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periods of our history, were the subjects of much unpleasant altercation between the proprietary and the colonists. Certain laws, which he prepared for regulating these affairs, were rejected by the assembly. His exertions, in recommending a liberal system to his own sect, were attended with better success, and the final abolition of slavery, in Pennsylvania, was ultimately owing to their powerful influence.

Penn soon determined to return to England, and he naturally desired to have some frame of government firmly established before his departure. In 1701, he prepared one which was readily accepted by the assembly. It gave them the right of originating laws, which had previously been vested in the governor: it allowed to the governor a negative on bills passed by the assembly, together with the right of appointing his own council, and of exercising the whole executive power. This new charter the Three Lower Counties refused to accept; and they were consequently separated from Pennsylvania ; electing an assembly of their own, but acknowledging the same governor.

Immediately after the acceptance of his fourth charter, Penn returned to England. Here he was harassed by complaints against the administration of his deputy governor, Evans, whom he finally displaced, appointing Charles Gookin in his place. Finding the discontents were still not allayed, Penn, now in his sixty-sixth year, addressed the assembly for the last time, in a letter, which narks the mild dignity and wisdom of his character and die affectionate concern which he felt for the future wel. fare of the province. This letter is said to have produced a powerful effect; but before this could be known to the illustrious founder, he had been seized with the disease which terminated his active and useful life. By the uni versal consent of historians and statesmen, enn has been placed in the very highest rank among the benefactors and moral reformers of mankind. The infuence of his character has never ceased to be felt in the institutions of the state which he founded; and his memory will be cherished by a grateful people to the remotest ages.

After the commencement of the revolutionary war, a

Describe the form of government adopted in 1701.-What is said of the Lower Counties !-- When did Penn return to England ?-What followed ?-What is said of his last letter, and its effect ?-When dic he die I-What was his character ?

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new constitution was adopted by the people, which excluded the proprietary from all share in the government. His claim to quit-rents was afterwards purchased for 570,000 dollars.

Pennsylvania, which, excepting Georgia, was the last of the colonies settled, had a more rapid increase than any of her competitors, in wealth and population. In 1775, she possessed a population of 372,208 inhabitants, cob lected and raised in less than a century.



The unsuccessful attempts of the French, under Ado miral Coligny, to form permanent settlements on the coast of Carolina, have already been noticed. Those which were made under Elizabeth, by Raleigh and Gilbert, have been comprised in the history of Virginia, of which colony Carolina was then considered a part. But for the removal of the settlers into Virginia, Carolina would have been the first permanent English colony in America.

It was not till the year 1630, that Sir Robert Heath, attorney general of Charles I, obtained a patent for the region south of Virginia, bounded north by the 36th degree of north latitude, and extending to Louisiana. This immense territory was named Carolina. Heath's patent led to no settlements, however, and was consequently declared void.

Between the years 1640 and 1650, a considerable number of persons, suffering from religious intolerance in Virginia, fled beyond her limits; and, without a grant from any quarter, settled that portion of North Carolina which lies north of Albemarle Sound. Several families, from Massachusetts, settled soon after near Cape Fear, but their lands and fisheries proving unproductive, they were under the necessity of obtaining relief from their parent colony.

The final settlement of Carolina originated with Lord

What is said of the increase of the colony ?-In what colony was North Carolina originally included ? - What is said of Heath's patent? -Describe the earliest permanent setllementai Albemarle.



Clarendon and other courtiers of Charles II. On their application for a charter, he granted them, in 1663, all the lands lying between the 31st and 36th degrees of north latitude, and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The charter granted th 2 usual power to make laws, with the approbation of the freemen of the colony ; and reserved to the crown the rig it of sovereignty. Religious freedom was also speciall : provided for.

The proprietaries, by virtue of this charter, claimed all the lands of Carolina, and jurisdiction over all who had settled on them. The settlers in Albemarle, being placed under the superintendence of Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, he visited the colony, confirmed the land titles, appointed civil officers, authorised the calling of a general assembly; and, when these arrangements were completed, entrusted the government to Mr. Drummond.

The inhabitants of Albemarle were not satisfied with the new order of things. They petitioned to hold their lands on the same tenure as lands were held in Virginia ; and, not receiving a favourable answer, they broke out in insurrection, and remained in open revolt for nearly two years; but they returned to their allegiance on receiving assurance that their petition was granted, and that Samuel Stephens, who, in 1667, had been appointed governor, would give them lands in Albemarle, on the same terms as they were usually granted in Virginia. A constitution was at the same time fixed, providing for the annual election of a legislature, the appointment of the governer and half the council by the proprietaries, and the right or the assembly to regulate taxation. In 1669, Governor Stephens convoked the first assembly under this constitution.

It was in the same year that the Earl of Shaftesbury, being commissioned to prepare the

fundamental constitutions of Carolina, employed for that purpose, the celebrated John Locke. His system, however, was found to be totally inapplicable to the purposes for which it was designed. It was ultimately abrogated by consent of the legislature,

Meantime some settlers near Cape Fear were formed ato a separate county, called Clarendon, under the di rection of Sir John Yeamans, as commander in chief.

To whom did Charles II grant a charter ?- What was done by Sir William Berkeley ?-By the inhabitants of Albemarle !-How were they satisfied ?- When was the first assembly convoked ?--By whom? What is said of Locke's constitution ?-Of the nelllers near Cape Fear?



North Carolina was, in fact, divided into two distinct colonies, Albemarle and Clarendon, with a governor to each; but this arrangeinent was not of long duration.

In 1670, William Sale, being sent out by the proprietaries of North Carolii 2, settled at Port Royal; and in the following year, beij is dissatisfied, he formed another settlement on the banks of the Cooper and Ashley rivers, which, in honour of t e king, was called Charleston. This ultimately led to the establishment of a separate colony, which was called South Carolina. Sir John Yeamans was, soon after, made governor of this new colony. Clarendon and Albemarle were united, and formed the original foundation of the present State of North Carolina.

The settlers of this northern colony were scattered along the coast, the sounds, and the rivers. Their progress was slow, and, in 1702, the population was no more ihan 6000. Their prosperity was hindered by some disadvantages of local situation; but still more by civil dissensions.

In 1677, the dissatisfaction of the colonists with the measures of the deputy governor led to an open insurrection, headed by one Culpepper, who imprisoned the proprietary officers, seized the royal revenue; and, in fact, exercised all the powers of an independent government. After two years of successful revolt, the insurgents, ap. prehending an invasion from Virginia, sent Culpepper and Holden to England, to offer submission, on condition of having their past proceedings ratified. But Culpepper was seized, and tried for high treason. The influence of Lord Shaftesbury saved him from conviction ; and the proprietaries sent out Seth Sothel to restore order in the colony. His administration was utterly corrupt and tyrannical ; and the inhabitants, after six years' endurance of his oppression, seized him in order to send him to England for trial; but, at his request, he was detained and tried by the assembly, who banished him from the colony. He was succeeded by Philip Ludwell. After this event, we find few transactions of much interest in the colony, excepting the arrival of some German settlers at Roanoke, in 1710, until the year 1712, when the Tus

What is said of North Carolina ?-When was Old Charleston settled , -By whom ?--What did this lead to ?- What is said of the northern splony and its progress?--Give an account of Culpepper's insurrection -How did it terminate ?- What took place in 1710



carora and Coree Indians, alarmed at the increase of the white population, formed a conspiracy for destroying the colony by a general massacre. Twelve hundred warriors anited in this plot, and agreed to commence their attack on the same night. When the time came, they severally entered the houses of the planters, asked for provisions, and, affecting to be displeased with them, murdered men, women, and children, without distinction or mercy. Their measures were taken with such secrecy and despatch, that no alarm was spread until each house was the scene of a murderous tragedy. At Roanoke, one hundred and thirty-seven of the settlers were massacred. A few escaped to the other settlements; and they were placed in a posture of defence, until assistance should arrive from South Carolina.

Colonel Barnwell of South Carolina was sent, with 600 militia and 366 Indians, to their relief. After marching through a wilderness of 200 miles, he arrived at the encampment of the Indians, attacked and defeated them, killing 300 of their number, and taking 100 prisoners. The survivors sued for peace. Hostilities were soon after renewed, and the Indians suffered another terrible defeat from a party under Colonel James Moore. Disheartened by these repeated disasters, the Tuscaroras abandoned their ancient haunts, and migrating to the north, united themselves with the Five Nations, constituting the sixth of that famous confederacy.

After South Carolina was settled, that colony and North Carolina had remained distinct, so far as to have separate governors and assemblies; but they had contipued under the same proprietaries. In 1729, seven of the proprietaries sold their rights, and they were completely separated. This measure promoted the peace, security, and happiness of both colonies. The last of the proprie tary, governors of North Carolina was Sir Richard Ever hard. The first royal governor was George Barrington.

The population of North Carolina increased but slowly for the first hundred years.

About the middle of the eighteenth century, it was ascertained that the lands of the interior were far more fertile than those on the coast. From this time emigrants, chiefly from Pennsylvania,

What took place in 1712 ?-What is said of Colonel Barnwell ?-OT the Tuscaroras ?-How was the separation of North and South Carolina effected ?-What was its effect l-Give the subsequent remarks on North Carolina.

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