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nis forces, and prepared for a pitched battle. The French advanced to the charge with their usual spirit, and the action commenced with great resolution on both sides. The English reserved their fire till the French were within forty yards of them, and then gave it with effect. Wolfe, advancing at the head of the British grenadiers with charged bayonets, received a mortal wound. Monckton, who succeeded in the command, was shot through the body; and the direction of the army devolved on General Townshend. Montcalm, too, received a mortal wound; and General Senezurgus, the second in commande fell. The French were driven from the field ; and a reinforcement, brought forward by Bougainville, was also compelled to retire.

It appears that, in this decisive action, the numbers on both sides were nearly equal. The English troops, however, were all veterans, while those of the French commander were but half of that description. The French regulars were almost all destroyed; while the English loss was less than 600 in killed and wounded They had to mourn, however, the loss of their gallant commander ; which was regarded as a national calrmity in the mother country, as well as in the colonies. He received a ball in his wrist at the commencement of the action; but he wrapped a handkerchief round his arm, and continued to encourage his men. He soon afterwards received a ball in the body, but also concealed this wound, and was advancing at the head of the grenadiers, when a third bullet pierced his breast. In a dying state, he unwillingly suffered himself to be borne to the rear, still evincing the greatest anxiety for the fate of the day. Being informed that the enemy's ranks were breaking, he reclined his head, from extreme faintness, on the arm of an officer. He was soon roused by the cry. They fy, they fly. Who fly ? he exclaimed. The French, was the reply. Then,' said the dying hero, 'I deparı content,' and almost instantly expired. This victory was immediately followed by the surrender of Quebec, and in 1760 all Canada was subjugated by the British.

When and how did the battle commence ?--How did it terminate ?What general officers were killed ?- What was the loss on each side ? -Describe the circumstances of General Wolfe's death.-What city low capitulated ?-What was accomplished in the next campaign?

SCHEME FOR TAXING THE COLONIES.

127

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE REVOLUTION.

The attachment of the American colonies to the mother country was never stronger than at the close of the French war, which terminated in the conquest of Canada. To the natural ties of brotherhood were superadded the strongest feelings of mutual regard, arising from a par ticipation in common dangers, and a common victory The colonists were proud of their descent from British ancestors, and their connection with one of the most powerful nations of Europe. They were also fully sen sible of the value of English liberty, and every colonist believed himself to be equally entitled with his brethrer, on the opposite side of the Atlantic, to all the essential rights of a British subject.

The habits of the early settlers, and many circumstances in the history of their descendants, had led them to study, with attention and lively interest, the principles of political liberty, and to watch, with the most jealous vigilance, against every encroachment of arbitary power. The degree of authority which might be legally exercised over the colonies, by the parent state, had never been very clearly defined. The doctrine prevailed in England, tha: parliament had the power of binding them in all cases whatever. In America this had been repeatedly and publicly der.ied. The expenses

of the recent war had rendered necessary a great addition to the usual taxes of the English nation Apprehensive of rendering themselves unpopular, by pressing too severely on the resources of the people at home, the ministry directed their attention to the North Ame rican colonies; and determined to raise a revenue from that source. Mr. Grenville first commissioner of th: treasury, (1763,) introduced a resolution, which was passed, without much debate, declaring that it would be proper to impose certain stamp duties on the colonies

What were the dispositions of the American colonies towards the mother country ?- What was their character as freemen ?-Wha: made the British ministry desirous of raising a revenue from the com lonies ?-How did they determine to do it ?-What resolution was passent in parliament

THE STAMP ACT.

128 The actual imposition of them was deferred till the next year.

At the same time, other resolutions were passed, imposing new duties on the trade of the colonies; those on ihe commerce with the French and Spanish colonies amounted to a prohibition of fair trade, and the regulations for collecting them were calculated to prevent the smuggling which had hitherto been overlooked, or connived at.

All the naval officers on the American station, were converted into revenue officers; and many seizures were made. The forfeitures were ordered to be decided on by courts of vice admiralty; as if the government distrusted the impartiality of the ordinary tribunals, These acts were received in the colonies with a general feeling of indignation.

The resolution to lay a duty on stamps was particularly odious in the colonies; and the right of parliament to impose taxes on the colonies for the express purpose of raising a revenue, was strongly and universally denied. Petitions to the king, and memorials to parliament, against the measure, were sent in from several of the provincial assemblies. The agent of Massachusetts, in England, was instructed to us his utmost endeavours to prevert the passage of the stamp act; and associations were entered into, in various parts of the country, to diminish the use of British manufactures.

These, and other measures of the same tendency, did not prevent the ministry of Great Britain from persisting in their determination; and, accordingly, in the spring of 1765, the famous stamp act was passed ; not, however, without a spirited opposition from the minority. The aci provided, that contracts, bills, notes of hand, and other legal documents, should be written on stamped paper, which the British government was to furnish at certain high prices, or that these contracts, &c. should not be valid in law. It was a direct, and a very heavy tax, on almost every transaction in business.

The passage of this law excited the most serious alarm throughout the colonies. It was perceived, at once, to be the commencement of a system of extortion, which would leave the people nothing which they could securely call their own.

It therefore became necessary to resist its What new duties were imposed ?-How were these acts received in the colonies ?- What was done by the colonists to prevent the passage of the stamp act ?- When did it pass ?-What were its provisions ? How was the news received in America ?

FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.

129

execution or procure its repeal, or to give up all claims to civil liberty.

Combinations were immediately formed against the execution of the law; and every exertion was made by the popular leaders, to impress on the public mind the fatal consequences of submitting to it. The assembly of Virginia, on motion of the celebrated Patrick Henry, passed resolutions, declaring the exclusive right of that assembly to lay taxes and impositions on the inhabitants of that colony. Other colonial legislatures passed similar resolutions. The house of representatives cf Massachusetts, perceiving the necessity of combined action, recommended a congress of deputies, from all the colonial assemblies, to meet at New York on the first Monday in October. Meantime the press was not idle; and the popular clamour was so urgent, that nearly all the stamp officers were compelled to resign.

The first continental congress met at the time appointed Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, the Three Lower Counties on the Delaware, and South Carolina, were represented. Timothy Ruggles, of Massachusetts, was chosen president. Their first measure was a declaration of the rights and grievances of the colonists. In this important state paper, they asserted their title to all the rights and liberties of natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain ; the chief of which are, the exclusive power to tax themselves, and the trial by jury; both of which had been invaded by the recent acts of parliament; and the tendency of these acts to subvert their rights and liberties was clearly pointed out. They also addressed a petition to the king, and a memorial to each house of parliament, and after transmitting a copy of their proceedings to each colony, the congress adjourned.

Meantime the people formed associations to encourage domestic manufactures and the raising of sheep, in order to dispense with the usual supplies from England; anch to avoid using stamps, law proceedings were suspended and arbitrations resorted to. Some riotous and disorderly proceedings took place, which resulted in the destruction of property, and much insult and abuse to obnoxious sup porters of the British government.

How was its object defeated ?--When did the first continental congress meet?- Who was chosen president ?-What was their first measure ? What was stated in the declaration of rights ?-What further was done by the congress ?-What was done ny the people ?

130

REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT.

While these things were passing in America, a complete change took place in the ministry of Great Britain. Nir. Pitt, in parliament, openly condemned the stamp act, and recommended its immediate repeal; asserting that parliament had no right to tax the colonies. The late ministers opposed this opinion, and predicted a revolution. After a highly spirited debate, the stamp act was repealed; but, at the same time, a declaratory act was passed, asserting the right of Great Britain to bind the colonies in all cases whatever.

In America, the news of the repeal of the stamp act was received with the liveliest expressions of joy and gratitude. Public thanksgivings were offered in the churches. The importation of British goods was again encouarged; and the homespun dresses being given to the poor, the people once more appeared clad in the prom ducts of the mother country. The declaratory act, asserting the supremacy of parliament, being considered a mere salvo to wounded pride, was little regarded; and the colonists believed that the attempt to force direct internal taxes would not again be made.

A circular letter was addressed by Secretary Conway, to the governors of the several colonies, in which he censured the colonists in mild terms for the late disturbances, but at the same time required compensation to be made to those who had suffered by the riots, which had taken place at Boston and New York in the summer of 1765. In June, 1766, this letter was laid before the assembly of Massachusetts, by Governor Bernard, accompanied by such remarks, that the assembly thought proper to delay the act of indemnity till December, and then to accompany it with a general pardon to all offenders in the recent disorders.

Meantime, a change had taken place in the British cabinet. William Pitt came into power with a ministry omposed of different parties, and under their auspices, a ew act of parliament was passed, laying a tax on glass, paper, pasteboard, white and red lead, painters' colours and tea, imported into the colonies. Piti was at this time ponfined by sickness, in the country,

The refusal of the legislatures of New York and MasWho opposed the stampact in parliament ?-Was it repealed ?-How was the news received in America ?- What was now done by the people.l-What was the purport of the secretary's letter ! - What was done by the legislature of Massachusetts ?-By Governor Bernard ?-Vaat change took place in the British cabinet 1-What new taxes were laid 1

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