Page images
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]

THE CORN QUESTION,

[ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

را به دام و

[ocr errors]

1

[ocr errors]

دین ( ) 1 (

1

۱

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

op BA

u )))) , ' ; pi .si1.115

blog I.

lilta » 10! As the very numerous petitions, from all parts of the kingdom for the Protection and Relief of Agriculture, will shortly come under the consideration of Parliament, I have been induced to put on paper, the following observations on that momentous subjects with a view to satisfy the trading and nianufacturing classes of the community, the mechanics, artisans, laborers, and, in short, all persons connected with our domestic trade and concerns, (including the fûndholders, the clergy, &c.) that they are, if possible, more deeply concerned than the farmers, in the success of the application; and that io raising (as heretofore,) a clamorous opposition to the object of it, they would be putting the knife to their own throats. In fact there is but one interest involved in it-viz. that of the whole Empire. To demonstrate the truth of this assertion, it is not necessary to have recourse to theoretical reasoning ; every man may be safely left to judge for himself, if he only fixes his attention on the facts and transactions constantly passing within the sphere of his bowo observation, under his own eyes, and of as regulat daily recurrence as the rising and setting of the sun.

The circulation of money is to the political body what that of the blood is to the natural body the source and support of life, health, and vigor. Every check or obstruction to its free course, or sudden diminution of its quantity or impulse, is felt throughout, and disorders and debilitates the whole frame. ** on!

[ocr errors]

That a diminished circulation, in other words a scarcity of money, and consequent low prices, is at this time paralyzing agriculture, trade, and manufacture, is universally felt and acknowledged; but there are various opinions as to the cause or causes of the evil, and the nature of its remedy. It will throw light upon these subjects of inquiry, if we trace the progress of circulation of money throughout its course.

The daily subsistence of the people is its primum mobile. Its first motion is in the payments for the purchase of the food of each day’s consumptious consequently the fruits of the earth, or agricultural produce, is that which forces it into action, and gives rise to its diurnal motion. All other circulation is occasional or voluntary. It is the necessity of food for subsistence, that is the propelling force of labor of all kinds, which is the means, or instrument, or price of obtaining it.

It is the annual renovation of that produce, which gives rise to the idea of annual income. What is gathered in harvest, or during the season of vegetation, is laid up in store, as the fund for subsistence, till the recurrence of the same season of the succeeding year ;

and consequently the means of purchase must have a corresponding renovation. Labor, or the sweat of man's brow, is the source and price of Nature's reproduction, and the means of its distribution and enjoyment by man...!! LOY! om The price of the necessaries of life is ever yarying, according to the accidental fluctuations of the demand and supply of each market. Occasioval greater fluctuations are produced by seasons of plenty or scarcity. t. These are naturals the former accidental varia.

tionsen

-budgricultural produce thus becoming the moving power, or the

Terminus a quo the annual circulation of money begins; so each gear's total consumption of it may be in a great degree considered as the Terminus ad quem it ceases and the bringing into the marketjs of the succeeding year's crop, its recommencement. STĘrom this point, therefore, which may be contemplated as the fountain head, it may be worth while to pursue the course of the stream, through its various intermediate channels and passages, till åt reverts to the same point. av The money passes from the pocket of the daily consumer, through the hands of the miller, the baker, the butcher, and the different dealers, in corn, bay, potatoes, and other vegetable and animal sproduce, (including wool,) into the hands of the farmer ; out of his hands it falls into various streams and channels. wird. Daily wages, and all other current expences of husbandry.

d. Taxes, rates, tythes, rents, repairs. 3. Improvements, including draining, building, artificial manures,

[ocr errors]

experiments, &c.; all giving rise to extra labor, (and having for their object increase of production. ils ! » 2011 :11811?ts of 1999,

4. The subsistence of his family, and personal expences, inclu- ?ding furniture, and all other necessaries; and (if his returns are sucha as to enable him) under this head are to be included all soch lusda uries in the style of living and education of his lebildvén, &ci as bese considers himself entitled to enjoy.

.vlsts 5. Surplus or savings (if any). These he invests in government or other securities, or in the purchase of landed propertye it tor'!

Now it will be observed, that all the above heads or rivulets of expenditure, except the last fall into or pass through the bands of it trade and manufacture. ita '191 10.tsh.109 29 17""; msot bar

1. The wages of labor.-These go to the butcher and baket? and all the trades

which purchase the necessaries of food and clothing (except the rent of the laborer's cottage, of which hereafter, and too much, id modern times, to the publican, brewer, and distiller. i ..

22 Other expences of husbandry --All go to trade---vize to the smithyiscollar-maker; carpenter; bricklayer; potter, ironmonger, wheelwright, mechanist of instruments and tools, farrier, borsesi dealer, lime-burner, &ct Seldi 9 tot 11 mit IT

3. Taxes.---These go in payinent of salaries, and all other Go vernment expences, and of thel army and nany and all-public esta= blishments, and in the dividends, and interest of the public debt. The whole of this expenditure passes through the hands into which it thos-falls, into traden for subsistence, i necessaries, and luxuries, except such part as consists of savings, of which bereafter. And it is ofthe first necessity to a State that the prices of food, &c. should be in proportion to the bill of taxess for taxes are the rent to Gos; vernmentz for the settling of laws, liberties, &c., just-a84

much asir rent is the price of the right to occupy land, or wages ate to con nand laboriom 918 21900rq 199919 P1100190 0 2110 011929b lf.

40Poors rates.t-These go immediately to the subsistence of the poonand those who have the charge of them, and -cpxsequently pass into the hands of the trades, which are the channels of the necessaries of dife before pobticedoinu trcangeb 2° 10°9-24 100 ildT

5. Highway and Church rates. These are expended in labor, and tepairso of buildingsstbridges, &, pand consequently pass into the samel hands dowq ads m 10 20170992 110 1-9537114 de ecol 1

6. Tythes.-7. Rent. These, when they have neached the hands of the proprietors; are the revenues for their support, and that of their families and establishments, and consequently pass in their expenditure, (except taxésx of which beforez) wbolly into trades and professions for necessaries and luxuries. 9So much of the money as goes ia payment of wages and salarieszreventually follows the same destination, except savingsb lof which hereafter,

74

[ocr errors]

That a diminished circulation, in other words a scarcity of money, and consequent low prices, is at this time paralyzing agriculture, trade, and manufacture, is universally felt and acknowledged; but there are various opinions as to the cause or causes of the evil, and the nature of its- remedy. It will throw light upon these subjects of inquiry, if we trace the progress of circulation of money throughout its course.

The daily subsistence of the people is its primum mobile. Its first motion is in the payments for the purchase of the food of each day's consumption consequently the fruits of the earth, or agricultural produce, is that which forces it into action, and gives rise to its diurnal motion. All other circulation is occasional or voluntary. It is the necessity of food for subsistence, that is the propelling force of labor of all kinds, which is the means, or instrument, or price of obtaining it.

It is the annual renovation of that produce, which gives rise to the idea of annual income. What is gathered in harvest, or during the season of vegetation, is laid up in store, as the fund for subsistence, till the recurrence of the same season of the succeeding year; and consequently the means of purchase must have a corresponding renovation. Labor, or the sweat of man's brow, is the source and price of Nature's reproduction, and the means of its dis- . tribusjon and enjoyment by man.com amThe price of the necessaries of life is ever varying, according to the accidental fluctuations of the demand and supply of each marketojaOccasioval greater fluctuations are produced by seasons of plenty or scarcity. These are natural, the former accidental varia. tionsorientis ako ste --budgricultural produce thus becoming the moving power, or the Terminus a quo the annual circulation of money begins; so each gear's total consumption of it may be in a great degree considered as the Terminus ad quem it ceases and the bringing into the marketjiof the succeeding year's crop, its recommencement.

From this point, therefore, which may be contemplated as the fountain head, it may be worth while to pursue the course of the stream, through its various intermediate channels and passages, till it reverts to the same point. ww The money passes from the pocket of the daily consumer, through the hands of the miller, the baker, the butcher, and the different dealers, in corn, hay, potatoes, and other vegetable and animal produce, (includingwool,) into the hands of the farmer ; out of bi hands it falls into various streams and channels.

do Daily wages, and all other current expences of husbandry. 2. Taxes, rates, tythes, rents, repairs. 3. Improvements, including draining, building, artificial manures,

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »