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106

SAYLE SETTLES AT PORT ROYAL.

poured into that region in great numbers, and the lands were speedily brought into a state of high cultivation. In 1775, the population of the colony was estimated at a quarter of a million.

CHAPTER XIX.

COLONISATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA.

The reader is already apprised of the intimate connection between the history of this province and that of North Carolina. They were, for a long period, under the same proprietaries; but in all other respects, they remained distinct, from their first settlement.

The first effective settlement, by Governor Sayle, was made at Port Royal, in 1670. He was accompanied by Joseph West, who, for upwards of twenty years, bore the chief sway in Carolina, and was now entrusted with the management of the commercial affairs of the proprietaries, on whom the colonists long depended for their foreign supplies. The settlers brought with them the famous constitution prepared by John Locke, but on arriving at their destination, they found it to be more applicable to an old and populous, than a new and unsettled country. The order of nobles, which it permitted, would have compromised their dignity by hard labour on the soil, to which every man in the colony seemed destined. The colonists resolved, however, as they could not execute the grand model,' that they would come as nigh to it as possible. They accordingly elected a council and delegates ; and invested them with legislative and executive powers.

They suffered from a scarcity of provisions, at first, but a supply was soon sent by the proprietaries; and with it a plan for a magnificent town, and a regulation by which every

settler was allowed 150 acres of land. Several

persons were created landgraves, under the provision of Locke's constitution; and, among the rest, the lawgiver himself. But this race of Carolinian nobles

When was the first effective settlement made in South Carolina L By whom, and where ?-What is said of West ?-Of Locke's constitulion ?---Of the colonists !--From what circumstance did they suffer ? How were they relieved ?-What is said of the order of nobility instiLuted by Locke?

HOSTILITY OF THE SPANIARDS.

107

was very short-lived. The attempt to establish a feudal nobility in this country was universally felt to be ridiculous; and it accordingly proved utterly abortive. Sayle fell a victim to the climate before his settlement was well established. On his death, Sir John Yeamans claimed the office of governor, as due to the rank of landgrave, which no other person residing in the province enjoyed. The council preferred to give the office to Joseph West, unti! the pleasure of the proprietaries should be known; who, after due deliberation, judged it expedient to entrust the government to Yeamans.

In 1671, settlers from North Carolina and Port Royal, began to resort to the neighbourhood of Cooper and Ashley rivers; and there they soon after laid the foundations of Old Charleston; which became for some time the capital of the southern country. The settlements had now attracted the attention of the Spaniards at St. Augustine, who became very desirous to break them up. They sent emissaries to Charleston, who attempted to excite the inhabitants to revolt; encouraged indented servants to run away from their masters to the Spanish territory; and instigated the Indians to extirpate the colony. In these attempts the Spaniar 0; were too successful; and the repeated attacks of the Indians, added to the severe labours, and occasional sickness of the colonists, were rapidly spreading discontent. An insurrection actually took place, but it was easily quelled by the governor.

While Yeamans was exerting himself to repress these disorders, the Spaniards learning the situation of affairs in the colony, despatched a party for the purpose of extirpating it. But they had proceeded no farther than St, Helena, when, hearing that a force was advancing to meet them, they hastily retreated. The Indians were, mean diverted from their hostile operations against Charleston, by a war among themselves, which nearly proved fatal to two of their principal tribes, the Westoes and Seranas.

In 1673, the colony was strongly reinforced by the arrival of 'settlers from the Dutch province of New

What is said of Sayle ? --Of Yeamans ?-Of West ?-What trans pired in 1671 ?-How did ihe Spaniards display their hostility ?-For what purpose did they despatch a party from St. Augustine ?-Wha. occasioned their retreat ? - What diveried the Indians from an attack of the colony :- What happened in 1673 1

108

SETTLEMENT OF CHARLESTON.

Netherlands, which having passed into the hands of the English, many of the original colonists chose to seek a new residence. They founded a town on the south-west side of the Ashley river, to which they gave the name of Jamestown. They were subsequently joined by large numbers of their countrymen from Holland; and eventually deserting Jamestown, were dispersed throughout the province.

Disputes now arose between the proprietaries and the colonists, occasioned by the heavy expenses, and deficient returns of the colony. The proprietaries attributed these, in part, to the mismanagement of Yeamans, who retired to Barbadoes, and soon after died. His place was sup plied by Joseph West. (1674.)

In 1680, the proprietaries caused the capital of the province to be removed from Old Charleston to Oyster Point, which is formed by the confluence of Cooper and Ashley rivers. Here the present city of Charleston was founded.

West's administration terminated in 1683, when he was succeeded by Morton. The practice of kidnapping Indians, and selling them in the West Indies, which had been introduced by West, was the subject of many disputes between the proprietaries and the colonists, during Morton's administration, whose opposition to it finally occasioned his retirement. Kyrle was next appointed by the proprietaries; but soon after died; and Quarry, his successor, being dismissed for countenancing piracy, Morton was reinstated in 1685.

In 1686, the Spaniards from St. Augustine invaded South Carolina, and laid waste the settlements of Port Royal. Preparations were made for an attack on St. Augustine, which was only prevented by the interference of the proprietaries. About the same time a large accession of emigrants arrived, con sting of Protestant refugees who had been driven from France by the revocar sion of the edict of Nantz.

Morton was succeeded by James Colleton, in August 1686. His administration was distinguished by a series af disputes with the legislature, who desired a new constitution, which the proprietaries refused to sanction.

What became a subject of dispute ?-Who retired and died ?-WNO

his successor ?-When was Charleston settled ?-What is said of Indians ?-Of kidnapping ?- What was done in 1686 ?- What is or Morton's administration ?

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110

WAR OF THE YEMASSEES.

it was deemed excellent food, and yielded a prodigious increase. The governor divided it among his friends, who agreed to make the experiment; and planting their parcels in different soils, found the result to exceed their most sanguine expectations. From this incident we are to date the first introduction of one of the chief staples of South Carolina.

John Archdale, a Quaker, was appointed governor in 1695. His jurisdiction extended also to North Carolina; and the wisdom and prudence of his administration were universally acknowledged. It terminated in 1696. John Blake was his successor. He was instrumental in com ciliating the different religious sects, whose dissensions had been a source of much disturbance. He died in 1700

Under the rule of his immediate successors, Moore and Johnson, the colony was harassed by a succession of Indian wars; involved in a heavy debt by an ill-conducted and fruitless expedition against St. Augustine ; and agitated by religious disputes originating in a series of per secuting laws against the dissenters from the church of England.

In 1706, during the administration of Governor Johnson, the Spaniards from St. Augustine made a descent upon Charleston, but were repulsed with a heavy loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners.

Henceforward the proprietary government was involved in constant disputes with the colonists, excepting a shors interval during the administration of Charles Craven until 1729, when the company of proprietaries was disco solved, the chief part of the chartered interests being sold to the crown.

The war of the Yemassees occurred in 1715. It was attended with every circumstance of savage treachery and barbarity Ninety persons were massacred by the In dians, on the first onset at Pocotaligo, and the neighbours ing plantations. Port Royal escaped by a timely warning most of the inhabitants being conveyed to Charleston by a vessel which was fortunately lying in the harbour.

It was soon found that this was but the opening of the drama. All the southern tribes, from Cape Fear to Florida, were in arms, and seven thousand warriors were speedily arrayed against the Carolinas. Governor Craven

How was the culture of rice introduced into South Carolina ?- What is said of Archdale and his administration - Of Blake's ?-Of Moore's! anu Johnson's ?- When was the proprietary government abolished ? Give an account of the Yemassee war.

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