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330 CONG....20 Sess.

Message of the President.

SENATE & Ho. OF Reps.

all these calamitous events are wholly attributable selected as swamp lands by States, and by locat-struction of railroads, which, in extent, will to the necessary and inevitable dangers of the sea. ing under grants for roads, is upwards of iwenty- equal, exclusive of the great Pacific road and all The merchants, mariners, and ship-builders of the three millions of acres. The increase of lands its branches, nearly one third of the entire length United States are, it is true, unsurpassed in far- sold, over the previous year, is about six millions of such works, now completed, in the United reaching enterprise, skill, intelligence, and courage, of acres; and the sales during the two first quar- States, and which cannot cost, with equipments, by any others in the world. But with the increas- ters of the current year present the extraordinary less than one hundred and fifty millions of dollars. ing amount of our commercial tonnage in the ag- result of five and a half millions sold, exceeding | The dangers likely to result from combinations of gregate, and the larger size and improved equip- | by nearly four millions of acres the sales of the interests of this character, can hardly be over estiment of the ships now constructed, a deficiency corresponding quarters of the last year.

mated. But, independently of these considerain the supply of reliable seamen begins to be very The commendable policy of the Government, tions, where is the accurate knowledge, the comseriously felt. The inconvenience may, perhaps, in relation to setting apart public domain for those prehensive intelligence, which shall discriminate be met, in part, by due regulation for the intro- who have served their country in time of war, is between the relative claims of these twenty-eight duction, into our merchant ships, of indented ap: | illustrated by the fact that, since 1790, no less than proposed roads, in eleven States and one Territory? prentices; which, while it would afford useful and thirty millions of acres have been applied to this Where will you begin, and where end? If io eligible occupation to numerous young men, would object.

enable these companies to execute their proposed have a tendency to raise the character of seamen The suggestions which I submitted in my an- works, it is necessary that the aid of the General as a class. And it is deserving of serious reflec- nual message of last year, in reference to grants Government be primarily given, the policy will tion whether it may not be desirable to revise the of land in aid of the construction of railways, were present a problem so comprehensive in its bearexisting laws for the maintenance of discipline at less full and explicit than the magnitude of the ings, and so important to our political and social sea, upon which the security of life and property subject and subsequent developments would seem well being, as to claim, in anticipation, the severon the ocean must to so great an extent depend. to render proper and desirable. Of the soundness est analysis. Entertaining these views, I recur Although much attention has already been given of the principle then assert ed with regard to the with satisfaction to the experience and action of by Congress to the proper construction and ar- limitation of the power of Congress, I entertain the last session of Congress, as furnishing assurrangement of steam-vessels and all passenger ships, no doubt; but in its application it is not enough ance that the subject will not fail to elicit a careful still it is believed that the resources of science and that the value of lands in a particular locality may | reëxamination and rigid scrutiny. mechanical skill in this direction have not been be enhanced; that, in fact, a larger amount of It was my intention to present, on this occaexhausted. No good reason exists for the marked money may probably be received, in a given time, sion, some suggestions regarding internal improvedistinction, which appears upon our statutes be- for alternate sections, than could have been real- ments by the General Government, which want

tween the laws for protecting life and property at ized for all the sections, without the impulse and of time at the close of the last session prevented · sea, and those for protecting them on land. In | influence of the proposed improvements. A pru- my submitting on the return to the House of Rep

most of the States severe penalties are provided to dent proprietor looks beyond limited sections of resentatives, with objections, of the bill entitled, punish conductors of trains, engineers, and others his domain, beyond present results, to the ultimate “An act making appropriations for the repair, employed in the transportation of persons by rail- effect which a particular line of policy is likely to preservation, and completion of certain public way or by steamboats on rivers. Why should produce upon all his possessions and interests. works heretofore commenced under authority of not the same principle be applied to acts of insub- | The Government, which is trustee, in this matter, law;" but the space in this communication already ordination, cowardice, or other misconduct on for the people of the States, is bound to take the occupied with other matter of immediate publío the part of masters and mariners, producing injury same wise and comprehensive view. Prior to and exigency constrains me to reserve that subject for or death to passengers on the high seas, beyond | during the last session of Congress, upwards of a special message, which will be transmitted to the jurisdiction of any of the States, and where thirty millions of acres of land were withdrawn the

two Houses of Congress at an early day. such delinquencies can be reached only by the from public sale with a view to applications for The judicial establishment of the United States power of Congress? The whole subject is earn- grants of this character pending before Congress. requires modification, and certain reforms in the estly commended to your consideration.

A careful review of the whole subject led me to manner of conducting the legal business of the The report of the Postmaster General, to which direct that all such orders be abrogated, and the Government are also much needed; but as I have you are referred for many interesting details in lands restored to market; and instructions were addressed you upon both of these subjects at relation to this important and rapidly extending | immediately given to that effect. The applica- | length before, I have only to call your attention branch of the public service, shows that the tions at the last session contemplated the construc- to the suggestions then made. expenditure of the year ending June 30, 1854, || tion of more than five thousand miles of road, and My former recommendations, in relation to including one hundred and thirty-three thousand grants to the amount of nearly twenty millions of suitable provision for various objects of deep infour hundred and eighty-three dollars of balance acres of the public domain. Even admitting the terest to the inhabitants of the District of Columdue to foreign offices, amounted to eight million i right on the part of Congress to be unquestionable, || bia, are renewed. Many of these objects partake seven hundred and ten thousand nine hundred and is it quite clear that the proposed grants would be largely of a national character, and are important, seven dollars. The gross receipts during the same productive of good, and not evil? The different independently of their relation to the prosperity period amounted to six million nine hundred and projects are confined, for the present, to eleven of the only considerable organized community in fifty-five thousand five hundred and eighty-six States of this Union, and one Territory. The the Union, entirely unrepresented in Congress. dollars; exhibiting an expenditure over income of reasons assigned for the grants show that it is I have thus presented suggestions on such subone million seven hundred and fifty-five thousand || proposed to put the works speedily in process of jects as appear to me to be of particular interest three hundred and twenty-one dollars, and a dim- construction. When we reflect, that since the or importance, and therefore most worthy of coninution of deficiency, as compared with the last commencement of the construction of railways in sideration during the short remaining period alyear, of three hundred and sixty-one thousand the United States, stimulated as they have been by i lotted to the labors of the present Congress. seven hundred and fifty-six dollars. The increase the large dividends realized from the earlier works Our forefathers of the thirteen United Colonies, of the revenue of the Department, for the year over the great thoroughfares, and between the in acquiring their independence, and in founding ending, June 30, 1854, over the preceding year, most important points of commerce and popula- | this Republic of the United States of America, was nine hundred and seventy thousand ihree tion, encouraged by State legislation, and pressed have devolved upon us, their descendants, the hundred and ninety-nine dollars. No proportions || forward by the amazing energy of private enter- greatest and the most noble trust ever committed to ate increase, however, can be anticipated for the 1 prise, only seventeen thousand miles have been the hands of man, imposing upon all, and-especurrent year, in consequence of the act of Con- completed in all the States in a quarter of a cen- cially such as the public will may have invested, gress of June 23, 1854, providing for increased tury ;-when we see the crippled condition of many for the time being, with political functions, the compensation to all postmasters. From these works commenced and prosecuted upon what were most sacred obligations. We have to maintain statements it is apparent that the Post Office De- deemed to be sound principles, and sare calcula- | inviolate the great doctrine of the inherent right of partment, instead of defraying its expenses, ac- tions;---when we contemp'aie the enormous ab- popular self-government; to reconcile the largest cording to the design at the time of its creation, il sorption of capital withdrawn from the ordinary | liberty of the individual citizen, with complete is now, and under existing laws must continue to channels of business, the extravagant rates of in- security of the public order; to render cheerful be, to no small extent, a charge upon the genera! terest at this moment paid to continue operations, || obedience to the laws of the land, to unite in enTreasury. The cost of mail transportatica, du- the bankruptcies not merely in money, but in char- | forcing their execution, and to frown indignantly ring the year ending June 30, 1854, exceeds the acter, and ihe inevitable effect upon finances gen- on all combinations to resist them; to harmonize a cost of the preceding year by four hundred and erally;-can it be doubted that the tendency is to sincere and ardent devotion to the institutions of reninety.five thousand and seventy-four dollars. I run to excess in this matter? Is it wise to aug- | ligious faith with the most universal religious tolagain call your attention to the subject of mail ment this excess by encouraging hopes of sudden eration; to preserve the rights of all by causing each transportation by ocean steamers, and commend wealth expected to flow from magnificent schemes to respect those of the other; to carry forward the suggestions of the Postmaster General to your dependent upon the action of Congress? Does the every social improvement to the uttermost limit of early attention.

spirit, which has produced such results, need to human perfectibility, by the free action of mind During the last fiscal year, eleven million sev. be stimulated or checked ? Is it not the better rule upon mind, not by theobtrusive intervention of misenty thousand nine hundred and thirty-five acres to leave all these works to private enterprise, regu- applied force; to uphold the integrity and guard the of the public lands have been surveyed, and eight lated, and, when expedient, aided, by the coöper- limitations of our organic law; to preserve sacred million one hundred and ninety thousand and sev. ation of States ? If constructed by private capital, || from all touch of usurpation, as the very palladium enteen acres brought into market. The number the stimulant and the check go together, and fur- of our political salvation, the reserved rights and of acres sold is seven million thirty-five thousand nish a salutary restraint against speculative schemes powers of the several States and of the people; to seven hundred and thirty-five, and the amount and extravagance. But it is manifest that, with cherish, with loyal fealty and devoted affection, received therefor nine million two hundred and the most effective guards, there is danger of going this Union, as the only sure foundation on which eighty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-three too fast and too far.

the hopes of civil liberty rest; to administer govdollars. The aggregate amount of lands sold, We may well pause before a proposition con ernment with vigilant integrity and rigid economy; located under military scrip and land warrants, templating a simultaneous movement for the con- to cultivate peace and friendship with foreign 33D CONG....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury.

SENATE & Ho. of Reps.

2d quarter...

December 4, 184.}

this year....


nations, and to demand and exact equal justice The receipts from customs were....... .. $64,224,190 27

Total estimated expenditures for the year lands...

8,470,798 39

1835.... from all, but to do wrong to none; to eschew inter

$64,345,921 21 miscellaneous ......

854,716 54 meddling with the national policy and the domes

Balance in Treasury.

21,942,892 56 tic repose of other Governments, and to repel it

The expenditures of the first quarter, and the from our own; never to shrink from war when the

95,492,597 76

estimated expenditures for the remaining, three rights and the honor of the country call us to

The actual expenditures for each quarter

quarters, are $64,345,921 21, leaving an estimated of said year were:

balance in the Treasury, on the 1st day of July, arms, but to cultivate in preference the arts of

For 1st quarter...

.$15,081,383 70 peace, seek enlargement of the rights of neutrality,

1855, of $19,762,046 29.

22,301,896 24 and elevate and liberalize the intercourse of na- 3d quarter..............

12,448,947 42

There is always, at the close of the fiscal year, tions; and by such just and honorable means, and

4th quarter.
25,522,402 90

a balance thus estimated, not expended, of at least such only, whilst exalting the condition of the

75,354,630 26 $12,000,000. That $12,000,000 may be applied Republic, to assure to it the legitimate influence

to the purchase of the public debi during the Leaving a balance in the Treasury on July 1, and the benign authority of a great example

1854, of..........

$20,137,967 50

remaining three quarters, without disturbing the

estimated balance in the Treasury. amongst all the powers of Christendom.

The usual and ordinary expenditures were as Under the solemnity of these convictions, the

The amount of the public debt, outstanding on the 1st day follow:

of July, 1853, was..

$67,340,628 78 blessing of Almighty God is earnestly invoked to

And on the 1st day of July, 1854..
Civil list..

47,180,506 05 attend upon your deliberations, and upon all the

$4,649,384 98 Foreign intercourse..

7,726,677 13 counsels and acts of the Government, to the end

Being a reduction of.....
. 13,531,310 33

$20,160,122 73 that, with common zeal and common efforts, we Interior Department...

2,609,054 79

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending War Department.. may, in humble submission to the Divine will,

.......11,733,629 48 coöperate for the promotion of the supreme good | Redemption of public debt, interest and pre

.10,768,192 89 June 30, 1856, are as follow:

From customs...... of these United States. mium......

. $56,000,000 00

..24,336,380 66 From lands.. FRANKLIN PIERCE.

6,01 0,000 00 Miscellaneous..

500,000 00 WASHINGTON, December 4, 1854.

Total expenditures....
·$75,354,630 26

62,500,000 CO Balance in the Treasury on July 1, 1854, Add cstimated balance in the Treasury, July Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. $20,137,967 50, as appears, in detail, per State

1, 1855......

19,762,046 29 ment 1.

Making the estimated sum of....... $82,262,046 29 TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1855, were as follow:

for the service of the fiscal year 1856. From customs..

.$51,000,000 00 Estimated expenditures for the fiscal year 1856 : Sır: In obedience to the "act supplementary to From lands.......

3,500,000 00 Balance of former appropriations, to be expended this the act entitled an act to establish the Treasury Miscellaneous.

500,000 00

$11,212,905 20

Pernianent and indefinite appropriations, to
Department, approved May 10, 1800, the fol.

55,000,000 00
be expended this year..

7,934,411 70 lowing report is submitted: Add estiinated balance in the Treasury July

Appropriations asked for, and to be expended The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of July, 1853, 1, 1834.....

11,266,604 62

41,722,516 47 $21,942,892 56 Estimated resources for the fiscal year end

$60,869.833 37 And the actual receipts into the Treasury for the first

ing June 30, 1855....

66,266,604 62 quarter:

The estimated expenditures for the same

Leaving the sum of $21,392,212 92 on the 1st of From customs.. $19,718,822 00 year were as follow:

July, 1856. From lands............. 1,489,562 05 Balance of former appropriations to be ex

Upon this estimate of the receipts and expendi. Miscellaneous..

147,994 87
pended during the year.....

$6,865,126 44
Permanent and indefinite ap-

tures of the fiscal year 1856 there'will be a bal21,356,378 92 propriations to be expended

ance in the Treasury, on the 1st of July, 1856, during the year.... 8,285,716 14

of $21,392,212 92, without expending anything And the estimated receipts for the other

Specific appropriations asked three quarters were :

in the redemption of the public debt; but if

'for the service of the year.. 35,909,434 54 From customs.... 37,000,000 00

$12,000,000 shall be applied to the redemption of From lands............

3,000,000 00
Making an aggregate of....

51,060,277 12 the public debt, which may be done, there will Miscellaneous ......... 300,000 00

remain an estimated balance in the Treasury of Leaving in the Treasury, on July 1, 1855, a Making the actual receipts for the first qùar

$9,392,212 92.

.$15,206,327 50

. balance of... ter, and the estimated receipts for the other

It appears the receipts from customs, for the three quarters........ 61,656,378 92

second, third, and fourth quarters of the fiscal Add balance in the Treasury.

The receipts of the first quarter of the fiscal 21,942,892 56

year, ending September 30, 1854, have been as year 1854, were not diminished from the pressure Total for service of the year............ $83,599,271 48 follow:

in the money market and other causes, as expected

in my former report. They were kept up from From customs...

.$18,639,798 45 The actual expenditures of the first quarter of

From lands...........

2,731,654 12 importations, growing out of large exports of pro

Miscellaneous.. the fiscal year 1853 were $15,081,383 70, and the

- 149,850 28 visions, caused by the scarcity in England and estimated expenditures for the remaining three

France, and the expected demands of the EuroTotal..

$21,521,302 85 quarters were $57,251,283 16, making for the

pean war, and by the shipments to this country of actuu expenditures of the first quarter, and the The expenditures for the same first quarter have

foreign manufacturers, which, owing to the wantof estimated expenditures for the other three quar. l) been as follow:

a remunerating market in those countries, sought

the benefit of ours. They were also kept up by ters, $72,332,666 86; which would have left an

Civil, miscellaneous, and foreign interestimated balance in the Treasury on the 1st of

96,241,749 31

a greater uniformity and better valuation of foreign July, 1854, of $11,266,604 62.

Interior Department....

2,175,737 13 | goods, and a diminution in smuggling, caused by War Department.

3,367,039 92 The actual receipts into the Treasury for the

increased vigilance on the part of the revenue offiNavy Department..

2,508,791 09

cerg. fiscal year ending 30th of June, 1854, were as

The foreign and internal immigration to Redemption of public debt, interest and prefollow:

1,876,013 17

the new States and Territories, combined with

speculative investments in the public lands, greatly 1st quarter-from customs......

$19,7'5.892 00

Total expenditures...
from lands................
1,489,562 15

•$16,169,330 62 increased the receipts from that source; so that,
miscellaneous ..........
147,994 87

instead of a reduced revenue, as anticipated, the as appears, in detail, from table 2.

receipts have been greater than in any previous $21,356,378 93 The receipts for the remaining three quarters of

year. the year are now estimated as folicy:

It also appears from the statement of the receipts 2d quarter-from customs.....

$13,587,821 27
From customs......

• $36,000,00 00 of the first quarter of the fiscal year 1854, that from lands.

2,223,076 39
From lands

6,000,000 00

101,963 64

the receipts, both from customs and lands, have 500,000 00

been greater for the quarter than a fair proportion $15,912,861 30 Total.........

.$42,500,000 00 of the estimated receipts for the year. This has 3d quarter-from customs................

grown out of the same causes that kept up the $16,896,724 83 The receipts for the first quarter, the estimated

receipts from customs and lands, for the last three from lands

2,012,908 36 receipts for the remaining three quarters, and the
486,091 93

quarters of the fiscal year 1854, aided as to lands, balance in the Treasury on the first day of July, to some extent, by the effect of the act graduating $19,395,725 12 | 1854, make a total sum of $84,107,967 50 for the

the price, which operated in favor of the receipts, service of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1855. for the latter half of the quarter. 4th quarter-from customs................ $14,020,822 17

The estimated expenditures for the remaining

The receipts from customs for the remaining from lands................... 2,745,251 59 three quarters of the year are as follow:

three quarters of the year cannot be in proportion miscellaneous

118,666 10
Civil list, foreign intercourse, and miscella-

to those of the first quarter, owing to the recipneous....

$15,066,931 13
$16,884,739 86
Deficiency in the Post Office Department.. 2,719,464 00

rocity treaty, introducing free trade with the BritInterior Department..

3,133,655 25 ish colonies, and the short crops in almost all porMaking....... $73,549,705 20 War Department.............

13,628,350 90 tions of the country, which must materially affect Balance in the Treasury 1st of July, 1853.. 21,942,892 56 Navy Department..

11,258,095 71

the exportation of provisions and the return imInterest on the public debt....

2,370,093 60 Total sum for the service of the fiscal year

portations, and diminish the ability to purchase ending June 30, 1854...... 895,492,597 76 Making.......

$48,176,590 59 and pay for foreign goods. The effect of a scarcity

of provisions, with consequent high prices, has


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always been to diminish the consumption of other Therefore, I feel it necessary, again, to call the consumption to the free list, such as salt, &c., was articles of customary use, and may be expected attention of Congress to the propriety of reducing deemed more questionable, but was made because to operate on the importations for the remaining the revenue from customs, so that no more money it seemed to have had the sanction of Congress three quarters of the year, as it certainly will on shall be received into the Treasury than is re- and the people as to tea and coffee, and it was the consumption. Moreover, the United Siates quired for an economical administration of the thought would leave the operation of the tariff have enjoyed a long period of agricultural, man- Government. The reduction proposed in my laws more equitable in their bearing upon all ufacturing, and commercial prosperity, under ex- former report, as carried out by the bill prepared sections of the country, than a general reduction tended bank and other credit facilities, backed by in this Department, and the reduction proposed in on all articles. The addition of unadulterated the immense production of gold, from the mines the bill prepared and reported by the Committee wines was made to promote our commercial interof California.' This has led to large speculative of Ways and Means of the House of Represent- course with wine-producing countries. investments in railroads, lands, lots, houses, ships, atives, would each have effected the object of bring. The present tariff, the bill of the Committee of stocks, and other enterprises, and to enhanced | ing the receipts from customs to the proposed | the House of Representatives, and that of this prices for rents, labor, provisions, and all the revenue standard.

Department, impose the like duty of 100 per cent. necessaries of life. The bank and credit facilities The present tariff has eight schedules, or differ- on spirits imported. The bill of the committee have been in check for more than a year, with a ent rates of duties, as follow: The first of 100 per reduces the schedules of the present tariff from prospect of a continued check; whilst the large cent., the second of 40 per cent., the third of 30 40, 30, and 25 per cent. to 20 per cent., retaining and extended indebtedness of operators has to be per cent., the fourth of 25 per cent., the fifth of 20 the 15, 10, and 5 per cent. schedules, with some met under receding prices, without the stimulating per cent., the sixth of 15 per cent., the seventh of transposition of articles from one schedule to effect of new enterprises. This will also act in 10 per cent., and the eighth of 5 per cent. The another; whilst that of the Department imposes a restraint of importations and consumption. In | bill prepared by the Committee of the House of duty of 25 per cent. on all articles not made free; the estimated receipts from customs for the three | Representatives has five schedules, as follow: The most of the articles in the 15, 10, and 5 per cent. remaining quarters of the current fiscal year, the first of 100 per cent., the second of 20 per cent., schedules of the present tariff having been added effects of the reciprocity treaty and reduced im- the third of 15 per cent., the fourth of 10 per cent., to the free list, there being no just reason why the portations have been considered; whilst, also, the and the fifth of 5 per cent. And the bill prepared articles not added to the free list should not pay same causes will operate in the sale of the public at this Department, and which is substantially the higher rate of 25 per cent, The table, 11, lands; but the effect of the act graduating the price the one reported by the minority of the Commit- | which accompanies this report, exhibits the has been considered sufficient to keep up the re- tee of the House of Representatives, has but two amount that would have been collected for the ceipts from the latter source to what they were rates of duty: The first of 100 per cent., and the year 1853 under the present tariff, the bill of the for the fiscal year 1854.

second of 25 per cent. There are difficulties in committee, and that of the Department, and what The estimate of receipts for the fiscal year 1856 | the execution of the present tariff growing out of would have been collected under each schedule of has been made from an expectation that the same the required classification under the eight sched- the bill of the committee, and affords evidence causes which will operate to reduce the importa- ules; and these difficulties continue to increase that the 5th schedule will not pay the expenses tions and consumption of foreign goods for the by the acts of the manufacturers in assimilating of collection. Indeed, it is believed the advantremaining three quarters of the fiscal year 1855 one class of goods to another, and in ascertaining ages of these schedules will be counterbalanced will be continued through a part of the succeeding the material of chief value in the fabrics. The by the increased difficulties and expense of colyear, and sensibly affect the importation and con- difficulties would be reduced under the bill of the lection. Whether the general rate should be 20 sumption of foreign goods.

committee, and would entirely disappear under or 25 per cent., is a question of some doubt. It The accompanying table, 3, exhibits the par- that proposed by the Department.

was thought that a reduction to 20 per cent. might ticulars of the public debt on the 1st of July, 1853, The bill of the committee, with the tables here have the effect of increasing the revenue by inand the accompanying table, 4, exhibits the par- with annexed, exhibits the revenue from customs creasing the importations; whilst the duty of 25 ticulars of the public debt on the 1st of July, 1854, || for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, and per cent. would not probably have that effect. to which is appended a table, exhibiting the in- what has been the revenue under the present A question of greater difficulty was, whether the terest paid on the public debt during the fiscal year tariff for the average of six years, including 1853, rate of 40 per cent. should not be retained on 1854, and the principal, interest, and premium on and what would have been the receipts for the manufactured and adulterated wines, and whether the part redeemed within that year. Table 5 ex- same periods under the bill of the committee, and silks and some other sumptuary articles should hibits the principal, interest, and premium on the under the one recommended by this Department. not be added to that schedule. Upon mature republic debt, redeemed from the 1st July, 1854, to These tables only include the enumerated articles | flection, I am fully satisfied that the schedule of the 20th of November, 1854. From these tables in the bill of the committee, leaving the sum of 40 per cent. should have been retained, keeping it appears that the sum of $20,098,422 73 of the about $2,000,000 of revenue from unenumerated in it wines not made free, and adding to it silks public debt was redeemed between the 1st of July, | articles; but they are sufficient to explain the of all kinds, laces of all kinds, millinery of all 1853, and the 1st of July, 1854, and that the in- character of the present tariff, the one proposed | kinds, and other sumptuary articles; and I now terest and premium paid on the amount redeemed by the committee, and the one by the Departo | recommend that, in revising the tariff, such a was $3,345,545 23; and the principal, interest,

schedule, specifying the articles, be added. and premium on that part of the public debt re- Herewith is also presented exhibit 10, contain- The table, 12, which accompanies this report, deemed between the 1st of July, 1854, and the ing the free list proposed by this Department, to exhibits the articles manfactured in the United 20th of November, 1854, was $2,604,203 51. which is added 'the English tariff on the same States, which have formed a part of our exports,

The table, 6, which accompanies this report, | articles; from which will be seen that the Eng- for the years 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, exhibits the tonnage engaged in our foreign and lish tariff makes most of these articles free; and, || 1852, 1853, and 1854. It will be seen from this coasting trade from the year 1789 to the 30th of as far as these articles are used in the arts and table that there has been a great increase in the June, 1854. It will be seen the increase for the manufactures, most of them are free of duty under || annual export of articles manufactured in this last year has been 395,892 20 95 tons.

the laws of other manufacturing nations. Under country. It may be fairly calculated that the The table, 7, which accompanies this report, the English tariff, the raw materials used in the $26,000,000, and upwards, of manufactured artiexhibits our exports and imports for the same arts and manufactures have been made free of cles exported during the fiscal year 1854 will contime; and the table, 8, which also accompanies this duty, whilst our tariff of 1846 imposes on those tinue gradually to increase until the manufactures report, exhibits the sums received into the Treas. | articles heavy duties; and thus, to the extent of of the United States shall constitute a fair proporury from customs, public lands, miscellaneous the duty on the raw material, the English manu- tion of our foreign exports. sources, including loans and Treasury notes, and facturer has a decided advantage over manufac- In recognizing, as I do, the principle that duties the tariff, and particular price of the public lands turers of the United States in the markets of should be levied for revenue, and not for protection, under which the same was received; also the an- | other nations, whilst the effect of the tariff of 1846 I have considered it no departure from the prinnual expenditures during the same period. From is reduced in our own markets. In the revision ciple to counteract the legislation of other counthe table of exports and imports it appears the of the tariff, for the purpose of reducing the reve- tries, and make the same articles free under our imports are $26,321,317 in excess of the exports, nue, it was deemed 'expedient and proper to take laws that are free under theirs; knowing, also, no account being taken of the precious metals away the advantages accruing to the manufactures || that there never has been a tariff law enacted, brought in by emigrants. The profits on our ex- of other countries, under their freelist, by making | under the Constitution, in which some articles ports, and the freights earned by our ships in the same articles free under our laws, except as to were not allowed to be imported free of duty. foreign trade, ought to more than cover this ex- the article of wool, and as to that article, on the The table, 13, which accompanies this report, cess. The exports include over $38,000,000 of coarser wools. Under the reciprocity treaty, wool exhibits duties to the amount of $1,524,457 40 on specie and bullion exported; but," whilst specie from the British provinces will be admitted free the articles made free by the reciprocity treaty and bullion are products of labor in our mines, || of duty. In 1853, the importations of wool and with Great Britain during the fiscal year 1854; to they rank with any other product, and must enter woolen goods amounted to over $30,000,000, and which extent the annual revenue from customs into our foreign trade as articles of commerce, the wool and the value of the wool in the manu- will thereby be reduced. and can have no prejudicial effect upon the great factured article, amounted to at least $10,000,000. In my former report a repeal of the fishing interests of the country. These tables combined, This was over and above the amount produced in bounties was recommended, for the reasons there exhibit the growth of our commercial marine, of the country, and affords satisfactory evidence that referred to. That recommendation is renewed, our exports and imports, and the receipts and ex- sufficient wool is not produced in the country for and the subject of drawback duties on refined penditures of our Government, and prove that the its consumption. The consumption of wool in sugar is recommended to the consideration of receipts into the Treasury are sufficient to meet the United States for the year 1853, is estimated Congress. The same principle would require all reasonable expenditures, discharge the public at 200,000,000 pounds, of which 60,000,000 is the like drawbacks on all exported articles on which debt, and allow a reduction of the rate of taxation, production of the country, and 21,000,000 im- there is a duty on the raw material used in their with almost a certainty that our increasing com- ported as wool, and the balance of 119,000,000 | manufacture. merce will give an increase of revenue equal to the imported in manufactures of wool.

The reports of the First, Second, Third, Fourth, reasonable demands of the future.

The proposed addition of articles of general " Fifth, and Sixth Auditors, and of the First and


330 CONG....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury.



Second Comptrollers, and the Commissioner of buildings, apart from the Treasury Building; also, tion given to the trial of suits, and the collection Customs, which accompany this report, num- that the clerical force in the building cannot be of money upon judgments in favor of the United bered from 14 to 22, inclusive, exhibit a fair | accommodated in suitable connection. Under the States, with suggestions as to the propriety of statement of the operations and condition of their expectation that the Land Office will be removed amending the law, so as to authorize a commission respective offices. They are all in good order, in the course of next spring, an estimate has been to district attorneys for the collection of old judg. and the current business is promptly, and, it is submitted for the expense of affording additional ments, and the propriety of authorizing the Debelieved, correctly done; and, besides, considerable light and ventilation to the Treasury Building, so partment to make compromises and settlements. progress has been made in closing the large unset- that the rooms will be more convenient

and com- | The attention of Congress is called

to the subject

, iled balances that stood open on the books of the fortable, and the necessary appropriation for that with a recommendation that the Department be Treasury, as stated in my former report. That purpose is recommended.

authorized to allow district attorneys and others, report stated the outstanding balance on the 1st The system of monthly accounts from the col- | employed for that purpose, a commission not of April, 1853, at..

..$132,521,704 09 lectors of customs, and the settlement thereof, exceeding ten per cent. on the amount collected. And there had been settled, up to

within the succeeding month, at the Treasury, The report of the Treasurer of the United the date of that report........ 30,500,154 50 has been adhered to and fully carried out, with a States (No. 29) also accompanies this. The

few exceptions upon the Pacific; and the accounts business in the office of the Treasurer has been Leaving....

$102,021,549 59 are being rendered and settled with great dispatch. promptly and satisfactorily performed. The Since the date of that report, this

The benefits growing out of this system to the money, both of the United Siates and the dissum has been reduced by settle

public, and the officers of the revenue, is more bursing agents of the Government, deposited, has ments, collections, &c., as fol.

manifest the longer it is enforced. The Depart- | been safely kept. One additional clerk for the lows:

ment has caused the collector's offices in all the Treasurer's office is recommended, for the reason In the office of the First and

ports to be examined within the year, with but stated by the Treasurer in his report. Fifth Auditors, per report of the

few exceptions, by agents of the Department, in Under the eleventh section of the independent First Comptroller of the Treas

order to ascertain how their books and accounts treasury law, it was thought advisable to have the ury.. . .$65,237,291 47

were kept, and, by personal inspection, how the offices of the assistant treasurers, and the deposCorrections in the

official corps discharged their duties. These ex- itaries of the United States, examined by an agent 1,001,020 00

aminations have enabled this Department to cor- of the Department, and Mr. William M. Gouge In the office of the

rect errors and omissions, and to see that the offi- was appointed to examine all of them, except that First Auditor,

cial corps devote themselves, in person, to the of San Francisco, California. His letter of apper report of the

duties confided to them, and have resulted in se- || pointment, No. 30, accompanies this report, as Commissioner

curing greater vigilance, and a more faithful appli- | also his general report upon the condition and of Customs.... 2,523,872 72 cation of the revenue laws.

operation of the offices used as depositaries of the In the office of the

The report of the Register of the Treasury (No. || public money, and by the disbursing agents of the Second, Third,

26) also accompanies this. It exhibits a greatly Government, exhibiting a highly satisfactory conand Fourth Au

improved condition of his office. The annual re- dition of said offices, the keeping the books and ditors, per re

port on commerce and navigation is in advance of the public money, and the duties of the respective port of the Sec

any former one, and will be in print for the use of officers. He will be required to examine the southond Comptroller 4,924,265 64

Congress at the commencement of its labors. The ern offices not heretofore examined by him. The In the office of the

business of the office has been promptly and well assistant treasurer's office at San Francisco has Auditor for the done.

been examined by J. Ross Browne, another agent Post Office De

The Solicitor of the Treasury has caused to be of the Department, and that office found in good partment..... 400,715 64

made out a schedule (No. 27) of all the lots and condition, and the business promptly and satisfacIn the office of the

lands purchased under execution and decrees for corily performed. Solicitor of the

the United States, or otherwise taken for debts The table, 31, which accompanies this report, Treasury.... 351,235 50

due to the United States, and which have hereto- exhibits the imports and exports of coin from the 74,438,400 97 | fore been sold, and also a schedule of all such 30th day of September, 1821, to the 30th day of

lands as are now held by the United States. They June, 1854; and the table, 32, which accompanies Leaving yet unclosed...... $27,583,148 62 are submitted, in order that Congress may have in this report, exhibits the coinage at the United

view the sales heretofore made, and devise some States Mint from the year 1792 to the 30th day of The reports of the First and Second Comp- || suitable mode for the future sale of the property September, 1854; and the table, 33, which also trollers, and of the Commissioner of Customs, on hand, and such as may hereafter be acquired; | accompanies this report, exhibits the coinage of upon the subject these balances, numbered 23, || also for closing or crediting on the books of the

the United States Mint and branches, from our 24, and 25, and which accompany this report, Treasury such debts as have been, or shall be, own mines, from the year 1804 to the 30th day of give reason to hope that in another year they will discharged in whole or in part by the purchase of September, 1854. be still further reduced, and a stricter system of real estate; because, after accounts have been Under the act of 1853 there has been $16,152,170 accounting enforced.

stated at the Treasury, leaving a balance due to of silver coined at the Mint in Philadelphia and The force in the office of the Sixth Auditor and the United States, they are passed to the Register, || branch Mint at New Orleans, and circulated at First Comptroller is inadequate to the increased and appear on his books, and then to the Solicitor, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Detroit, Chibusiness in the former, and the increased business and appear on his books, and are then sent to the cago, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Norand arrearages in the latter; and it was not pos-proper district attorney for suit. When the debt folk, Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, St. sible to give the required additional force by is collected and paid into the Treasury, in whole Louis, Jeffersonville, Cincinnati, San Francisco, transfers from other offices, owing, in part, to the or in part, the amount so paid is entered on the and Pittsburg; and furnished to citizens at various curtailment of five clerks in the Third Auditor's books of the Auditor, where the account was first other places. This has tended to keep a sound office, one in the Second Auditor's office, and one stated, and then on the books of the Comptroller, || currency for change in circulation, and afforded in the Second Comptroller's, from the failure to and then on the books of the Register; but where great convenience to the public; but the circulation estimate for them, and from Congress only grant- lands or any other thing is purchased under exe- of large amounts of small bank notes has coning eleven of the twenty-one clerks recommended cution for the debt in whole or in part, no entry

tracted the benefits of the silver change in many by the Department. The attention of Congress is thereof is made on the books of the Auditor, places, or driven it away, or tied it up in the called to the report of the Sixth Auditor and the || Comptroller, and Register, until a resale is made pockets of the people. The full benefit of silver First Comptroller, as to the necessity for additional and ihe money is paid into the Treasury; and coinage for change can never be realized whilst force in their respective offices. It is recommended when the United States fail, in whole or in part, small bank notes are encouraged under bank that Congress allow five additional clerks and two in the courts, no entry is made on the books of charters, and made current by the patronage of aaditional messengers to the Sixth Auditor, and the Auditor, Comptroller, and Register. Thus, the community. two additional clerks to the First Comptroller. the books of the Treasury exhibit balances due These tables give some data from which an The attention of Congress is also called to the the United States after the same are discharged. estimate may be made of the increasing amount of report of the Sixth Auditor, as to the necessity of This might be remedied by a Treasury regulation, gold and silver coin retained in the country. The additional room for the accommodation of the causing the proper entries to be made on the books | table, 34, with the remarks annexed, which acclerks of his office, and the safety of the accumu- of the Auditor, Comptroller, and Register, and company this report, exhibits estimates made by lating papers and records, with a recommendation opening in each office an account of the lands, Secretaries of the Treasury and others, of the that Congress make provision for the same. &c., purchased for the United States on each debt, amount of gold and silver coin in the country at

It would facilitate the business, and render less and for the discrepancies between the Treasury || different periods, and gives the amount on the 30th complicated the accounts of the Department, || statements of indebtedness and the judgment in of September, 1854, at $241,000,000, which is should all the accounts of the Interior Department the particular case; but it had better be regulated | believed not to be a high estimate. Of this sum be given to the Second Auditor, and all the ac- by Congress. This correction of the books would there was about $60,000,000 in the banks, and counts of the War Department be given to the be a work taking considerable time and labor, as $26,000,000 in the United States Treasury; the Third Auditor, as recommended in my former it would require to overhaul the books from the rest being in .circulation amongst the people, or report.

commencement of the Government. Yet no just hoarded up. The attention of Congress is called to the fact statement of the condition of the balances on the It appears from the report on the banks from that the Commissioner of the General Land Office books of the Treasury can be made until it is this Department, submitted to Congress on the and his clerks still occupy a portion of the Treas- || done.

6th of May, 1854, that in 1850–51 there were ury Building, and that the First and Fifth Audi. The report of the Solicitor of the Treasury | 879 banks in the United States, with a capital of tors and their clerks, and part of the clerks of the (No. 28) also accompanies this report, and ex- $227,807,533, and in 1853–54 there were 1,208 Third Auditor, have to be accommodated in rented "hibits the operations of that office, and the atten- banks, with a capital of $301,756,071, being an 33p Cong....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury.


increase of $73,948,538. In 1850–'51 the circula- with the law, both in respect to the deposit and ton, Vermont; Oswego, New York; Toledo and tion of the 879 banks was $155,165,251, deposits use of the public money; and does not give the Sandusky, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; Milwaukie, $128,957,712, due to other banks $46,411,928, and United States the benefit of promptly obtaining Wisconsin;and Wheeling, Virginia, in accordance together $330,539,891; and in 1853–'54 the circu- the amount not disbursed, upon the removal, re- with the report of Captain Bowman, No. 39, lation of the 1,208 banks was »204,689,207, the signation, or death of the incumbent.

accompanying this, he having been sent to exdeposits $188,188,744, and there was due to other The work on the Coast Survey continues to amine the sites offered in the several cities, and banks $50,322,162, and together $443,200,113, make good progress, and the means appear to confer with the commissioners and others upon making an increase of $112,660,223, with specie have been carefully and economically used. If the subject; and steps are being taken to obtain in their vaulis in 1850-51 of $48,671,048, and the work shall have the continued support of Con- the titles, with a view to early action in having in 1853–54 of $59,410,253, being an increase of gress for a few years more, the fullest and most the buildings constructed. The table, No. 40, $10,739,205. These tables exhibit a bank circu.

reliable knowledge will be obtained of our exten- exhibits the sites and prices agreed to be paid in lation of $204,689,209, against the $241,000,000 of sive coast, and of all our harbors, to the great the several cities. No report was made on the gold and silver in the country. The independent advantage of our navigation and commerce. The site at Buffalo, New York; Cincinnati, Ohio; and treasury of the United States, receiving and pay- work is recommended to the consideration of Con- Burlington, Iowa, for the reasons stated in the ing for the fiscal year 1854 more than $75,000,000 | gress, with the belief that no more convenient same report. There has not been time for informin the current coin, has kept up the demand for it, time will be found for its continuance and comple- ation from New Orleans since instructions were and prevented the large bank circulation from ob- 1 tion, nor a more able corps of officers to which it issued to obtain offers for a site for the marine taining the mastery, and driving the constitutional can be confided.

hospital there. currency from the country. In our table of ex- The report of the Light-House Board, No. 37, The Department having learned of an embez. ports we find an increase in the export of coin also accompanies this report, and is referred to for zlement of bullion by one of the officers in the over the previous year, but not exceeding the pro- the detailed operations for the past year. The Mint at Philadelphia, determined to have the Mint dace of our mines. This increase may be, in part, business has been promptly and faithfully attended and course of business investigated, and a detailed accounted for by the large redemption of the public to in all its branches, and the system made as report made with a view to the better security of debt held abroad, and the bank circulation, a large efficient as the time and means would allow; and its operations. Messrs. Richard Smith and J.c. part of which was in small notes circulated at a it is recommended to the continued favor of Con- Pickelt were appointed for that purpose. A copy discount in places remote from the issuing bank, gress, in order that increased facilities may be of the letter of appointment (No. 41) and their and forcing ihe better currency of gold and silver given to navigation in all its branches and con- report accompany this, with a copy of the new out of the market. nections.

regulations which the director of the Mint has The United States having placed her receipts Under the appropriation of $20,000 for contin- adopted, with the sanction of this Department, and expenditures upon the constitutional currency uing the system of protecting human life from for the government of the Mint and branches. of gold and silver, it is in the power of the States, shipwreck on the New Jersey coast, and $20,000 They are submitted to Congress for such addi. by prohibiting the banks from issuing and circu- appropriated without specification, (which the tional legislation as the circumstances seem to lating notes of a small denomination, and by || Department has thought advisable to expend on require. making the constitutional currency the basis of the coast of Long Island,) Mr. S. C. Dunham T'he condition of the Mint at Philadelphia, as to their own receipts and expenditures, to give the was appointed for the New Jersey coast, and Mr. safely as a depository and security from fire, was victory in all times to the constitutional currency, || J. N. Schellinger for the Long Island coast, with examined by Caplain Bowman, under the direc. keep a sufficiency in the country for all the pur- | instructions to examine existing stations, and re- tions of this Department. His report (No. 42) poses of a circulating medium, and prevent the port what would be needed to put them in a per- || accompanies this, and states the necessity of give evils and losses that always attend an inferior fect state, and to select intermediate stations, so ing the same greater security as a Mint and deposcurrency. The disorder now felt in money mat- as to make the stations on each coast five, instead itory, and of its being made fire-proof; and estiters grows out of the failure of many of these of ten, miles apart. Both these agents have re- mates are submitted for the alterations, and also banks, and the curtailment of the circulation and ported, and are now employed in building the for improving the vaults of the Treasury Building discounts of others—which in the last six months houses at the new stations, and providing the ar- at Washington. In Captain Bowman's general must have reached forty or fifty millions of dollars; || ticles required for them and the old ones, and the report it is stated that the appropriation for the and in part out of the effects produced by the large additional boats have been built, and are being repairs of the branch Mint at New Orleans is not imports, and in part out of the want of confidence shipped to the new stations.

sufficient to make it thoroughly fire-proof and between lender and borrower. It cannot be at- Under the appropriation of $12,500 for locating secure as a Mint and depository, and estimates tributed to the shipment of gold and silver, which boats at different points on Lake Michigan, twen- are submitted for that pupose. The attention of is nothing but a consequence growing out of these ty-three boats have been purchased and sent to Congress is called to the condition of the Mint at causes.

the places indicated in the act. Boats for the two || Philadelphia and the branch Mint at New Orleans, The independent treasury has been administered remaining points will be purchased and sent so and of the vaults in the Treasury, and such approin strict accordance with the provisions of the law, soon as persons can be found to take the proper priations recommended as will make them firein all respects, as stated in my former report. care of them, for which purpose the necessary | proof and perfectly safe. The propriety of an There has been found no difficulty in its opera- | inquiries are now being instituted.

annual appropriation, for keeping in repair the tion, nor in complying with any of the provisions The late melancholy disaster to the ship New | vaults and safes for the assistant treasurers and of the law. The opening the Treasurer's office at Era has shown the inadequacy of the mortars depositories, is submitted. Washington, and the offices of the several assist- heretofore used for throwing lines to vessels in The table, 43, which accompanies this report, ant treasurers and public depositaries, as places | distress, and establishing a communication be- exhibits fifty-four places, including the marine of deposit for the disbursing agents of the Gov- tween the wreck and the shore. Experiments are hospitals, where relief is afforded to sick and disernment, has been attended with signal success, now being made, with a view of providing a mor- abled seamen, under the direction of this Departand resulted in great advantage to the Executive tar, mounted, and capable of throwing a ball and ment, with the average cost per day of each Departments and the disbursing agents.


line the requisite distance. The appropriations | patient at the several places. It appears the table, 35, which accompanies this report, shows will not be sufficient to place all the stations in an average cost is fair and reasonable at most of the the growth of the deposit system; the number of entirely effective condition.

places, but at others it greatly exceeds what it disbursing agents who deposit, with the places The report, No. 38, from Captain A. H. Bow-should be. Every effort has been made to bring and amount of deposit at different periods. It man, of the Engineer Corps, in charge of the con- the cost within fair and reasonable limits, but the will be seen that in September these deposits ex- struction of custom-houses, marine hospitals, &c., greatest discrepancies are found in those places ceeded $3,500,000; whilst all disbursing agents which accompanies this, gives information in where there are but few patients to accommodate, who could, have not availed themselves of the detail of all that has been done towards the com- and where it has been found impossible to reduce privilege, and many disbursing agents could not pletion of those under the direction of this Depart- the items constituting the largest average in the do so, because there were not depositaries con- ment since the date of my last report, and of the expense, such as compensation of surgeons, &c. venient to their location. The returns of these working of the system of operations, and affords The report of the supervising inspectors of deposits furnish the means of ascertaining the all necessary information upon that subject. || steamboats, under the act of 30th August, 1852, operations of disbursing agents, and whether the | The attention of Congress is particularly called No. 44, accompanies this report, as also a letter funds are kept in readiness to meet the appropri- to that part of the report which relates to the from Mr. William M. Gouge, charged by this ations; whilst, upon the removal, resignation, or custom-house being built at New Orleans. It Department with the duty of attending the meetdeath of a disbursing agent, the amount on de- || satisfactorily appears that the foundation is not ings. The Department also procured Professor posit passes at once into the United States Treas- | sufficient for the weight and character of the super- Booth, melter and refiner at the Mint in Philadelury and to the credit of the depositor, without the structure, as specified in the plan, according to phia, to experiment upon fusible alloys, in conprocrastination caused by having to await a settle- | which Congress has directed it to be built; and nection with Evan's safety valves, and otherwise, ment by the agent or an administration; and can that there is urgent necessity to modify the plan with a view of testing the same, and in order to at once be applied to the purposes of the appro- and remedy the evil as far as practicable, and a have reliable alloys should it be determined to priation through another agent. The money ihus | modification of the plan as indicated by Captain continue their use. His report, No. 45, also on deposit is as safe and secure as that in the Bowman is recommended.

accompanies this, and gives valuable information Treasury, and is without risk to the depositor; The attention of Congress is also called to the upon the subject. The attention of Congress is and it is right the Government; and not the dis- report of Captain Bowman upon the site for a called to the suggestions in the report of the superbursing agent, should be at the expense and risk custom-house at Detroit; and it is recommended, || visors, the letter of Mr. Gouge, and the report of of keeping the public money until actually dis- || for the reasons stated by him, that authority be Professor Booth. The Department has been furbursed. It is to be regretted that all disbursing | given to sell the present lot, and purchase a more nished with the table, 46, which accompanies this agents conveniently situated have not availed suitable one.

report, showing the loss of sixty-three steamthemselves of the right to deposit, because it fur- The Department has selected sites for the cus- vessels from the 1st of January, 1854, to June of nishes cause of mistrust as to a strict compliance Il tom houses at New Haven, Connecticut; Burling- Il the same year, with the causes thereof. This

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