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PREFACE.

TT has been the purpose of the Publishers to condense into the convenient form of a single 1 volume the scattered fragments of local history and to give as an aid to the coming searcher after historical truth a systematic recital of events in their relations to the labor of creating and developing La Crosse County. The labor bestowed upon this work has been patiently performed; it is for the public to determine the degree of success attained.

The elaborate and highly interesting article on the Press, from the pen of Mr. Charles Seymour, is one of the most valuable portions of the book. Therein has a skilled writer drawn a clear-cut analysis of a noted character before the country, and, although himself a political and business opponent of the man, Mr. Seymour has evinced a moral courage that is admirable; he has dared to see and define the good qualities, as well as the mental attributes, of a nature which is worthy of the attention of psychologists. The success of Mark M. Pomeroy must be acknowledged one of the noted journalistic phenomena of this generation; and the facts recorded in Mr. Seymour's sketch will supply the historian of the war-period with most suggestive and significant data from which to draw conclusions. The La Crosse Democrat was a representative of an element in the national life which history cannot ignore; and he who writes must turn to La Crosse for a description of that human instrumentality which was the startling embodiment of an idea.

In general terms, thanks are expressed to the Clergy, the Press, the Pioneers and the Public, for cordial co-operation in the compilation of this book.

That the History of La Crosse County as here presented may be satisfactory to all—a sentiment, we confess, that is bold, in view of the freedom and diversity of opinion—is the sincere prayer of

THE PUBLISHERS. SEPTEMBER, 1881.

CONTENTS.

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Antiquities

Educational:

Commorce and Manufactures :

Indian Tribes......

21 Township System.......

.146 Dairy Products...

203

Pre-Territorial Annals...

Free High Schools.

Pork and Beef..

Wisconsin Territory.

School Offices ........

Hops.............

Wisconsin ua State........

State Teachers' Certificates.

Tobacco-Cranberries......

205

First Administration.......

52 Teachers' Associations.... .........148

Liquors ...........

205

Second Administration

Libraries ........

.......148 Miscellaneous.......

Third Administration.

State Superintendents..

148 Water Powers..

206

Fourth Administration......

College Sketches..........

........ 149 Manufactures......

Fifth Administration.......

Female Colleges.........

.........150

Conclusion.........

...........208

Sixth Administration......

ion.............. ...

Academies and Seminaries. ........161 The Public Domain......

Seventh Administration.

Commercial Schools..........

Health .......

War of Secession Commenced...

69 Agriculture....

Geographical Position...

Eighth Administration.......

76 Mineral Resources......

Physical Features........

Ninth Administration......

Lead and Zinc.

162

Geology ....................

.231

Statistics of Volunteers.......

90 Iron.....

Drainage .........

.232

Tenth Administration.

Copper .................

Climatology......

Eleventh Administration...

Gold and Silver...

Rain Character.......

.233

Twelfth Administration..........

Brick Clays..............

Isotherms ............................****

Thirteenth Administration ....

234

Cement Rock...

Barometrical ......

Fourteenth Administration....

Limestone-Glass Sand.......

...171 Winds......

...235

Fifteenth Administration......

104 Peat-Building Stones..... .........172 Climatological Changes from Settling

Sixteenth Administration....

109 Railroads ......

.........173

in the State.......

spography and Geology.

........110 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.........

173

Influence of Nationalities......

The Archæan Age....

................112

Chicago & Northwestern ..........

176

Occupations-Food-Education, etc......238

Paleozoic Time-Silurian Age............115 Wisconsin Central......................

History of Disease.........

............238

Devonian Age...... .......................119 Western Union.........

.........179 Ratio of Sickness, Ft. Howard and Win-

Glacial Period.........

West Wisconsin.......

..........180

Debago............

..........239

Climatologs.........................

.......121

Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western..

Education of the Blind........

.241

Trees, Shrubs and Vines......

Green Bay & Minnesota.....

Institute of Deaf and Dumb...

Fagna...

.........134 Wisconsin Valley......

181 Industrial School for Boys.

.242

Fish and Fish Culture..

134 Sheboygan & Fond du Lac.

.........181

State Prison........

Large Animals—Time of their Disap-

Mineral Point..............................

State Hospital for the Insane............. .242

pearance.....

***.....................138 Madison & Portage.....

.................182

Northern Hospital for the Insane......... 243

Peculiarities of the Bird Fauna...........139 North Wisconsin .......

183 City of Milwaukee........

...243

Educational ...................

.......146 Prairie du Chien & McGregor ..183 Health Resorts........

... 244

Original School Code........ ........140 Chippewa Falls & Western

.183 Change of Diseases........

Agitation for Free Schools.. ..........141 Narrow Gauge.

183 Pulmonary Diseases...

248

School System under State Govern-

Conclusion............

.184 Statistics ..........

.249

ment..........

.1411 Lumber ...................

Population, 1875, of Townships, Alpha-

School Fund Income............

142 Banking........

................191

betically Arranged by Counties........249

State University ........

...143 Commerce and Manufactures.... .........198 Population by Counties.......................258

Agricultural College..

........144 Turs...............

199 Nativity by Counties..........

259

Normal Schools......

......144 Lead and Zinc-Iron........

Valuation of Property ........ .........260

Teachers' Institutes...

146 Lumber.

Acreage of Principal Orops............261, 262

Graded Schools........

.......146

Grain ....

202

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HISTORY OF LA CROSSE COUNTY

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Geological Formation of the Region.......... 309 The First Murder.......

351 County Schools......

.. 420

The Pictured Cave..

......... 313 New Arrivals.........

. 352 Northwestern Horticultural Society..... . 421

Additional Notes on the pictured Cave..... 314 The Character of the Settlers....

353 | La Crosse County Bible Society....... 422

Political Boundaries....

...... 315 The First Raft.......

353 War Record......

Topographical Features..

316 The First Post Office....

354 Roster of Volunteers.....

437

Watercourses and their Improvements..... 317 Mormon Notes...

354
The Old Settlers' Association........

440
The Winnebago Confederacy and Indian The Absence of Schools-Travel to Black City Poor Farm.....

440

Occupation........

319 River .........................

355 La Crosse County Agricultural Society...... 441

0-chunk-o-raw..........

320 New Accessions..........

355 Literature .........

Preliminary.......

324 The First Marriage.........

358 | The Indian Scare....

Beginning of La Crosse County...

327 First Death........

360 The Foote Forgeries....

... 446

Origin of the name La Crosse..

328 The First Road to Prairie du Chien. 360 A Chapter of First Things.........

The Game of La Crosse...

330 The First Fourth of July.

364 REMINISCENCES AND PERSONAL SKETC HES:

Beginning of Settlement

330 Continued Improvements..

366 Nathan Myrick.

Mr. Coons' Plea.....

332 The First Birth..........

368 John Meyer Levy.....

Col. Myrick's Answer.................

Career of Hon. Timothy Buras...... 369 Samuel T. Smith .....

Gen. Sibley's Letter................

A Stirring Event...

371 Peter Cameron .........

The Rejoinder of Mr. Couns........

A Freshet..........

372 James M. Garrett.......

456

Letter from the Department of the In First Land Sale...

Mrs. Berkenmeyer.....

terior ......

335 Removal of the Indians...

374 Col. Thomas B. Stoddard.

457

Col. Myrick's Final Answer

336

| The Cameron-Ellis Tragedy.

378 Susan E. De France.

Mr. Folsom's Testimony....

336 Indian Impudence...

378 Hon. George Gale...

459

Brunson's Recollection..........

337 | La Crosse in 1850........

383 Rev. Benjamin W. Reynolds.

460

Mining Settlements and Military Posts..... 338 | The First Elopement..........

383

Orrin L. Smith........

461

Nathan Myrick's Arrival.......

339 | The Year of Real Progress..

386

Harvey E. Hubbard....

461

A Dangerous Journey............

340 Organization of La Crosse Count

389 Alexander McMillan.

Myrick's Adventure with an Indian.. 341 The County Seat......

392 Duncan D. McMillan.....

463

The Settlement of the Main Land

342 | The Richardson Homicide.

John S. Simonton

The First Survey........

345 | The Stafford Shooting.......

395 Ethan Roberts..

Death of D'Cora's Son........

345 | The Murder of David Darst......

395 Judge Cyrus K. Lord.

466

The Mormon Invasion.....

346 Growth of the Village......

Theodore Rodolf.....

467

Advancing Civilization .....

346 The United States Land Office

... 403 William W. Crosby.......

Maj. Hatch's Exploit.

347 Evidences of Progress

401 Charles Green Hanscome

Myrick's First House...

348 Othcial Roster.........

414 Harvey J. Peck....

472

Later Land Claims........

349 Court House........

418

A. Steinlein ..........

Pioneer Hardships........

... 350 'Poor House .........

420 | Census Reports........

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La Crosse City........

...... 474 | RELIGIOUS:

Flouring-Mills.......

The First Visitors....

475 First Presbyterian Church...

561 Elevators......

Business in 1861....

496 North Presbyterian Church....

563 | Public Buildings and Hotels

623

City Officers.

498 First Congregational Church

563 Gas Works...

630

City Hall....

501 Baptist Church..............

564 Telephone Exchange...

633

Police Department.

501 Baptist Sabbath School......

566 Manufactures...................

633

Fire Department.....

501

First Methodist Epifcopal Church..... 568 Breweries........

The Water Supply....

504 North La Crosse M. E. Church...

| Pork Packing.......

647

City Scales...

German M. E. Church.......

Masonic ........

647

City Parks...

Christ's Episcopal Church..

570 I. 0. 0. F...

654

Post Offices..

507 St. Paul's Universalist Church. 571 Grand Lodge of A. 0. U. W. of Wisconsin. 6576

Custom House.....

509 German Lutheran School..

571 | Ancient Order United Workmen.....

Board of Trade.........

509

German Lutheran Society.........

| Knights of Pythias.............................

Oak Grove Cemetery....

512 German Reformed.......

572 Knights of Honor.....

Schools........

514 Norwegian Lutheran Church.... ...... 572 Royal Arcanum..........

Kindergarten School...

521 Norwegian Lutheran, North La Cr 573 American Legion of Honor...

659

La Crosse Business College..

521 Anshe Chesed Congregation..... 573 | Young Men's Library Association...

660

The Roman Catholic Church.

573 | Temperance Organizations.

661

THE PRE86.............

522 The Rev. Michael Heiss, D. D.

676 Miscellaneous Societies......

663

The Spirit of the Times........

525 La Crosse County Bible Socisty.... 580 | Bands .............................**

669

The La Crosse Democrat.......

526 La Crosse Bar Association...

581 Military

669

The La Crosse National Democrat........ 528 Banks and Banking..........

582 Land Office..........

070

The La Crosse Independent Republican.. 528 Railroads......

683 | La Crosse Medical College...

671

Press Items, 1854 to 1860..

..... 529 Railroad Bridges.......

590 The Artesian Well.........

671

Mark M. Pomeroy and the La Crosse La Crosse Stieet Railways.

597 Turkish Batlıs......

672

Democrat ............

545 Cliftwood.....................

598 David Law's Freight and Omnibus Line...

The La Crosse Republican's Attitude... 554 River Interests...

599 Fires....

673

The later Journalistic Enterprises...... 556 The Lumber Interests..

603 The Storm Fiend........

.... 676

Saw-Mills....

605 Wholesale Business......

679

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