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ARRIVAL OF OGLETHORPE.

111

mustered 1200 men; marched into the enemy's co

country ; defeated them in a pitched battle and drove them into Florida. Their lands were taken by the colony, and affered to purchasers. A body of 500 Irishmen was speedily settled on them, but being afterwards displaced by the injustice of the proprietaries, the land was again left vacant and the frontier exposed.

For nearly a century after its first settlement, South Carolina, like North Carolina, had nearly all its population confined to the neighbourhood of the sea coast. But subsequently a flood of inhabitants poured into the westera woods of the country, from the more northern provinces; and before the revolutionary war commenced, the population amounted to 248,000.

CHAPTER XX.

COLONISATION OF GEORGIA.

GEORGIA was the last of the colonies settled before the declaration of independence. It had been originally in Auded under the first charter for Carolina, but no settle ments were made under that charter. The whole tract of country lying between the Savannah and Altamaha remained unoccupied by Europeans till the year 1732. In that year a company was formed in England for transporting into this unsettled wilderness such of the suffering, poor in the parent country as might be willing to emigrate for the purpose of gaining a livelihood.

A charter was obtained from George II, incorporating the company under the name of Trustees for settling and establishing the colony of Georgia.' Large sums of money were subscribed for defraying the expenses of trans portation and settlement; and, in November, one hundred and sixteen persons embarked at Gravesend, under the direction of General James Oglethorpe, who arrived early the next year at Charleston. He was cordially received by the inhabitants, who were gratified with the prospect

What was done with the Indian lands?--Give the concluding remarks respecting South Carolina.-Under what charter was Georgia originally included- When was a settlement first made ?-Under what circumAtances ?-_Who was the leader of the colonists ?-Where did he first arrive ?-How was he received ?

112 OGLETHORPE'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS. of establishing a barrier between themselves and the Spaniards of Florida.

Having explored the country which he was about to occupy, Oglethorpe fixed upon a high bluff on the Savannah river as a suitable situation for a settlement, and there founded the town of Savannah. Having completed the erection of a fort, his next object was to treat with the Indians for a share of their possessions. He accordingly summoned a congress at Savannah, composed of the chiefs of the Upper and Lower Creeks, and the Yama craw Indians, represented to them the wealth, power, and intelligence of the English, and the advantages which would

accrue to the natives from an alliance with them, and finally offered to purchase so much of their lands as might be required for the use of the new colony:

When this treaty was concluded with the natives, and the colony placed in a state of defence, Oglethorpe returned to England, taking with him the Indian chief To

, arrival in London, they were introduced to the king and the nobility, and treated with much distinction. At the end of four months they returned to their country; and by their influence with the Indian tribes, contributed much to the good understanding which subsequently prevailed between them and the colonists.

During the following year, five or six hundred emigrants arrived and took up their abode in the colony. But it was soon found that the paupers of England were not sufficiently hardy and industrious to form prosperous establishinents in a new country. The trustees offered lands to other emigrants; and, in consequence of this encouragement, more than four hundred persons arrived from Germany, Scotland, and Switzerland, in 1735. The Highlanders built a fort and town at Darien; and the Germans formed an establishment on the Savannah, which they called Ebenezer. In 1736, Oglethorpe arrived with two ships and three hundred emigrants. In the same year the celebrated John Wesley came out to Georgia, and commenced preaching to the colonists and Indians. His benevolent efforts met with much opposition; and he was soon compelled to return to a more congenial sphere of useful ness in England.

What town did he found ?-Where?-With whom did he hold a con ference ?- What was done after the conclusion of the treaty, to secure the continued friendship of the Indians ?- What took place in the following year ?-In 1735 ?--In 1736 ?

HOSTILITIES OF THE SPANIARDS.

113

Soon after his return, another distinguished Methodist preacher, George Whitefield, arrived in the colony, and formed a project for establishing an orphan house for the education of poor children. He travelled all over the colonies and England, preaching and soliciting subscriptions for this purpose. His eloquence was very efficient in promoting his design; the orphan asylum was established, and still exists, although in no very flourishing condition.

Oglethorpe's attention was now directed to the defence of the colony. He erected à fort on the banks of the Savannah, and another near the mouth of the Altamaha, where a town called Frederica was laid out and built. Ten miles nearer the sea, on Cumberland Island, he raised a battery, commanding the entrance to Jeky) Sound, and protecting Frederica from ships of war.

The Spaniards sent a commissioner from Havanna, de manding the evacuation of all the territories south of St. Helena Sound, as belonging to the king of Spain. Oglethorpe, having vainly remonstrated against this claim, broke up the conference and returned to England. Here he received the appointment of general and commander in chief of all his majesty's forces in South Carolina and Georgia ; and returned with a regiment of six hundred men, designed for the protection of the southern frontier

The Spaniards, meantime, had been busy in attempting to detach the Creeks from their alliance with the En glish; but Oglethorpe, on his return, defeated the intrigues, and formed a new treaty of friendship with the chieftains. The Spaniards next employed a most unwarrantable stratagem against the English. Having corrupte an English soldier, who had been in their service, they employed him to excite a mutiny in Oglethorpe's camp, and an audacious attempt was made to assassinate the general. But his life was fortunately preserved, and de principal conspirators were shot.

By a report of the trustees, made in 1740, it appeared that twenty-five hundred emigrants had been sent out to the colony, and five hundred thousand dollars expended on its settlement, without rendering it independent of charitable contributions for support.

What is said of Whitefield ?-What measures of defence were taken by Oglethorpe ?-What was done by the Spaniards ?-By Oglethorpe ? What force did he bring, from England ?-With whom did he make a new treaty ?--What was attempted by the Spaniards ?-What was the result ?—What facts were reported by the trustees of Georgia ?

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INVASION OF GEORGIA BY THE INDIANS.

112.

An expedition was undertaken, in 1740, for the reduction of St. Augustine, under the command of Oglethorpe, with an army consisting of four hundred troops, from Georgia and South Carolina, and a large body of auxiliary Indians. Two of the Spanish forts were taken, and St. Augustine was formally besieged. But the Spaniards, famous since the days of Scipio for resisting sieges, maintained their posi ; and the colonial army was com pelled to retire.

In two years afterwards, this invasion was retaliated by a formidable land and naval force, chiefly from Havan

The army consisted of three thousand men; and their object was to drive Oglethrope from the frontiers, break up the Georgia settlements, and then march on South Carolina and Virginia. As the South Carolinians had not yet sent him any assistance, the founder of Georgia was now left to his own resources.

His ability turned out to be fully equal to the emergency. By a well conceived stratagem, he succeeded in impressing the Spaniards with such a formidable idea of the superiority of his force, that they hastily abandoned the enterprise and returned in disgrace to St. Augustine. The province was thus delivered třom a very threatening danger; for the force of the Spaniards was really far superior to that of General Oglethorpe.

The original charter of Georgia had prohibited the introduction of negroes and rum into the colony. The for. iner of these restrictions was believed to have prevented the successful cultivation of their lands; and the latter cut off all commerce with the West Indies. Their lands also were held by a tenure not satisfactory to the inhabitants. The consequence was, that in ten years after their first settlement, the people could, with great difficulty, obtain a scanty subsistence; and new emigrants were discouraged from entering a colony which laboured under such apparent disadvantages. The complaints which were made to the trustees were utterly disregarded ; and the colony was suffered to languish under all its discouragements till the year 1752, when the charter was sur rendered to the king.

Give an account of the siege of St. Augustine ?--With what force did the Spaniards invade Georgia ?-What was the result ?-What were the subsequent events of Oglethorpe's life !-What circumstances retarded the progress of the colony ?- What was the consequence ? When was the charter surrendered ?

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Under the royal care the people were favoured with the same liberties and privileges which were enjoyed by the neighbouring colonies, and from this periodo Georgia rapidly advanced in population and wealth.

CHAPTER XXI.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE OLD FRENCH WAR.

HITHERTO we have regarded the British colonies of North America as distinct communities, and have accor dingly traced their histories separately, from the periods af settlement to the middle of the eighteenth century: Although they had thus far acknowledged a general relationship, and in some instances had formed political combinations, yet their remoteness from each other, their several difficulties of early colonisation, and the border wars which they were compelled to wage with the aboris gines in their respective neighbourhoods, had thus far prevented them from ever becoming consolidated and united in any common design.

It was perhaps fortunate, that the period had now arrived, when their whole frontier was threatened by an enemy sufficiently formidable to demonstrate the necessity of union and concerted action. They were henceforth to be one people, in war and in peace, bound together by common interests, touched by common sympathies, and nerved by one spirit.

The war with France, commenced in 1754, in which that nation vigorously prosecuted its design of fortifying the territory, which it claimed from Canada to Louisiana, was one in which every colony had a direct and lively interest. It accordingly developed the resources of the whole country, and taught the lesson which, in a subse quent, and more interesting struggle, was of such vital importance, the lesson, namely, that union is strength.

At the period when the war commenced, which was familiarly called, by the revolutionary veterans, the old French war, the French, in addition to their possessions in Canada and Nova Scotia, held a settlement in New

What followed ?--What circumstance united the British colonies of North America, in a common cause ?-When was the old French war commenced ?

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