publicly in New not remedy any possible evil of this character. in every country. It appeals to that feeling of York city, and, doubtless, will be again, where The remedy for that I have alluded to. But the nationality without which a nation cannot exist the Bible, the Church, and the whole scheme of revision of these statutes may be pressed upon as an independent Government, but which, at the Christianity have been denounced and held up to ourattention, by the example of repeated revisions same time, when kindled and maddened, may de- reprobation. These meetings were composed of and amendments made by our predecessors; by stroy all that is good in government, and subvert native-born citizens, and yet no remedy has been the extent to which the emigration of that class of the very principles on which it was established. proposed for the evil which required the disfranpeople, who are of unexceptionable personal char. There is no nation in the world—and the more chisement of all native.born citizens on account of acter, has been carried; by the increased number intellectual, socially and politically, the nation is, | the insane vagaries of a few, or which struck at of convicts and paupers of other Governments the less ready it will be to entertain the prejudice- | the root of the dearest privileges of the citizen, to that are sent here; by the hitherto unanticipated || I say that there is no nation upon earth in which eradicate a transient, ihough crying evil. The emigration from the Chinese empire; by what we this prejudice against foreigners and foreign popu- Boston Investigator has. for years avowed and know of the past and fear of the future, and, lation cannot be aroused; and the most beautiful advocated principles utterly at war with Chrisagain, that some act of the Government may mark and soothing effect of civilization, the loveliest in- tinnity; yet, no body of men that I know of, has the period when an unjustifiable effort to control fluence of our own institutions, has been to mollify leagued together, by solemn oaths, to disfranchise their political action was rebuked by the Ameri- this prejudice against those outside our borders, the editor or his readers of their civil rights. The can people. These things, do not, in my judg- and to bring the whole family of nations, as it Unitarianism prevalent in and about Boston is as ment, demand a repeal of the statutes of natural. were, into a common brotherhood. According to little acceptable to the great body of Christians in ization, but, I am not prepared to say, that they | the degree of a nation's civilization, according as this country as Catholicism; but the truly noble will not justify an extension of the term of residence it is high, or low, you will, as a general rule, find tolerance of the people has not thought it just or now required, and a more stringent execution of this prejudice and hostility to foreigners. In pro- politic to attempt the extinction of heresy or infithe laws existing than has been usual hitherto. portion us a nation is elevated in its consciousness | delity by imposing civil disabilities. The best, Whether that term shall be twenty-one, or twelve, of power, and in its knowledge of the high duties the only proper, remedy for erroneous opinion, is or ten years, I leave for others to determine. of civilization, will it receive and treat with re- argument and truth, offered in the spirit of respect
The gentleman from Mississippi suggested that spect those who spring from a foreign soil, or are and kindness; and a party which, in a free counthis was a land of toleration of religious tolera- reared under the influence of different ideas; and try, attempts to drive men by secret or open tion: Sir, I go far beyond that. I do not agree as it sinks in the scale of self-respect and civiliza-l proscription, and to punish freedom of thought merely to the roleration of Catholics or Protestants tion, in the same degree do you find this prejudice; by covert assaults of intolerance, can achieve only here. They have an absolute right. Every per- and as a nation is possessed of a rabble instead of a temporary success, and escape for but a little son is entitled to religious freedom. Toleration a people, it will be seen that its fury can be aroused while the condemnation which enlightened men exists in France or in Great Britain, because, against all who cannot pronounce its Shibboleth. visit upon every form of persecution. Wherever there religions are established by Government. One of the most frequent justifications of this thought is free it will run riot in error. The great Here there is yet no Government religion, and organization, Mr. Chairman-the one which I truths which the consent of man has adopted, are therefore no mere toleration. The Catholic and have heard alluded to here and elsewhere-is but grains of wheat winnowed from bushels of the Protestant have their right under our institu- that there are secret associations of foreigners | chaff. It is only by the widest excursions of tions. No one will be more reluctant than myself which must be counteracted in this manner. If thought that the treasures of the universe are garto disturb or curtail that right. I am for extend- such political associations exist among the foreign nered, and the vagaries of error are often suge ing it to the professors of every faith in the largest population of this country, it certainly seems a gestive of the finest discoveries of truth. Your possible degree. But the concessions of the con- strange method to rebuke the error by forming | freedom and mine, Mr. Chairman, to think right, stitution and laws end there. In matters of politics, other associations, in which are embodied all that rest upon the same guarantees as the German's we extend to citizens from other lands the right of is wrong in those we condemn. We give dignity right to think wrong. His right to the abuse of participation, not the right of control. In establish and consequence to their conduct by imitating it
, his freedom of thought cannot be assailed through ing the charter of religious freedom, we neither and lose all the advantage of honest principles by the medium of law, or the more criminal agency avoid the responsibilities nor abdicate the duties leveling our own conduct to the standard of those of a secret oath-bound association without perilof Government.
we reprobate. If the foreigners have adopted | ing our right to the proper use of our freedom. [Here the hammer fell.)
rules of action incompatible either with social Secret political associations have heretofore
order or political rights, there can be no duty | existed in oppressed countries, for enlarging the CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS TOLERATION.
more consistent with pure philanthropy or elevated | rights of the citizens, and limiting the powers of
patriotism, than the attempt to correct their error, rulers; but, this is the first, so far as my readSPEECH OF WILLIAM S. BARRY, and infuse into their minds juster views of the ing extends, in which the effort has been made, OF MISSISSIPPI,
duties of the citizen, both to his neighbor and to the through such an organization, to narrow the IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
State. We have adopted the humane and tolerant | liberty of man, and graft an oppressive principle December 18, 1854.
opinion of Mr. Jefferson, the great apostle of the upon the Government. There has been a strong
Democratic party, and who infused into it that repugnance to these political associations in this The House being in the Committee of the generous and trusting faith in man, whether native country from the earliest period of our history. Whole on the state of the Union
or alien born, which has been the germ of the The society of the Cincinnati, formed immediate y Mr. BARRY said:
chief differences between the two great parties of after the Revolution, and composed of men fresh Mr. CHAIRMAN: I propose-to offer some remarks Il the country, “ That little is to be feared from error," from the baptism of fire and blood in that holy 330 CONG....20 Sess.
Civil and Religious Toleration-Mr. Barry.
Ho. OF REPS.
Btruggle, has decayed, and almost expired, under munity were thought sufficient to insure its faith- witness endured the most painful and harassing the distrust felt by the American people of secret ful exercise. But ihis secret association attempts | struggles of mind in decermining where the obliassociations, which might be wielded to the detri- lo bind men by the most stringent oaths to exercise gation of duty lay, whether to obey the oath taken ment of the public liberty, or to serve the ambi. the right of voting only as certain native patriots before the court, or the one sworn in a midnight tious purposes of those who would make the shall determine, in ihe secrecy, and perhaps association; which claim was paramount, that of association the instrument of their own advance. in the darkness, of midnight. The citizen who | his country, to whom he owed duty and allegi
The times are not so improved, nor men assumes these oaths and obligations parts with his ance from his birth, or that of a secret proscriptive grown 80 patriotic, that a power which was denied individual freedom, abandons his personal inde- society, which had entangled him with oaihs, and by public opinion to the best patriots of the purest | pendence, and comes to the polls, not an untram- digged pitfalls about him for his conscience. Has days of the Revolution, can safely be intrusted to meled voler, but a mere machine to carry out, by a citizen the moral right, and if he has the right, the hands of those who can show no peculiar || his suffrage, the elections and the purposes which is it a worthy and judicious use of it thus to perclaim, either of service or purity, to special confi- | others—perhaps against his consent-havedeterm- plex his sense of duty by assuming, unnecessarily, dence.
ined on. He barters a way his freedorn who makes vows of the most solemn character, and which he But, sir, the purposes of this order and its any pledges or swears any oaths which impair his cannot disregard even in obedience to that higher organization are distinct. The end to be accom- right to modify his ticket at any time prior to de- and more ancient duty which rests upon us all, plished and the instruments may be dissimilar positing it in the ballot-box. The electoral fran: || without incurring the censure, and, perhaps, the and inconsistent. When the advocates of this chise is one which is conferred on each individual punishment of those with whom he had associreligious and political intolerance talk to me of who exercises it, and which he has no right to ated ? In my judgment, sir, a man who is a memsecuring the independence of our country, of trammel the free, judicious use of, by private oaths ber of an established Government, from which he having our character truly American, of rejecting and secret combinations; and his duty is to his receives the amplest protection of person and utterly all foreign influe ice and dictation, ihough country and the Constitution, not to midnight property, and 10 which, in return, he owes the I have been deluded with the belief that we have caucuses of ambitious and crafty men, who glaze | amplest measure of fidelity and obedience, has not long enjoyed all these blessings, still my heart over their schemes of selfishness with well affected the moral right to take such an oath as that I have glows as I listen to these patriotic sentiments, anxiety for the public good.
quoted. He may as well owe allegiance to a forurged with such warmth and eloquence; but when It is not to be supposed that an order so exten- | eign sovereign, and be ready to obey his comI ask for the means of effecting these desirable sive and numerous as the Know-Nothings could ) mands, as assume obligations to any society of ends, and am pointed to a secret political associa- | exist a great while without a revelation or betrayal | his countrymen which place him in collision with tion which the traditions of our fathers, yet glow- of its secrets, despire the etrenuous efforts made his own Government. So plain, and almost selfing with the life-blood of the Revolution, and the to preserve them. A publication was made a few evident is this truth, that a year since no one in instincts of my republican nature, and the creed of weeks since, in the Boston Post, of the constitu- | this country could have been found to question it, the Democratic party whose truths I have been tion, ritual, &c., of the order in the State of Mas. as no one will a year or two hence, when this bubtaught to act upon and to revere, all warn me to sachusetts, and those of other States are believed, || ble, with its tints that delude some eyes, shall shun; when l'arn urged to join in proscribing so far as they have been revealed, to be essentially have passed into oblivion, with its elder brothers, one portion of my fellow-citizens because of their alike. A witness, who was being examined in a | the alien and sedition laws, and the public mind, birth, and another because of their religious opin- court of justice in Massachusetts, was asked if | swayed from its self-poised equilibrium by a temions, I naturally inquire, can the purpose of those he belonged to the order, and after much equivo: 1 porary excitement, shall have recovered its just be good who employ such means for its accom- cation, he admitted it, and being asked further, if position. plishment? I am far from charging upon the the publication in the Post was an authentic copy Many who have joined this association, under advocates of Know-Nothingismany wish to inflict of the records of the order, he replied that it the best of the thousand inducements by which evil upon their country; yet they are justly to be
Thus we have reliable information as to good men have been seduced into a connection held responsible for all the consequences, moral
, the method of initiation into the order, the signs, with it, when they come to estimate calmly and social, and political, which now from their doc- pass-words, &c., the oaths the members take, and justly the false position in which they have placed trines. the purposes they have in view.
themselves, will do, as thousands of others have Thus, Mr. Chairman, two distinct questions I haver here the oath of the candidate for ad done already, abandon it; and feeling that the are presented in examining this subject-first, the mission into the second degree council, as given, | laws and the Constitution of their country are à purposes which theorder has in view; and secondly, and, so far as I know, uncontradicted, in the safer measure of public duty, and surer guardians the means by which they are to be accomplished. Pennsylvanian, extra, of October 6.
It is as
of public right, and honor, and interest, than the These purposes, as gathered from supposed || follows:
murky resolves of any association that ever members, from newspapers professing to advocate
“ Obligation.- You, and each of you, of your own free
adopted persecution for its creed, and an irrespon. the views of the order, and from the writings and will and accord, in the presence of Almighty God and these sible secrecy for its means, can be, they will speeches of those affecting to sympathize with it, I witnesses, your right hand resting on this Holy Bible and renew their open associations with their fellow
Cross, and your left hand raised toward heaven, or, if it | citizens, and abjure thenceforth, as the worst First. The exclusion of all foreigners from office.
he preferred, your left hand resting on your breast, and your
enemies of freedom, all political organizations Second. The extension of the term of naturali- do solemniy promise and swear, ibat you will not make which employ oaths, or secrecy, or persecution. zation from five to lwenty-one years, or some
known, to any person or persons, any of the signs, secrets, Anoath such as this it is culpable to lake, but it is far other period longer than five years. mysteries, or objects of this organization, unless it be tó
more culpable to execute it. An oath to do wrong, Third. The entire repeal of the naturalization
those whom, aiter due examination, or lawful information,
lo violate a known duty, sworn to in excitement laws.
standing; that yon will not cul, carve, print, paint, stamp, or heedlessness, it is safer for the soul manfully Fourthly. The exclusion of Roman Catholics stain, or in any way, directly or indirectly, expose any of to abjure, than, under the delusive promptings of from office. the secrets or objects of this order, nor suffer it to be done
årrogance and pride, to persist in its completion. by others, if in your power to prevent ii, unless it be for The means by which these things are to be official instruction; triat so long as you are connected with
The oath provides that the member shall " not, accomplished, are a secret political association, in ibis organization, if not regularly disinissed from it, you under ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, expose the name of which the members are bound by the most solemn will, in all things, political or social, so far as this order is any member of this order, nor reveal the existe oaths to obedience, to silence, and to mutual fidelity.
coocerned, comply with the will of the majority, when
ence of such an organization." This portion I shall speak, first, of the organization, and
your personal preference, so long as it does not conflict of the oath, perhaps, explains why those not then of the purposes the order has in view. with the grand, State, or subordinate constitutions, the in the order have never met a man who confessed
I can but believe that a secret political associa- Constitution of ihe United States of America, or that of the that he belonged to it. And, sir, we have beard tion is dangerous to the rights of the people and to
State in which you reside; and that you will not, under
men deny connection with it, whom we have every the stability of the Government. In a free Gov. unworthy person for initiation, nor suffer it to be done, if
reason to be satisfied were members. Has any ernment, where every man is entitled to declare in your power to prevent it. You furthermore promise and man the right to take an oath binding himself in his opinions, and there is no punishment for declare, that you will not vote nor give your influence for the continuous statement of an untruth. Can that the avowal of whatever doctrines he may enter
any man for any office in the gift of the penple, unless he
institution be good whose first fruits are thus tain, what excuse can there be for a resort to ruling America; nor if he be a Roman Catholic; and that
evil? No, sir; it is wrong, radically wrong. Nor secrecy? When the people are oppressed by a you will not, under any circumstances, expose the name of can the guilt of the deception be escaped by the tyrannical Government, and the penalty of death any member of this order, nor reveal the cristence of such
flimsy evasion that the real name of the order is awaits every man who dares to speak or think
an organization. Toalline foregoing you bind yourselves,
not " Know-Nothing," and that, consequenıly, a against the power that is crushing him, there may this order, and of having your name posted and circulated man may safely say he does not belong to one of indeed be an excuse for patriots scheming in the throughout the different councils of the United States, as a that name, though he really is connected with the darkness of midnight, and in the security of
perjurer, and as a traitor to God and your country, as being unknown places of meeting; but, in the midst of unfit to be einployed and trusted, countenanced, it supported title, and he well knows it is the one alluded to by
order which the public have designated by that a people who enjoy every liberty that the most the confidence of all good men, and as one at whom the the inquirer. Since his intention is to deceive, he liberal institutions can bestow, where freedom of finger of scoru should ever be pointed. So help you God!" is responsible for the deceit. Nor can he escape thought, of speech, of action, and of the press, (Each answers, " I do.")
by the plea that the querist has no right to put are the birth-right of every man, how can a secret There are several things in this oath well calcu- | the question, and that he is, therefore, si liberty to proscriptive organization be allowed to take root,lated to excite the apprehension of judicious, con- disregard the truth in his answer. It is by no and rights, the dearest that man can exercise, or scientious men. It is easy to perceive in how means certain that each citizen has not the right Government protect, be taken from the people by many instances it may happen that ad herence to to ask every other any question he may see fit, in means so insidious and so fruitful of danger? it will conflict with a member's duty as a citizen. reference to public matters, without being liable
The Constitution allows no oaths to be forced It may very frequently occur that a member may to the charge of inquisition or impertinence; and upon the voter, nor tesls to be imposed in the use be required to testify in a court of justice of his though the person asked may have the choice of of that franchise. The sense of duty and the per- own membership, as in the instance before alluded | silence or speech, he is under the common obligasonal stake of each man in the welfare of the com- to, which arose in Massachusetts, in which the I tion that rests on all men, if he answers at all, to