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incursions, broke up the border settlements, murdering the people, carrying them into captivity, or driving them into the more thickly settled regions. This disastrous result is to be attributed to the want of union and concerted action.

Notwithstanding these hostile operations, war had not yet been formally declared between France and England. This took place, however, in the following spring, in consequence of the capture of part of a French squadron, destined for America, by Admiral Boscawen.

The plan for the campaign of 1756, was similar to that of 1755. In a grand council of war, held by General Shirley, commander in chief of the British forces in Ame rica, and the governors of Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, it was resolved to attempt the reduction of Crown Point and Niagara, with the other posts on Lake Ontario, and of Fort Du Quesne. For this purpose it was determined to raise 19,000 men in America. This number was so unusually large, that much delay was experienced in the raising of recruits. A further source of difficulty was the regulation requiring that provincial officers should be under British officers when hey acted together.

While they were adjusting their claims to rank, and deliberating whether to attack Niagara, or Fort Du Quesne, Montcalm, the successor of Dieskau, an accomo plished and brave officer, advanced at the head of 5000

What caused the declaration of war 2–What was the plan of the sampaig 1 of 1756 ?-What difficulties existed ?




French and Indians, and invested Oswego. The garri son, consisting of 1600 nen, well supplied with provi sions, was soon compelled to surrender; and the fortress was demolished.

This bold measure completely disconcerted the original plan of the campaign, and nothing was thought of now, but security against further losses. Thus, the second campaign terminated as unfortunately as the preceding

The campaign of 1757 was, nevertheless, commenced with great zeal and activity. Lord Loudon, the new commander in chief of the British forces, applied for 4001 men from New England, which were promptly granted A formidable fleet and army arrivea from England; and confident hopes were now entertained of the speedy down fall of the French power in America. It was determined to concentrate the whole disposable force upon one pointthe fortress of Louisbourg, on the island of Cape Breton. But intelligence being received that an immense land and naval force had been sent out to this place from France; and the strength of the fortifications being perfectly well known to the Americans, the proposed expedition was abandoned, and the British admiral, and general, returned from New England to New York.

The French general, Montcalm, meantime laid siege to Fort William Henry, a place of considerable strengthy with a garrison of 3000 men, and urged his attack with so much skill and resolution, that in six days the com mander, Colonel Monroe, was compelled to capitulata A reinforcement, sent to his aid, did not arrive in season Its return to New York, in August, closed the military operations of this season.



Ar the close of the campaign of 1757, the affairs of Great Britain, and of her colonies in America, wore a very unpromising aspect. Three campaigns, carried on

What was done by Montcalm ?-What was the effect of this proceerd ng ?-What was the plan of the campaign of 1757 I-What preventeu its execution ?-What fortress was lost ?- Describe the affair.- What was the state of affairs at the close of the campaign of 1757 ?

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CAMPAIGN OF 1758. 123 with immense exertion and expense, had produced nothing but disaster and defeat. The lakes, and the whole west fin and northern border, were in possession of the French find Indians; who, with a vastly inferior force, had main tained their ground, and even extended their encroach ments. The French had been successful every where. The British had every where experienced reverses.

Not only in America, but in Europe and Asia, their arms had been unsuccessful. It was seriously apprehended that the French would make good their claim to the whole valley of the Mississippi, and thus fulfil their design of connecting Canada with Louisiana, and confining the British setdements to the Atlantic border. In the colonies, men looked forward with apprehension and dismay.

But a new era was at hand. One of those choice and master spirits,' that never fail to leave their impress on their age and nation, had risen to the direction of affairs in Britain; and summoned to his aid the best talents of the country. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, had been placed at the head of the new administration ; and, uniting a bold and masterly style of eloquence with consummate ability in the management of state affairs, he possessed the full confidence of the nation, and the complete command of its resources. His plans of operation were grand ; and the means which he employed for their accomplishment were always adequate to their object. Superior to the prejudices of party, he sought out and employed merit wherever it could be found. His means and his talents were greater than had been possessed by any of his pre decessors.

Pitt was highly popular in America, and the confidence inspired by his energy and decision led the colonists to make every exertion, and every sacrifice, which the occasion required. A circular letter of the minister assured the several governors, that to repair past losses and disap pointments, the cabinet was determined to send a formi dable sea and land force to America; and he called upon them to raise as many men as possible, promising all the munitions of war, and a future compensation for the expenses of the soldiers' wages and clothes.

Massachusetts agreed to furnish 7000 men; Connecticut 5000; New Hampshire 3000. These troops were

What gave them a new aspect ?- What was the character of Lord Chatham ?-How was he regarded in America ?-What was promised in nis letter to the governors ?-What states furnished troops, and in wha:

numbers ?

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in the field in May. Meanwhile the British fleets blocked up, in the French ports, the men and stores designed for Canada, or captured them on the sea. A powerful armament sailed from England. Twelve thousand men, under the command of General Amherst, arrived in Halifax; and, soon after, General Abercrombie, the commander in Chief, found himself at the head of an army of fifty thou sand men, of whom twenty thousand were provincials.

Three expeditions were proposed ; one against Louis bourg ; a second against Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and a third against Fort Du Quesne. That against Louisbourg consisted of 14,000 men, 20 ships of the line, and 18 frigates. This formidable armament arrived before Louisbourg on the 2d of June; and, in less than eight weeks, the fortress was surrendered.

The expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown Point was unsuccessful. Sixteen thousand men were ordered on this service. They crossed Lake George in boats ; and, landing on the western side, were soon engaged with the enemy. Lord Howe fell at the first fire. General Abercrombie proceeded; and, after an action, took ļossession of a post near Ticonderoga. On the 8th of duly, he attempted to carry the fortress itself, by assault. But the works were strong; and the commander was the able and courageous Montcalm. After a contest of four bours, and the loss of 1800 men, the British were com pelled to retire.

Abercrombie now detached Colonel Bradstreet, with 3000 men, and eight pieces of cannon, who succeeded in capturing Fort Frontignac, an unimportant post, on the north side of Lake Ontario, garrisoned by 110 men. The fort being destroyed, Bradstreet returned to the main body; and nothing further was attempted, by this division of the forces, during the campaign.

The expedition against Fort Du Quesne was under taken by General Forbes, with 8000 men. On arriving it the fort, they found it abandoned by the garrison, who had gone down the Ohio river in boats. The place was thenceforward called Pittsburgh, in honour of 'Pitt The Indians came in and entered into treaties, which gair

What was done by the British fleet ?-How many men were seni from England ?-What was the whole number mustered ?- What thrpo expeditions were proposed ?--How did the first succeed ?-The second Describe the list operations of this expedition.--The subsequent operations.-- What was accomplished by the third Axpedition !



peace and security to the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

Two of the three objects of the campaign of 1758 had thus been accomplished. It now remained to attempt the complete conquest of Canada. Accordingly it was agreed, that in the next year three powerful armies should enter Canada by different routes, and severally attack the strong holds of the enemy: General Wolfe, with one division, was to ascend the St. Lawrence, and lay siege to Quebec. Another division was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and then descend the river and join General Wolfe before Quebec. The third division, under General Prideaux, was to reduce Niagara and Montreal, and then proceed to Quebec, the ultimate object of the whole force. General Amherst advanced to Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and found those places abandoned. He then made an unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the lake; but, after capturing two vessels, was obliged by storms and the advanced season of the year, to return to Crown Point and go into winter quarters. Prideaux besieged Niagara; and, being killed, the command de volved on Sir William Johnson, who succeeded in reducing the place. Neither of these armies was able to effect a union with General Wolfe. Fortunately he succeeded in accomplishing the grand object, without their co-operation.

Embarking at Louisbourg, with 8000 men, and a formidable train of artillery, Wolfe proceeded up the St. Lawrence, and landed his army on the island of Orleans, near Quebec. The difficulties which he had to encounter were sufficiently great to have deterred a less ardent commander ; but it was a maxim of Wolfe's tható a victorious army finds no difficulties.' He first attacked the French entrenchments at the falls of Montmorency ; but without success. He then landed his troops in the night, and ascended a steep craggy cliff, to an eminence called the Heights of Abraham, in rear of the city, Montcalm, the French general in chief, now determined to leave his camp and attack the English army.

Accordingly, on the 13th of September, he drew oui

Wha, was the plan of the next campaign ?-What was done by Ge. neral Amherst ? -By Prideaux and Johnson ?- What was General Wolfe's force ?- Where did he land ?- Where did he meet with a re. pulse ?-How did he gain the Heights of Abraham ?- What was done then by Montcalm ?

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