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330 CONG.... 20 Sess.
Pacific Railroad - Mr. Benton.
Ho. OF REPs.
sissippi to the Pacific ocean. Branches striking out, report the same thing. Salubrity, then, is one of towns, cities, villages, and farms. And rich will
pioneers, descending the Alleghany mountain, to line of farms and houses—of towns and villages- People now travel it, and praise it; buffaloes arrive at the mouth of Big Sandy, in the very latiof orchards, fields, and gardens-of churches and travel it, and repeat their travel-which is their tude of St. Louis, San Francisco, and Baltimore, school-houses—of noisy shops, clattering mills, praise. The Federal Government only seems to and there to join the same great central western and thundering forges, and all that civilization eschew it, and lean to outside routes--one by trunk. And the Blue Ridge road of South Carolina, affords to enliven the wild domain from the Mis- Canada, which the Canadian provincial parliament bound upon the same destination; and the roads sissippi to the Pacific—to give protection and em- appears to be now adopting for its own; and one
of Georgia, pointing and advancing to the northployment to the road—and to balance the populous through old Mexico, which Santa Anna might west. What is the destiny of all
these Atlantic communities in the eastern half of the Union by adopt, if he had any commerce: and upon neither roads, thus pointing to the west, and converging equal populations on its western half.
of which is seen a buffalo track, or a voluntary upon the central track, the whole course of which In this description of the country I have relied white man's track going to California:-where lies through the center of our Union, and through chiefly on Frémont, whose exploration, directed no white man goes to get to California, except the center of its population, wealth and powerby no authority, connected with no company, under the orders, and at the expense of Governo and one end of which points to Canton and Jeddo swayed by no interest—wholly guided by himself, ment; and where no buffalo could be made to go, -the other to London and Paris; what will those and solely directed to the public good, would be even by the power of the Government. That lateral roads become, in addition to their original entitled to credit upon his own report, unsupported sensible old animal would die before he would be destination? They will become parts of a system, by subsidiary evidence; but he has not left the made such a fool of as to be conducted to the bringing our Atlantic cities nearer to the Pacific credit of his report to his word alone. He has Sacramento, or San Joaquin, or San Francisco, coast than they were to the Blue Ridge and the done, besides, what no other explorer had done: via the hyperborean region of Upper Canada and | Ohio in the time of canals and turnpikes. And he has made the country report itself! Besides New Caledonia;-or, via the burning deserts of what then ? The great idea of Columbus will be determining elevations barometrically, and fixing Sonora and Chihuahua. The central route is the realized, though in a different, and a more benefipositions astronomically, and measuring objects free choice of men and buffaloes; and is good for cent form. Eastern Asia is reached, by going with a practiced eye-besides all that, he has ap- | all sorts of roads, and in all seasons. Its straight- | west, and by a road of which we hold the key! plied the daguerreotype art to the face of the wild ness of course will enable the car to more than and the channel of Asiatic commerce, which has domain, and made it speak for itself. Three double its speed; and consequently earn its money been shifting its bed from the time of Solomon, hundred of these views illustrate the path of his in half the time. The smoothness of its course is
and raising up cities and kingdoms wherever it exploration, and compel every object to stand | but little interrupted by its ascents or descents; went-(to perish when it left them)-changing its forth, and show itself as it is, or was: mountain, for they are gradual, and distributed over long channel for the last time to become fixed upon gap, plain, rock, forest, grass, snow, (where there distances: and the whole country, between the
its shortest, safest, best, and quickest route, is any,) and naked ground where there is not- Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada, is at the through the heart of our America-and to revive all exhibit themselves as they are. For daguerre | general level of five thousand feet--the greatest | along its course the Tyres and Sidons, the Bal. has no power to conceal what is visible, or to descent being from the Sierra Nevada to the level becs, Palmyras, and Alexandrias, once the seat of exhibit what is unseen. If the “wart” is there of the sea; and that may distribute itself, for the commerce and empire; and the ruins of which still he needs no admonition to show it, and could not road, over some hundred miles.
attest their former magnificence, and excite the suppress it. He uses po pencil to substitute fic- And now I hold it to be in order of human wonder of the oriental traveler. tion for fact, or fancy for memory. He is a ma- events—in the regular progression of human af- This great central trunk road from Baltimore to chine that works to a pattern, and that patern the fairs—that the road will be built, and that soon; the mouth of the Kansas, along the parallel of 390, object before him; and in this way has Frémont not by public, but private means-by a company is already almost finished, and for all the purposes reproduced the country from the Mississippi to of solid men, asking nothing of Congress but the of its continuation from Missouri to California, the Pacific, and made it become the reflex of its right of way through the public lands; and fair pay may be assumed to be now finished; for, it will own features, and the exhibiter of its own face, || for good service in carrying mails, troops, Gov- be completely so before any part of the other is present and viewable to every beholder; and that ernment officials, and munitions of war. Such an
ready to join it. It is now complete to the Ohio nothing may be wanting to complete the informa- enterprise is worthy of enlightened capitalists, who | river-complete to Cincinnati-complete through tion on a subject of such magnitude, he has now know how to combine private advantage with the State of Ohio-complete half way through gone baek to give the finishing look at the west end public good; and who feel a laudable desire to Indiana, and the other half in progress-complete of the line, which thirty thousand miles of wilder- connect their names with a monumental enterprise, half way through Illinois, and the other half in ness explorations in the last twelve years, (all at his more useful than the pursuits of political ambition, progress-complete (nearly) one third of the way own solicitation, and the last half at his own cost,) more glorious than the conquest of nations, more through Missouri, and all the rest under contract, authorize him to believe is the true and good route durable than the pyramids; and which, being and under the daily energies of two thousand for the road which is to unite the Atlantic and the finished, is to change the face of the commercial laborers, led by a most energetic contractor. We Pacific, and to give a new channel to the com- world-and all to the advantage of our America. may assume, then, the great western trunk road merce of Asia.
The road will be made, and soon, and by indi- to be finished from Atlantic tide-water to the westAll the other requisites for the construction and vidual enterprise. The age is progressive and ern limit of Missouri—that is to say, half way to maintenance of a road, and to give it employment | utilitarian. It abounds with talent, seeking em- the Pacific! and to the commencement of that when done, have been shown in the view of the ployment, and with capital, seeking investment. vast inclined prairie plain which spreads from the country. Wood, water, stone, coal, iron; rich | The templation is irresistible. To reach the golu- || Missouri frontier more than half the distance of soil to build up settlements and cities, to give en California, to put the populations of the Atlan- the remaining half, and which is nearly prepared local business and travel all along its course, as tic, the Pacific, and the Mississippi valley, into || by the hand of nature for the immediate reception well as at the great terminating points—and to direct communication to connect Europe and of the iron rails, and their solid foundations. What protect it without Government troops. Add to Asia through our America-and to own a road of
a temptation for a company to begin the great work this, picturesque scenery, and an entire region of our own to the East Indies: such is the grandeur | when so much is done to their hand, and so much unsurpassed salubrity. This quality of the route of the enterprise, and the time has arrived to begin of the remainder is so easy to be done! and then, -salubrity-requires a special notice. Fremont | it
. The country is open to settlement, and invit- how advanced all the Atlantic and Mississippi says of it: '“ It is a healthy route. No diseases of ing it, and receiving it. The world is in motion, | valley connections with this great western trunk! any kind upon it; and the valetudinarian might following the track of the sun to its dip in the On the Atlantic side, from Maine to Georgiatravel it in his own vehicle, or on horse, or even
Westward the torrents of emi.
from Bangor, on the Penobscot, in the State of on foot, for the mere recovery of spirits and resto. gration direct their course, and soon the country Maine, to the State of Georgia-a man may now ration of health.” This is what Frémont says; | between Missouri and California is to show the go by car to that central trunk in Ohio and Indiand he ought to know, traversing the region as he most rapid expansion of the human race that the
ana: from the southern shores of the northern has done for twelve years, and never having a ages of man have ever beheld. It will all be set
lakes, he can do the same: from the borders of the physician with him, nor losing a man by sickness. tled up, and that with magical rapidity; settle- southern gulf, he can partly do it. Soon all will And all his mountain comrades-sojourners of ments will promote the road; the road will aggran
be complete; and every part of the Atlantic States twenty, thirty, forty years in this wild domain || dize the settlements. Soon it will be a line of || and of the Mississippi valley be ready to go into
communication with the Pacific ocean as soon as must travel it-with our permission--and behave way for a good road, and a good country to the trunk is completed from Missouri to California. well to receive permission, or fall behind and lose sustain people to protect and support it-and
Telegraphic lines are ready at both ends. In the trade by following the old track; giving us a law and government to guard it-and settlements California they extend over the State, into the bond in the use of our road for their peaceable nearly all the way already began; and to multiply valleys of San Joaquin and Sacramento, and behavior. Twenty-five centuries have fought for with magic rapidity. Then let us begin-take would be ready to meet the road at the State line. the commercial road to India; we have it as a the first step, which is always the most difficult. On this end, the wires now extend to the western peaceable possession. Shall we use it? or wear My plan is, to get this substitute bill passed, limit of Missouri-to the mouth of Kansas-from out our lives in strife and bitterness, wrangling which Congress may pass without constitutional which point intelligence can now be Aashed to over a miserable topic of domestic contention, scruple, confined as it is to territorial domain, every part of the Union; so that, on this central while a glorious prize lies neglected before us! || giving to the citizens whose names it contains, route, there is only a gap to be filled up to com- Vasco de Gama-in the discovery of the Cape of iheir successors, associates and assigns, a right of plete these magic communications between the Good Hope, and the opening of a new route to way in one mile wide through the public lands in shores of the two great oceans.
India, independent of Mussulman power--eclipsed, Kansas and Utah, on each side of the road, and This is the object! that road? compared to in his day, the glory of Columbus, balked in the a year's delay to obtain that practical information which, those " Appian and Flaminian ways discovery of his well-divined route by the inter- | which business men must always have, before which have given immortality to their authors, vention of a new world. Let us vindicate the they undertake any great enterprise-building the are but as dots to lengthened lines—as sands to glory of Columbus by realizing his divine idea of road at their own expense, and without other aid mountains--as grains of mustard to the full grown arriving in the east by going to the west.
from the Federal Government than that of its tree. Besides the advantages to our Union in The enterprise would be a trifle to the wealth || custom, paying for its accommodation by an aropening direct communication with that golden and resources of our business population-only rangement not yet matured. I repeat, I am wilCalifornia which completes our extended domin. some thirteen hundred miles of road over ground | ling to vote the same privilege to any other comion towards the setting sun, and a road to which the most favorable, and under skies the most aus- pany, but have no idea of squandering the public would be the realization of the Roman idea of picious, and with material the most abundant and lands upon speculators, either to make a bubble annexation, that no conquest was annexed until convenient; and the prices of labor and of iron | stock upon the exchange of New York and Lonreached and pervaded by a road; besides the obvious | returning to reasonable rates. More than half the don, or to build a private road for themselves at advantages, social, political, commercial, of this distance is smooth prairie, to cost no more than the national expense, and then tax the nation for communication, another transcendental object railways in the prairies of Illinois: the remainder traveling upon it. presents itself! That oriental commerce which is nearly level-only slight undulations with an I do not expatiate upon the home advantages of nations have sought for, and fought for, from the almost total exemption from the high-cuttings, a railway to the Pacific; it has become a necessity, time of the Phenicians to the discovery of the deep fillings-up, long bridgings and tunnelings, | the urgency of which is universally admitted. Cape of Good Hope-- which was carried on over which constitute the gravity of the expense of I enforce another advantage, not so immediate, but lines so extended-by conveyances so slow and railroad making. Say a fourth more than the obvious to the thinking mind, and important to limited-amidst populations so various and bar- cost of Illinois prairie road, (the wide gauge being | America, Europe, and Asia; and which, in changbarous, and which considered the merchant their understood,) and you have but $20,000 to the ing a channel of rich commerce, may have its lawful prey-and up and down rapid rivers, and mile-$26,000,000 for the whole. What is that effect upon the wealth and power of nations, and across strange seas, and through wide and fright to the resources of our business populations ? operate a change in the maritime branch of national fal deserts:—and which, under all these perils, There are many, twenty-six men, in our extended wars: I allude to the East India trade, (already burdens, discouragements, converted Asiatic and Union who could build the road themselves and incidentally touched upon,) and the change of its African cities into seats of wealth and empire- own it, as their private and princely estate-them- channel from the water to the land; and the effect centres of the arts and sciences—while western selves and their posterity after them.
of that change in nullifying the maritime supreme Europe was yet barbarian: and some branches Safety as well as profit--security as well as pol- acy of naval powers by making Continenis, inof which afterwards lit up Venice, and Genoa, | icy-protection against calamity, as well as pros- stead of oceans, the great theatres of international and Florence, and made commercial cities the pective good-require the construction of this road.
No events in the history of nations match for empires, and the wives and daughters What sustains and stimulates the national indus-- have had a greater effect on the relative wealth of their citizens, in their luxurious, orientaltry at this time?. California gold! that gold, the and power of nations, than the changes which have attire,) the admiration and the envy of queensweekly arrival of which is the life's blood of our been going on for near three thousand years in and princesses. All this commerce, anı! in a daily industry! and one month's default of which the channels of Asiatic commerce. During that deeper and broader stream than the "merchant | would be the paralysis of our financial, commercial, time nations have risen and fallen, as they posprinces " ever saw, is now within our reach! at- and industrial world. And how do we receive that sessed or lost that commerce. Events announce lainable by a road all the way on our own soil, gold now? Over foreign seas, and across foreign the forthcoming of a new change. The land becomand under our own laws: to be Aown over by a territory, and after a circuit of six thousand miles || ing a facility and the ocean an obstacle to foreign vehicle as much superior in speed and capacity | liable to be cut off at any moment by the cruisers trade, must have an effect upon Europe, coterminto the steamboat as the boat is to the ship, and and privateers (to say nothing of Heets), of any ous upon Asia, and upon America separated from the ship to the camel. Thanks to the progress Power with which we might be at war; and several || it by a western sea over which no European of the mechanic arts! which are going on contin- specks of that portentous cloud now appear above power can dominate. I confine myself to the ually, converting into facilities what stood as the line of our political horizon. And this is the American branch of the question, and glance at obstacles in the way of national communications. | place for these political considerations. Such the past to get an insight into the future. I look To the savage, the sea was an obstacle: mechan- considerations address themselves to the political to former channels of this Asiatic commerceical genius, in the invention of the ship, made it power; and that political power is here. Congress their changes—the effects of the changes; and infer a facility. The firm land was what the barbarian is charged with the protection of the national in. || from what has been, what may be—from what is, wanted: the land became an obstacle to the civil- terests, and ships, and troops, and missions, are to what will be. ized man, and remained so until the steam car put in requisition for that purpose. A readier, a 1. The Phenician route.-Tyre, queen of cities, · was invented. Now the land becomes the facility cheaper, a more effectual mode of protection to was its first emporium. The commerce of the again-the preferred element of passage-and ad- that commerce which belongs to the Pacifica | East centered there before the captivity of the Jews mitting a velocity in its steam car which rivals which comes from California—would be to make | in Babylon, upwards of six hundred years before the flight of the carrier pigeon, and a panctuality this road through our own territory--placing it the coming of Christ. Nebuchadnezar, king of of arrival which may serve for the adjustment of beyond the reach of foreign depredation; and, at | Babylon, conquered Tyre and razed it to its founclocks and watches. To say nothing of its ac- the same time, making it a means of keeping the dations; but he was no statesman--merely a decompaniment — the magnetic telegraph, which Indians themselves in order.
stroyer--and did not found a rival city; and the flashes intelligence across a contineni, and ex- Pliny the elder, accounting for the commercial continuance of the India trade quickly restored changes messages between kingdoms in the prosperity of some ancient cities, attributed it to
the twinkling of an eye;—and, compared to which,
eminence and power. the flying car degenerates into a lazy, lagging, cause that form admitted the greatest freedom of quered her again. He was a statesman, and knew creeping John Trot of a traveler, arriving with enterprise. The moderns have seen the truth of how to build up, as well as how to pull down, and his news after it had become stale with age. this profound remark in later times—seen it in looked to commerce for exalting and enriching
All this commerce, in a stream so much larger, Italy, in Holland, and in various parts of our that magnificent empire which his war genius was with a domestic road for its track, your own laws America. We are a republic, and a great one; conquering. He founded a rival city on the coast to protect it, with conveyances so rapid, and se- and our fathers have given proof of the truth of of Egypt, better adapted to the trade; and the procurity so complete, lies at your acceptance. "That Pliny's axiom in the success and extent of their phecy of Ezekiel became fulfilled on Tyre! She which Jew and Gentile fought for before the age commercial undertakings. Their sons have not became a place for fishermen to dry their nets. of Christianity, and for which Christians have degenerated. The maxim of Pliny is not dispar- II. The Jewish roule.-In the time of Solomon fought both Jew and Gentile, and fought each aged. The numerous Mercantile Library Asso- and David, the Jews succeeded to the East India other, and with the Saracen for an ally: all this is ciations which cover our country-their ample trade, made it a leading subject of their policy, now at your acceptance, and by the beneficent list of members and well filled libraries, and and became rich and powerful upon it. Jerusaprocess of making a road, which, when made, will laudable spirit of improvement-give earnest of || lem rivalled Nineveh and Babylon; and Palmyra, be a private fortune, as well as a public benefac- future eminence, and of useful and honorable a mere thoroughfare in their trade, in the midst of tion-a facility for individuals, as well as for the careers, rivaling their fathers, and justifying the a desert, became the seat of power and opulence, Government. Any other nation, upon half a pre- axiom of Pliny. They will not let the road flag; of oriental magnificence, and the centre of the arts text, wouldego to war for such a road, and tax they will not lose the East India trade. All they and sciences. The Jews lost that trade, and Jeruunborn generations for its completion.
want is information about the road, and I have salem became as a widow in the wilderness, and have it without war, without tax, without treaty endeavored to give it. I have brought the facts, Palmyra a den for foxes and Arabs. with any nation; and when we make it, all nation's || carefully assured, to show that there is a good III. The Alexandrian roule.--This was opened
New SERIES.No. 6.
330 CONG....20 Sess.
Ho. of REPS.
by Alexander the Great-its course along the carry commerce, without protection, to every part and Whig parties. True, the Democratic party canal of Alexandria to the Nile-up that river to of Europe, and to Asia, and to America, (by Beh- claimed to be national in their views upon the subCoplus-hence across the desert with camels to
rings straits,) rendering inimical fleets inoperative i ject of slavery, and styled itself thes natural ally" the Red Sea-and down that sea to the neighbor- and harmless. But I confine myself to our own of the South. But what have we witnessed? The ing coasts of Asia and Africa-a route chosen commerce, and our own land. There is the road great question of the repeal of the Missouri comwith so much judgment that it made Alexandria to India, (pointing West,) half the way upon our promise,”' (a compromise by which the South and Egypt the seats of wealth, power, learning, own land, and the rest on a peaceable sea, wash- believed it was wronged, and by the repeal of the arts and sciences; and continued to be the ing our shores, but separated from Europe by the which the North believed that it was wronged,) channel of trade for a period of eighteen hundred whole diameter of the earth. Can we not cease was everywhere demonstrated by the recent elecyears—from three hundred years before Christ to wrangling over an odious subject of domestic con- tions, that neither the Democratic party nor Whig ihe close of the fifteenth century-when the Poriu- tention, and go to work upon the road which is to party can claim to be national upon this great and guese discovery of the passage by the Cape of exalt us to the highest rank among nations, and momentuous question. And the irresistible conGood Hope annihilated the Egyptian route, and make us mistress of the richest gem in the diadem || clusion to which my mind was led (although not transferred to Lisbon the glories of Alexandria. of commerce? Can we not cease contention, and endowed with extraordinary political sagacity) But not without a great contest. Solyman, the seize the supreme prize which lies glittering before was, that we were fast hastening to a contest, the Magnificent, then Sultan of the Turkish Empire, / us? Make the road! and in its making, make our very mention of which, in the earlier and better fought the Portuguese for the dominion of routes- America the thoroughfare of Oriental commerce days of the republic, would have filled the heart carried on long and bloody wars to break up the-throw back the Cape and the Horn routes to of every patriot with horror and amazement; I Cape of Good Hope route, assisted by the Veni- what Tyre became when Alexandria was founded, mean a purely sectional contest, a contest, which tians, because of their interest in the Egyptian ! and what Alexandria became when the Cape of, although avowedly for political power, might have route, and menacing Christendom (this alliance of Good Hope was doubled-making Europe sub- ended in a dissolution of the Union, accompanied Christian and Saracen against Christians, accord- missive and tributary to us for a transit upon
with all the horrors of civil war-aye, sir, of a ing to the Abbé Raynal, indorsed by the philo- our route, and dispensing us from the maintenance “bellum plusquam civile.” We witnessed in this sophic historian Robertson,) with the "most of the fleets which the ocean commerce demands House, not long since, a specimen of the spirit of illiberal and humiliating servitude that ever op- for its protection?
sectionalism, which influenced some of its most pressed polished nations." From this calamity Pass the substitute which I propose, and you | distinguished members. The gentleman from Christendom was saved by the valor of the Portu- | have the opinion of men whose names are in it, Georgia [Mr. Stephens,] (and I question not his guese, and the talents of their renowned com- and whose opinions are worth attention, that these right to do so,) thought proper, upon the propomander, Albuquerque; but the contest shows the great and glorious consequences will ensue. sition of Mr. Mace, of Indiana, to enter into an value which all nations placed on the possession
examination and comparison of the relative proof this trade; and the reversed conditions of Alex
gress made between the southern and northern
AMERICANISM. andria and Lisbon--of Egypt and Portugal-upon
States in moral, social, and physical development; the defeat of the Turks and Venitians, shows ihat
and the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. CAMPBELL.) that value was not over-estimated.
SPEECH OF HON. A. R. SOLLERS, took up the gage thus thrown down by the genIV. The Constantinopolitan roule.—This be
tleman from Georgia, and in defence of the noncame fully established in the time of the Greek
slaveholding States, (by instituting a comparison
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Empire, and during the two hundred years of the
between the State of Ohio, the giant of the west, crusade irruptions; and to which the enlightened
January 4, 1855.
and the State of Georgia) endeavored to show part of the crusaders greatly contributed. For,
that the section from which he came, had made
The House being in the Committee of the Whole while a religious frenzy operated upon the masses, on the state of the Union
more progress in all the arts of civilization; and, the extension of their trade with India was the
that in its moral, social, and physical condition, systematic, persevering and successful policy of
Mr. SOLLERS said:
it was far ahead of and superior to the State of all liberal and enlightened minds, availing them. Mr. CHAIRMAN: I promised, some time since, Georgia. Of one thing, at least, I was convinced, selves of that frenzy to promote and establish the to express, at some convenient period, my opinions by this contest between the two gentlemen-that commerce upon the possession of which the su- in reference to the principles of what is called the Georgia was a great State, and that Ohio was a premacy of nations depended. It was fully estab- Know-Nothing" party, but which is, in truth, great State also. But shall I not rejoice in the lished; and the long and tedious transit across the the National or Native Ainerican Association; and prosperity of both ? Are they not boih members Black Sea to the mouth of the Phasés, up that river 1 1 avail myself of this occasion to do so, because, of a common family? If the State of Ohio has, to a portage of five days to the Cyrus, 'down that while I shall be able, I hope, in the hour allotted with unexampled rapidity, attained so lofty a poriver to the Caspian Sea, across it to the mouth to me, to spread before this committee and the sition in the Confederacy; if, by the industry of of the Oxus, up it nine hundred miles to Samar- country, what I believe to be its principles and its her hardy sons, she has become the granary, the cand (once Alexandria) the limit of Alexander's objects; I trust I shall be also able to defend it Egypt, of the Union, be it so. It is no matter of march to the northeast; and after this long travel, against the fiery assaults of the honorable gentle- regret, but of rejoicing with me; and if the State an overland journey of ninety days, on the Bac- man from South Carolina, [Mr. Keitt,) and the of Georgia (contrary io the theory of Abolitiontrian camel, to the confines of China commenced. deliberate and elaborate charges of the gentleman ists, that a State cannot be great and prosperous Such was this extended route. Yet it was upon from Mississippi, (Mr. Barry.) Sir, I listened if slavery is tolerated by its laws) presents the this route, so extended and perilous, that Europe attentively to these two distinguished gentlemen highest type of civilization, be it so. Sincerely do was supplied with East India goods for several in their terrible onslaught on this obscure, des. I rejoice that it is so. But, for myself, I deprecenturies—the profits of the trade being so great pised, abject association, an association of their cate these unnecessary and odious comparisons. that after its arrival at Constantinople, it could own countrymen, "bone of their bone, and flesh Although representing the largest slaveholding instill come on to Italy, and even round to Bruges of their flesh,” and I confess I have heard nothing terest in Maryland, I have never deemed it my (Brussells) and to Antwerp. It was upon this from either, which, in the slightest degree, has duty to enter into a comparison of my own State route that the Genoese established their great com- shaken my confidence, either in the correctness of with any other, or to defend the institution of merce, gaining permanent establishments, with its principles, or the great and glorious objects slavery, here or elsewhere. It is where the fragreat privileges, at Constantinople, (its suburb which it is destined to achieve for the country. I mers of the Constitution placed it. I will not Pera,) and in that Crimea, then resplendent with will not take up arms against my own country. defend it, by endeavoring to show that it is of wealth, since impoverished, now the scene of men; and when the question is presented to me, Divine origin, and a “ patriarchal institution." bloody strife; and of which the issue would be in a contest between the native-born citizens of my If you ask me by what right I hold my slaves, I fortunate, if it restored the Crimea to what it was country and foreigners, and that contest involves point you to the Constitution. If you ask me by when Caffa was as celebrated as Sebastopol is now, the political supremacy of the one over the other, what arguments I will defend my right to them, and celebrated for streams of commerce instead of I answer, I side with my own countrymen.
, his terrified nople the Cape of Good Hope passage became as old political ties and associations. It often involves disregard of the plainest injunctions of the fatal as it was to that of Alexandria.
-the rupture of personal ties, and parties originally l Constitution, you are determined to invade the V. The Ocean route.-It has been the line of the formed from similarity in political views, are main-rights of your southern brethren, if you are willEast India trade since the close of the fifteenth cen- tained by considerations purely personal, and not ing to hazard the existence of the Union in such tury, and must have continued to be so forever, if a unfrequently by motives of personal interest and a contest, then I say to my northern friends, that marvel had not been wrought, and the land become advancement.
we will meet you at Mason's and Dixon's line, and the facility-the ocean the obstacle-to commerce.
Look at the two old parties. Nearly every ques.
not as formerly, as friends and brothers. All the Powers that have land for distant commu- tion that originally divided them has been swept nications must now betake themselves to the steam
" But we'll come with banner, brand, and bow, away. The question of the establishment of a Bank
As chieftain mecis bis mortal foe.” car. Why contend with ships for the dominion of the United States has been long since settled, of the sea, when both the ships and the sea åre to never, I believe, to be revived. The question of But I anticipate no such contest as this, no such be superceded? Take the case of Russia. She the tariff has been adjusted, or at least its princi- overwhelming calamity for my country at this time has been one hundred and fifty years building up ples so well settled that no one ever dreams of at least. A party has sprung into existence, if a navy--to become useless the first day it was making it a party question. The question of how not like Minerva from the head of Jove full armel, wanted! Not only useless, but an incumbrance the public lands shall be disposed of, has ceased at least in its infancy, it possesses the strength of and a burthen--requiring impregnable foris, and to be a party question; for, although not yet ad- Hercules, to crush all parties and factions hostile vast armies, and murderous battles to protect and justed, the conflicting views entertained by indi- to the integrity of this Union. It knows no North, to save it-save it from going to swell the enemy's viduals aitached to both the old parties, has taken it knows no South, no East, no West. If it is said fleet, and be turned against its builders. Why it from the arena of party conflict; and so of every to be exclusive because it prefers its own country. build any more ships when there is the land to other question that formerly divided the Democratic men to foreigners, I thank Heaven it is national
up monarch, wy showing himchis naked borders free
33r CONG....20 Sess.
HO. OF REPS.
From 1810 to 1820.
enough to cover all parts of this wide spread Con- and all people-however beautiful it may seem- by them of political privileges which you now deny The gentleman from South Carolina tells us that few cracked-brained philosophers, it never had an
them? My answer is, that immigration has so
increased in the last ten years, that there is the the main objection to it, is, that it has the “ ten- existence. The gentleman from Mississippi tells most serious apprehension that they will become dency to destroy State's rights and bring about a us that, as nations progress in civilization, national the ruling power in the United States; and, if we unity of the States." I deny that it seeks to de- lines are obliterated; the difference between nations do not check them now, they will usurp the whole stroy the rights of the States. If the gentleman in social habits and in political opinions are lost; power and authority of the Government. I have has any better authority than I hold in my hand, and just in proportion as their habits and opinions not time to read you all the statistical facts upon to support his charge, let him produce it.' I read are amalgamated, and become homogeneous, is from the American Organ:
this subject, but the following table will be found the progress of civilization. I pretend not to to be correct: « We shall maintain and defend the Constitucion as it quote his words. That is the idea. Now, is this
From 1790 to 1810..
120,000 stands, the Union as it exists, and the rights of the States; proposition correct? Can it be sustained by leg:
114,000 without diminution, as guaranteed thereby : opposing at all times, and to the extent of our ability and influence, all sons taught in ancient or modern history? Take
From 1820 to 1830 .........
... 203,979 who may assail them, or either of thein.". the most ancient people, the Jews--a people blessed
From 1830 to 1840..
From 1840 to 1850........ No, sir, it does not seek to destroy or impair with the peculiar favor of the Almighty; set aside
.1,521,850 the rights of the States; but to uphold and defend from other nations as a peculiar people; the espe
Total for the entire sixty years......
.2,722,198 them. But, I thank the gentleman for the word
cial recipients of His favors and His goodness"it nerves my arm, it steels my sword.” It they were not only given a country, but its very
From June 1, 1850, to December 21, 1851, the number of
foreign immigrants arriving in this country was, 553,000 does seek to bring about a unity of these States. lines and boundaries were fixed by Him. They In the year 18.12......
375,000 It does, with one hand, uphold the rights of the were taught separate manners, and separate and In the year 1853........
368,000 States, and with the other, the integrity of the distinct laws were made for their government.
In the year 1854, the returns of the first six months
warrant the estimate for the entire year of..... 500,000 Union. It believes there are fanatics at the They must have presented at the time the very South as well as at the North; and, if I know highest type of civilization, and because of their The aggregate for the first four and a half years of anything of its principles, it would place them disobedience and rebellion against His laws, the this decennial term is.......
..1,801,000 side by side, and hang them all as high as Haman. heaviest malediction that could fall upon a nation
There is no reason for believing that the vast im
migration of ibis year will diminish. In fact, And, since the gentleman has been pleased to tell was pronounced against them, and they are wan- there is no limit to its rate of progress but the us what the Native American party intended to derers upon the face of the earth without a coun- means of conveyance. Now, then, we have do, I will tell him what they do not intend to do. try or a home. They have no country; they have upon this basis an aggregate for the six years It does not intend to permit, in its creed, the deno nationality.
and a half intervening between this period and 1860 of .......
.......3,250,000 testable doctrine of nullification, or that a State The city of Rome, founded by Romulus, and has the right to set aside a law passed by Con- peopled originally by adventurers from surround- | Making, for the current ten years, the astounding gress, and after it has been determined by a® ju ing nations, grew into a mighty republic, and aggregate of...
.......5,051,009 dicial tribunal that it is constitutional; a tribunal || just in proportion to its progress and civilization, to the establishment of which, they themselves was its nationality developed, and they, the de
Now, assuming this statement to be correct, I assented, and to which they agreed to submit scendants of thieves and adventurers, assumed ask you if it does not present a most alarming questions of constitutional law. They do not the proud name of Roman-a name feared and
state of things. Here is an aggregate for the last intend to admit into their creed the ridiculous doc- l respected throughout the world. But let us exam- ten years of 5,051,000, and when we consider the trine that, upon the question of internal improve line this doctrine by the light of reason, as well as causes now in operation in the Old World, the ment by Government, a law passed by Congress by the lights of history.
wars that are raging, and the scarcity of food that would be unconstitutional, if the river, to which
We know that nations-Governments are must be produced by the diverting of so much the law applied, passed through one State, but formed by slow and gradual processes. The agricultural labor from the culture of the earth, would be constitutional, if it. passed through
nucleus of a nation is the family--the home - and, when we consider, too, that millions are pourthree. In a word, it does not intend to quibble Nomadic tribes have no home. From the family ing in upon us from China and Japan, I ask you about the letter of the Constitution with the af- circle the community is formedformed for mutual if it is not time that something should be done to fectation of a prude, and violate its provisions defense and for the protection of the weak against arrest this overwhelming tide of immigration from with the effrontery of a prostitute.
the strong; laws are made for their government; every country under the sun? If you do not do Mr. KEITT. Does the gentleman from Mary- a government is formed, its jurisdiction is estab-it, sir, this tiny stream which, from 1790 to 1810, land mean that his words shall have a personal lished, its boundaries marked out, and you have å space comprising two decades, or twenty years, application?
a nation, and a national sentiment is created. was only twelve thousand, will swell into an ocean Mr. SOLLERS. No, sir. I disclaim it alto. Now, invert all this—first break down one barrier stream that will sweep away your Government, gether. I am speaking of South Carolina politics, and then another; the nation, the government, | its laws, usages, and the very name of American and I will denounce them when and where I the home, the family circle, and you have either will be no more known among the nations of the choose. barbarism or fourierism.
earth. Sir, it may, perhaps, be owing to the peculiar sentiment of nationality is one which" increases foreign immigration is the immense influx of con
Again, sir, another alarming fact connected with no fanatics to be found within her borders. Reor becomes intensified as civilization progresses,
victs and paupers among us. In the early history membering the toils and sacrifices she made to that it is, in fact, the very offspring of civilization,
of immigration, those who sought an asylum establish this Union--remembering the blood spile that it is honorable among all people; why should among us, were, for the most part, hardy and inby her glorious old "line" on every battle-field
not we, the native-born citizens, be permitted to dustrious mechanics, artisans, and laborers, who, of the Revolution-ghe, in good or evil report, will
entertain it in its fullest measure towards and for groaning under the weight of exactions and opstand by the Union as it is, and the Constitution this beautiful country of ours, and its unrivalled pressions of various kinds, came over to better as it is. [Applause.) And this, sir, is what the form of Government? The land of the lakes and their fortunes under the genial influence of our American party means to do. It intends to let of the cataracts, of the lofty mountains and majes- | beneficent laws. But, now, the character of the slavery remain where the Constitution placed it, tic rivers, of the gay savannah and the blooming immigrants is totally changed. Instead of men of recognizing neither the doctrine of pro-slavery on prairie; the land of stupendous forests and bound high character for honesty and integrity, the refuse the one hand, nor abolition on the other.
less plains; the land of gold and silver, compared of jails and prisons annually pour their thousands Mr. GIDDINGS, of Ohio. I desire permission
to which the sands of the fabled Pactolus are as upon our shores, in one fætid stream of corruption of the gentleman from Maryland to ask him a nothing; a land so broad that it takes the sun a
and villany. Nay, sir, it has become, with forquestion. I wish to know whether, upon the whole day in his diurnal circuit to light up
eign Governments, a part of their domestic policy principles of the Constitution, the Know-Noth- “The land of the free, and the home of the brave.” to send them to us, as at once the cheapest and ings would restore freedom to Kansas? Why, I ask, shall we, born here, reared here, not
most effectual means of getting rid of them. I read Mr. SOLLERS. I will never take the con- be permitted to call it "Our own, our native containing an official circular of a commissary of a
from an article taken from a respectable journal, struction of the gentleman from Ohio on any point of constitutional law.
Now, springing out of this sentiment of nation department in Belgium, to the proper authorities Mr. GIDDINGS. Then the gentleman backs ality, as a necessary consequence, is a disposition having in charge the subject of immigration to this out.
not to permit others to share with us equally all country: Mr. SOLLERS. I do not back out, but I do the privileges which; as natives of such a country, most cheerfully retire from such a contest. we enjoy. We do not say to foreigners, you
(No. 1,893.) Liege, (Belgium,) March 14, 1854. would just as soon think of entering into a contest shall not come here, under certain restrictions.
Emigrants for the United States— Transportation.
GENTLEMEN : The transports for emigrants for the United with a pregnant woman. (Laughter.] We do not say that, if, feeling the oppressions
States will take their departure from Antwerp. A large Having stated, according to my information, and tyrannies of despotic forms of Government, nuinber of vessels are prepared already to leave at various derived from sources as good, at least, as those of in the Old World, you desire to come here, (where periods of this month. A certain number of liberated prisits opponents, that one of the principles of the you can be protected in the rights of person and
opers from Vilvorde, and from several poor bouses, (depot
de inendicite,) are on the point of departing: Native American party is, to stand by and main-property,) you shall not cone; but this we say, The price of the passage, all expenses included, is 10 tain the Union of these States, I proceed to a con- ihai, when you come, you must not expect to be francs, which sum should be paid in advance at the bureau sideration of another one of its principles equally permitted to form our laws, or to exercise any
of the Governor of the Province.
I beg you to let me know, as soon as possible, if your disas important to the maintaining of the Union; || power in the administration of our Government.
trici liag any passengers to be forwarded. nay, sir, the very existence of the Government We tell you in advance, that we are determined
Each individunt should be sent to the jail (maison itself. You anticipate me, no doubt, sir. I mean that “ Americans shall govern America."
d'arret) of Antwerp, and have in his possession simply a its intense nationality, which is its very life blood. I know, sir, it has frequently been asked why, certificate on the following model:
“ The Burgomaster of the district of Province or Whatever may be said of that sublime doctrine of up to this period, we have permitted foreigners to
Liege, (Belgium,) certifies that — (give the age, place of universal philanthropy, which includes all nations Il come to this country, and sanctioned the exercise l binh, parentage,) is unmarried."
The departure will take place during the year, every fort- association. If I have not greatly misunderstood the case correctly. And, since I am speaking of night,
the character of that remarkable affair, it was not the opinions of distinguished men, permit me, sir, The Commissary of the Arrondissement,
only secret in its organization, secret in its trans. to refer to the opinion of General Washington; To the Burgomaster and Council of
actions, secret in its resolves, but secret in carrying and I ask those who now abuse the American
out and effecting its purposes. For, disguised as party for its hostility to foreigners to listen. Again, sir.
Instead of the industrious and Indians, its members boarded the British vessels; George Washington, in a letter addressed to thrifiy immigrants, who formerly came to this disguised as Indians, they threw the tea from their Governeur Morris, dated White Plains, July 24, country, thousands of paupers are annually sent decks into the harbor of Boston; and disguised as | 1778, said: over by foreign Governments, in accordance with
Indians, they returned in safety and in triumph, “ Baron Steuben, I now find, is also wanting to quit his the same rule of policy. I find in a table, furnished from their heroic and patriotic enterprise. And is inspectorship for a command in the line. This will be pro
ductive of much discontent. In a word, though I think the by the Census Bureau, that there were in 1850, this the only secret political association that has
Baron an excellent officer, I do most devoutly wish we 134,000 paupers who received support, and of existed in this country since that period? Why, had not a single foreigner among us, except the Marquis these 68,000 were foreigners, and but 66,000 na- sir, there has not existed a political party in the de Lafayette, who acts upon very different principles from tives; and further, to show the character of foreign country, that has not, in some degree, subjected
those which govern the rest." immigrants: I find in the same table that there itself to this charge of secrecy. In secret have all In another letter, dated Philadelphia, November were in the same year, 1850, 27,000 convictions parties met to nominate their candidates for office. 17, 1794, and addressed to the elder Adams, the for criminal offences in our criminal courts, and In secret have they met through their representa
Pater Patriæ said: of this number 14,000 were foreigners, and but tives to mature measures for their respective “My opinion with respect to immigration is, except of 1,300 natives; and this you will observe in a na- || parties. In county caucuses, in State caucuses,
useful mechanics, and some particular descriptions of men tive population, at that time, of 21,000,000, while in congressional caucuses, has the principle of
and professions, there is no need of encouragement." the foreign population only amounted to something secrecy entered. Why, sir, 1 hold in my hand at Again, a letter from the same hand, dated from less than 3,000,000. “Can such things pass o'er this moment the Union, the organ of the Demo
his residence, January 20, 1790, in reply to a letter us, like a summer's dream, without exciting our cratic party, in which there is a call for a secret
applying for office, has this passage: special wonder?” I beg, gentlemen to look these meeting, or caucus, in one of the rooms of this " It does not accord with the policy of this Government facts in the face, and prepare a remedy while we
to bestow offices, civil or military, upon foreigners, to the Capitol. Will they admit me or any one not of
exclusion of our citizens." have it in our power to do so; for, sir, it is the that party to its deliberations? No, sir, it is duty of statesmen to prepare for emergencies i secret, and their deliberations never will be known.
And Mr, Madison, animated with the same before they actually occur.
Is it said the principles of the Native American spirit, thus said: I have, thus, sir, endeavored briefly to set forth party are secret? I deny it. They have gone all
“Foreign influence is a Grecian horse to the Republic
we cannot be too careful to exclude its entrance." some of the principles of the American party, and over the country on all the wings of all the winds; I hasten to consider some of ihe charges brought and permit me to say further, sir, if those prin- Constitution, beholding with the sagacity of a
Mr. Webster, too, the great defender of the by its opponents against it.
ciples are not known, how happens it that honorThe principal charge brought against the Amer- able gentlemen get up here to attack them? Are
statesman, and almost with the vision of a seer, ican party, both by the gentleman from Missis- they willing to put themselves in the ridiculous
the great eyils that were about to fall apon the sippi and the gentleman from South Carolina | position of fighting shadows? All this outcry
country, declared in that clear and concise style was, that it was a secret organization; and, to | against the secrecy of the organization, is made
tor which he was remarkable: judge from the manner this particular feature in for effect, to alarm the people, or if they do speak
" That there is an imperative necessity for reforming the
naturalization laws of the United States." the organization was treated by them, one was sincerely, (and I am willing to allow that ihey inclined to think that there was some awful un- do,) they are themselves the victims of a most un
And, sir, last, but not least, in many of the known element of explosion within their “dark
characteristics of a great man, (I pray you gentlenecessary panic. Believe me, no dreadful plot is subterranean vaults,” (I use the language of the meditated, no treason is intended, no machina
men Democrats, give ear,) I read you the opinion
of General Andrew Jackson: honorable gentleman from South Corolina,) whose tions formed, unless, indeed, it be treason to
“It is time that we should hecome a little more Amerifuse, touched by an unknown hand, would blow up | dethrone old fögies of both parties, and place the
canized, and instead of feeding the paupers and laborers of the whole Government, as Guy Fawkes intended Government in the hands of men who will carry England, feed our own; or else, in a short time, by our to blow up the Parliament House, Commons, out their principles, and restore the Government present policy, we should be paupers ourselves.” Lords and all. I began to think myself that, after to its original purity and vigor.
Are these not sufficient? Will you have the all, I had misunderstood the whole matter, and that But again, sir, it is charged against the Ameri- || hardihood to set your opinions against the opinthere was some dark conspiracy against the Gov- can party, that what they propose to do is but ions of men like these? 'You may, if you choose, ernment; but, happily, the honorable gentleman reviving the alien and sedítion laws, and that Mr. but if the authorities are weighed, I incline to from Mississippi (Mr. Barry) entirely relieved Jefferson was elected President of the United believe they will be found to be on the side of me by stating with a gravity that became so im- States upon the bitter opposition which these laws Native Americanism. porlant a subject," that it was only an attempt to met with through this country, and that he showed But it is said, in further charge against the Ameroverthrow the Administration.". Mr. Chairman, his hostility to any attempt made to persecute for- ican party, that it wages war against the Roman permit me to relieve the honorable gentleman from eigners, by proposing, in his first message to Con- Catholics. Sir, if I understand it, it wages no war Mississippi. I assure him, with a sincerity which gress, to repeal them, and to limit the time within against any religion. It does war against the union I trust he will not doubt, that the Native Ameri- which they could exercise the right of citizenship of Church' and State, against the mingling of recan party, in the objects it seeks to accomplish, to five years, instead of nine. Sir, we all know ligion with politics. It does war against the prin. has never considered the Administration as one of that Mr. Jefferson, anterior to that time, had ciple that a man may exercise all the rights of the obstacles in its way. No, sir, no; the American declared, in the strongest language, his bitter hos- an American citizen, and, at the same time, owe party will not strike a fallen foe, but rather desires tility to the influx of foreigners into this country. allegiance to a foreign prince or potentate. But it to meet "a foeman worthy of its steel.”. It is In his notes on Virginia, he says:
wars against no man for his religious opinions. true, in
That is my understanding of the principles of the appointing so many foreigners as diplomatic agents | ples of the Governments they have imbibed in early youth ; American party upon this subject. If you know of this Government; but still it inclines rather to or, if able to throw them off, it will be in exchange for an more about it than I do, it is my misfortune, not mercy than to vengeance.
unbounded licentiousness, passing, as is usual, from one
extreme to another. It would be a miracle were they to stop But let us examine this matter of secrecy. Are precisely at the point of temperate liberty. Their principles, But, it is said, again, that this question partakes honorable gentlemen really alarmed at it; or do with their language, they will transmit to their children. of the nature of the organization of labor. I fear they speak of it only for the purpose of alarming In proportion to their number, they will share with us in
that gentlemen are carried away by elastic imaginothers? Is it the first time they have heard of
the legislation. They will infuse into it their spirit, warp
ation, or that they are uttering subtleties which secret associations? Why, sir, they have existed coherent, distracted mass. I inay appeal to experience, my poor brain cannot comprehend. How organfrom the foundation of the Government, and, I || during the present contest, for a verification of those con- ization of labor? If it means anything, it means may say, from the commencement of the world. jectures; but if they are not certain in event, are they not
this—that Americans do not wish foreign labor possible, are they not probable? Is it not safer to wait with In despotic Governments, it is true, they do not patience for the attainment of population desired or ex.
to come in competition with theirs. Well, upon exist, neither does freedom of the press or freedom pected ? May not our Government be more homogeneous, my soul, I can see no great harm in this; it is at of thought exist. But, do you tell me that, in this more peaceable, more durable ?"
least a reasonable wish, and, for myself, I do not free Republic, the people have no right to meet in On another occasion he penned this memorable hesitate to avow, if such should be one of the secret, and deliberate upon political questions. paragraph:
objects sought to be attained by the American Where, I beg to know, can you find any article in the Constitution of the Government or of the States,
"I hope we may find some means in future of shielding party, I should not be less devoted to it on that ourselves from foreign influence-political, commercial, or
account. or any law in either, that denies them the right to in whatever form it may be attempted. I wish there were But the gentleman from Mississippi tells us, do so? And if they are thus permitted by the Conan ocean of fire between this and the Old World.”
that the North having imported foreigners for the stitutions and the laws of both General and State Does any man imagine that in so short a time purpose of constructing their railroads and canals, Governments, how dare you to endeavor to deprive Mr, Jefferson could have changed his views upon are now willing to prevent further immigration, them of it? Do not gentlemen see that, while they so important a subject? No, sir. Mr. Jefferson since they have constructed them. argue that secrecy in political associations is in had been elected by a combination of nearly every Sir, I know this is an argument very often used violation of the spirit of the Constitution, they foreigner in the country with the Democratic party, in favor of the foreign population, particularly of themselves are attempting to deprive the people and out of gratitude to them he lessened the term one portion, the Irish; and I acknowledge that of a clear and acknowledged constitutional privi- of their probation.
they, for the most part constitute the laborers upon lege? Is this, sir, the first secret political associa- I appeal to my friend, (Mr. BENTON,) the last of our public works.' But I know that native citition ever formed in this country?" I think, if I do “ patres conscripti,” (and who knows, I do verily zens have also worked upon railroads and canals, not greatly misapprehend the history of the trans- | believe, more of the history of the Government for I have seen them there. But, is the whole action, the celebrated Boston tea party was a secret ll than all other men now living,) if I have not stated credit of constructing those gigantic canals, upon