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OPPOSITION TO THE NEW TAXES.

131

sachusetts to execute the mutiny act, being disapproved by the ministry and parliament, an act was passed restraining the legislature of New York from passing any law whatever, until they furnished the king's troops with all that was required by the mutiny act. At the same time commissioners were appointed for executing the re venue laws, in a more speedy and effectual manner than kad hitherto been done.

The reception of these laws in America was any thing but cordial. All minds were at once employed in constdering, and all pens in defending the rights which they invaded. The legislature of New York granted the required supplies ; but in Massachusetts the spirit of resist ance was again awakened, and displayed itself, particularly in opposition to the required grants of money for the maintenance of crown officers. The legislature addressed a circular to the other colonies, stating the difficulties to be apprchended from the late acts of parliament, and call ing upon them for their co-operation in measures for obtaining redress.

On receiving information of this proceeding, the minis try were alarmed at the prospect it presented of a new combination among the colonies, and Lord Hillsborough, secretary of state, wrote to the governor of Massachusetts requiring it to be rescinded. This order the legislature, in June, 1768, refused to comply with, declaring their right to petition for redress of grievances, and to call on the other colonies to unite with them for the same pur pose.

The other colonies were equally refractory. The as semblies of Maryland, New York, Delaware, Virginia, and Georgia expressed their sentiments respecting Lord Hillsborough's letter in decided language.

In the mean time, Lord Chatham had retired from office, and Lord North was appointed chancellor of the exche quer.

The seizure of the sloop Liberty, belonging to Jolin Hancock, for a breach of the revenue laws, led to a riot, which occasioned the retirement of the revenue officers tu Castle William.

What restrictions on the legislatures of Massachusetts and New York were passed ?-How were these laws received in America ?-What was done in New York ?-In Massachusetts ?- What was done by Lord Hillsborough ?--By the legislature of Massachusetts ?-What was done hy the other colonies ?-What changes took place in the British minis try ?

132

PROCEEDINGS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

Two British regiments, which had been detached by General Gage, now arrived under convoy at Nantasket road. Next day, the fleet was brought to anchor near Castle William, in Boston harbour. Having taken a station which commanded the town, the ships having their broadsides towards it, the troops landed, to the num. ber of seven hundred men, and marched, with loade: inuskets and fixed bayonets, martial music, and the usua, military parade, to the common. In the evening, the selectmen of Boston were ordered to quarter the two regj. ments in the town; but they absolutely refused. A tem. porary shelter was permitted, however, to one regimen:, without its camp equipage, in Fanueil Hall. The next day, the state house was opened for the soldiers by order of the governor, and two field pieces, with the main guard, were stationed just in its front. In a few weeks, a fresh reinforcemeet of troops arrived, under Colonels Mackay and Pomeroy.

Parliament, meantime, resolved to persevere in the system of coercion, and united in an address to the king, expressing their satisfaction at the measures which he had pursued, giving assurance of their support, and beseeching him to direct the governor of Massachusetts to institute an inquiry into all acts of treason committed in that colony since 1767, and to send the offenders to England for trial.

Nothing could have been done more effectually to irritate the people than this resolution. The general court of Massachusetts was not in session when it reached America; but the house of burgesses of Virginia passed resolutions, asserting the exclusive right of taxing the colony and the right of trial by jury in the vicinage, and ordered their speaker to transmit copies of the resolutions to the other colonies. An address to the king, of the usual tenor, was also voted. The governor, on learning the character of these proceedings, dissolved the assembly. This measure only inflamed the spirit of opposition; the assembly was immediately convened at a private nouse, and unanimously resolved on agreements not to import British goods, similar to those which had been entered into at the north.

How many regiments of British troops now arrived in Boston ?Describe the landing.– Their reception. Where were they quartered ? How was the news received in America ? - What was done in Virginia ? --What did the governor do ?- What was then done by the assembly 3

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The general court of Massachusetts was convened on the 30th of May, 1769; and, after some altercation with the governor concerning the subjects of legislation, it was removed to Cambridge. On the 6th of July, the governor made a requisition for funds to defray the expenses of the troops in Boston, which was decisively refused; and resolutions were passed, at the same time, recomInending assemblies of the people, in the several towns, u petition for redress of grievances and declaration of rights. The governor then prorogued the general court, to meet at Boston on the 10th of January.

On the first of August, Governor Bernard was recalled, leaving the administration of the province in the hands of Lieutenant-governor Hutchinson. The people, on his departure, manifested their joy by ringing the bells, firing guns, covering their liberty tree with flags, and kindling a great bonfire on Fort Hill.

In 1770, Lord North was appointed premier. His Girst measure was partly conciliatory: it was a repeal of the port duties; but with the exception of the duty on tea. This left the assertion of the right of taxation in full force, and, of course, was wholly unsatisfactory to the colonists.

The presence of the military in Boston, too, still served to keep alive the animosity of the people, who were constantly brought in unpleasant collision with these unwel. come and uninvited guests. On the evening of the 5th of March, 1770, an affray took place in King-street, now called State-street, in which a small detachment of soldiers, under the command of Captain Preston, after being assaulted with snow balls and other missiles, and one of them struck with a club, fired upon the populace, killing three men, mortally wounding two, and slightly wounding several others.

The drums were instantly heard beating to arms; thousands of the people assembled, and seeing the dead bodies of their fellow citizens who had fallen in the cause of liberty, they resolved on a general attack upon the soldiery. The lieutenant-governor being sent for, What was then done by the general court of Massachusetts ?-By the governor ?-By the general court, in consequence of the governor's requisition ?--What did the governor then do ?-When was the govern. or recalled ?--Who was left to administer the government ---What was done by the people ?-Who was appointed premier in 1770 ?What was his first act ?-Why was it unsatisfactory ?-What tock place on the 5th of March, 1770?

134

AFFAIR OF THE GASPEE.

addressed the people from the balcony of the state house, and at length prevailed upon them peaceably to disperse. The next day, Captain Preston and his party of soldiers, were committed to prison, to await the course of law; and the troops were all withdrawn from the town to Castle William.

Those who had fallen in this affair, were honoured with a public funeral of great pomp and solemnity. Tha shops were closed; the bells of Boston, and the neighbouring towns, were tolled; and an immense number of citizens followed the first martyrs of the opening revolution to their final resting place.

Captain Preston and his soldiers were brought to trial some time after. Six weeks were spent in examining witnesses and hearing counsel ; and John Adams and Josiah Quincy, who were distinguished leaders of the popular party, exerted themselves with great ability in defence of the accused. The captain and six of the men were acquitted ; and two were brought in guilty of manslaughter. This result was highly honourable to the distinguished counsel and to the impartial tribunal of the colony.

In *1772 the revenue schooner Gaspee, having run ground off Newport, in pursuit of the Providence packet, was seized and burnt by a party from Providence, who subsequently escaped the most active pursuit of the government, notwithstanding the offer of a high reward for their apprehension.

Committees of correspondence were organised in 1772 in the several towns of Massachusetts, for the purpose af securing concert of action, in the measures of op position, and, in 1773, at the suggestion of the house of burgesses of Virginia, standing committees were appointed by the different colonial assemblies; and by this means a confidential communication and interchange of opinions

was kept up between the colonies. Lord Dartmouth, who was supposed to entertain favourable views towards the colonies, having succeeded Lord Hillsborough, as secretary of state for the colonies, the legislature of Massachusetts addressed a letter to him, expressing a desire for complete reconciliation. This, however, was ineffectual. Neither the British cabinet,

What was done next day ?--Describe the funeral.-What is said of the trial ?-What was done in Massachusetts ?-In Virginia ?- Who succeeded Lord Hillsborough ?-What followed ?

HUTCHINSON'S LETTERS.

135

court.

nor the nation, was disposed to recede from the ground they had taken.

About this time a discovery was made, which caused a great deal of excitement in New England. Doctor Franklin, the agent of Massachusetts in England, obtained possession of the letters which had been addressed by Governor Hutchinson and Lieutenant-governor Oliver, to the department of state, and sent them to the genera'

They were evidently designed to induce the ministry to persist in their oppressive measures. They represented the patriots as a mere faction, who were not countenanced by the mass of the people, and who were emboldened by the weakness of the means used to restrain them. More vigorous measures were recommended; and, among the rest, a plan for altering the charters of the colonies, and making the high officers dependent solely on the crown for their salaries.

The assembly passed a vote of censure on the writers of these letters; and petitioned the king to remove them for ever from the government of the colony. This peti tion was disapproved; but Hutchinson was soon after removed, and General Gage appointed to succeed him.

The effect of this disclosure of the treachery of Hutchinson and Oliver, was electrifying; The passions of the people were inflamed by it to the highest pitch; and their expectation of a better understanding with the government, was greatly diminished by the conviction that traitors among them were engaged in misrepresenting the state of the country and their own dispositions, to the ministry.

The duties on other importations excepting tea, had been removed; and an alteration, corresponding to this change, had been made by the colonists in their nonimportation agreements. Tea, therefore, remained the only prohibited article. Great quantities of it had accumulated in the warehouses of the East India Company; and, as none was ordered by the colonial merchants, it was determined to send it over on consignment. The company were allowed to export it from England free of duty, so that, although the offensive duty on its importation into the colonies still remained, it was offered at lower prices than in former times. Confident of finding

What discovery was made by Dr. Franklin ?-What was done by the assembly ?--What followed ?--What was the effect of this disclosure ? - What is said of the people ?-What is said concerning the duty on tea ?--What was done by the East India company?

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